Waterborne and sediment toxicity of fluoxetine to select organisms

Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 08/2003; 52(1):135-42. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00103-6
Source: PubMed


Ecological risk assessments of pharmaceuticals are currently difficult because little-to-no aquatic hazard and exposure information exists in the peer-reviewed literature for most therapeutics. Recently several studies have identified fluoxetine, a widely prescribed antidepressant, in municipal effluents. To evaluate the potential aquatic toxicity of fluoxetine, single species laboratory toxicity tests were performed to assess hazard to aquatic biota. Average LC(50) values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas were 0.756 (234 microg/l), 2.65 (820 microg/l), and 2.28 microM (705 microg/l), respectively. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth and C. dubia fecundity were decreased by 0.044 (14 microg/l) and 0.72 microM (223 microg/l) fluoxetine treatments, respectively. Oryias latipes survival was not affected by fluoxteine exposure up to a concentration of 28.9 microM (8.9 mg/l). An LC(50) of 15.2 mg/kg was estimated for Chironomus tentans. Hyalella azteca survival was not affected up to 43 mg/kg fluoxetine sediment exposure. Growth lowest observed effect concentrations for C. tentans and H. azteca were 1.3 and 5.6 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings indicate that lowest measured fluoxetine effect levels are an order of magnitude higher than highest reported municipal effluent concentrations.

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Available from: Bryan W Brooks, Jan 05, 2014
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    • "Electrochemical sensors have short response time, excellent selectivity and sensitivity, and have the capability to measure directly analytes in complex matrices [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]. The toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram were initially reported a decade ago [16] [17] [18] [19]. SSRIs are able to block presynaptic serotonin reuptake transporters [21] [22] [23], and several studies have indicated that SSRIs penetrate the cell membrane and are associated with a high risk of developing cancer [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ion transfer stripping voltammetry (ITSV) technique is used to detect selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac®), citalopram (Celexa®), and sertraline (Zoloft®) in drinking and river water. These are common antidepressants that become highly toxic contaminants when they get into the drinking water. In this work we applied ITSV to detect the SSRIs in their cationic form at nanomolar concentrations using a sensitive, inexpensive, and disposable pencil lead electrode with a lower limit of detection of 35, 45, and 25 nM for fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram, respectively. The pencil lead was modified by an electrochemically deposited 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT-C14) conductive polymer layer and then dip coated with a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane. The PVC/PEDOT-C14-modified electrode was operated in the stripping voltammetric mode. It had a linear current response between 100 nM and 1000 nM for fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram, respectively, in tap and river water samples. Importantly, the measurements with the membrane-coated electrode provided information on the lipophilicity of these antidepressants, thus contributing to a better understanding of their environmental toxicity and the risks they pose to humans.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
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    • "Therefore, venlafaxine and its metabolites can remain in the aquatic environment for long time, and cause chronic sublethal and acute lethal toxicity to aquatic life [14]. For example, they can affect the central nervous system, disrupt the neuron-endocrine signaling , and alter the reproduction patterns of aquatic organisms [15]. Moreover, it has been reported that at a concentration of 500 ng/L, venlafaxine can produce effects on embryonic development in fathead minnows, affecting their latency period and total escape response [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation of the antidepressant venlafaxine by a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process, electro-peroxone (E-peroxone), was studied. The E-peroxone treatment involves sparging ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) into an electrolysis reactor that is equipped with a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene cathode to electrocatalytically transform O2 in the bubbled gas to H2O2. The in-situ generate H2O2 then reacts with the bubbled O3 to yield OH, which can non-selectively degrade organic compounds rapidly in the solution. Thanks to the significant OH production, the E-peroxone treatment greatly enhanced both venlafaxine degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) removal as compared to ozonation and electrolysis alone. Under optimal reaction conditions, complete venlafaxine degradation and TOC elimination could be achieved within 3 and 120min of E-peroxone process, respectively. Based on the by-products (e.g., hydroxylated venlafaxine, phenolics, and carboxylic acids) identified by UPLC-UV and UPLC/Q-TOF-mass spectrometry, plausible reaction pathways were proposed for venlafaxine mineralization by the E-peroxone process. The results of this study suggest that the E-peroxone treatment may provide a promising way to treat venlafaxine contaminated water. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of hazardous materials
    • "). Reinforcing the reported toxicity of fluoxetine at low concentrations to several aquatic organisms and its endocrine disrupting effects (Brooks et al. 2003; Foran et al. 2004; Flaherty and Dodson 2005; Henry and Black 2008; Paterson and Metcalfe 2008; De Andrés et al. 2009; Morando et al. 2009; Sánchez-Argüello et al. 2009; Schultz et al. 2011; Gonzalez-Rey and Bebianno 2013), fluoxetine and its demethylated active metabolite norfluoxetine were recently proposed in a list of ten pharmaceuticals potentially dangerous for the environment (Santos et al. 2013). Whereas a higher concentration of (S)-fluoxetine and (S)-norfluoxetine was observed in both raw and treated wastewaters, with no significant differences in enantiomeric fractions (Barclay et al. 2012b), a higher concentration of (R)-fluoxetine in both raw and treated wastewaters and a higher degradation of (R)fluoxetine during the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process was reported in a different location (MacLeod et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sample extraction is a major step in environmental analyses due both to the high complexity of matrices and to the low concentration of the target analytes. Sample extraction is usually expensive, laborious, time-consuming and requires a high amount of organic solvents. Actually, there is a lack of miniaturized methodologies for sample extraction and chiral analyses. Here, we developed a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract the pharmaceuticals fluoxetine and metoprolol, as models of basic chiral compounds, from wastewater samples. Compounds were then analysed by enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography. We monitored the influence of sample pH, extracting and dispersive solvent and respective volumes, salt addition, extracting and vortexing time. The DLLME method was validated within the range of 1–10 µg L−1 for fluoxetine enantiomers and 0.5–10 µg L−1 for metoprolol enantiomers. Accuracy ranged from 90.6 to 106 % and recovery rates from 54.5 to 81.5 %. Relative standard deviation values lower than 7.84 and 9.00 % were obtained for intra- and inter-batch precision, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Chemistry Letters
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