Article

Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features

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Abstract

The authors used meta-analytic procedures to examine the relationship between specified training design and evaluation features and the effectiveness of training in organizations. Results of the meta-analysis revealed training effectiveness sample-weighted mean ds of 0.60 (k = 15, N = 936) for reaction criteria, 0.63 (k = 234, N = 15,014) for learning criteria, 0.62 (k = 122, N = 15,627) for behavioral criteria, and 0.62 (k = 26, N = 1,748) for results criteria. These results suggest a medium to large effect size for organizational training. In addition, the training method used, the skill or task characteristic trained, and the choice of evaluation criteria were related to the effectiveness of training programs. Limitations of the study along with suggestions for future research are discussed.

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... The training transfer literature in general (Grossman & Salas, 2011), as well as the entrepreneurial training literature in specific, have been sceptical regarding the decreasing impact of training over time (Lewis et al., 2016;Mensmann & Frese, 2019). Arthur, Bennett, Edens and Bell (2003) demonstrated in their meta-analysis that participants usually decline their engagement in trained behaviours over time, particularly if they do not get reinforcement. ...
... Although H1a revealed that IEO training enhanced IEO behaviour in all follow-up waves, but the findings of H2 signalled that this impact deteriorated over time. The underlying reason is that training impacts fade over time in the absence of reinforcement (Arthur et al., 2003), and intrinsic motivation (Bolino et al., 2010). In small business settings owners are actively involved in business operations and unlike employees, they lack external reinforcement to retain and transfer the trained behaviour (Arthur et al., 2003;Frese, 2009). ...
... The underlying reason is that training impacts fade over time in the absence of reinforcement (Arthur et al., 2003), and intrinsic motivation (Bolino et al., 2010). In small business settings owners are actively involved in business operations and unlike employees, they lack external reinforcement to retain and transfer the trained behaviour (Arthur et al., 2003;Frese, 2009). Besides, psychological training programmes based on ART only provide broader action principles (Glaub, 2009) instead of the exact script as in traditional business training. ...
... Nevertheless, training of staff in organisations in general improves organisational performance, as shown by a review of 10 years of research (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009). A summary of 165 studies found a medium to large effect both on individual learning and on organisational performance (Arthur Jr. et al., 2003). These effects were larger than many other interventions in organisation, including feedback on performance or management by objectives. ...
... A review of research on training in organisations showed that the effect sizes of training for the four ways of evaluation were similar (Arthur Jr. et al., 2003). However, within each study, there were large variations between the effects measured in the four ways. ...
Book
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Ten golden rules for improving IT users’ competence 1. Provide users with instruction sheets or videos, also during training. 2. Make sure users understand the usefulness of the IT. 3. Provide functional and structural models and confront misconceptions. 4. Train users so that they can solve problems and learn on their own. 5. Divide training into 30 minutes modules and include problem solving modules 6. Organise training at the same time as the system is installed. 7. Train a local group of users, not only individuals. 8. Identify, organise, authorise and cultivate superusers. 9. Include superusers as trainers and champions for new IT systems. 10. Organise one service desk for all user requests with service minded staff.
... In our proposed model, learning is also directly influenced by training design, and factors in the work environment moderate the relationship between learning and transfer of training. Finally, transfer subsequently leads to improved results (e.g., organizational and patient outcomes), as suggested by prior work (Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003;Hughes et al., 2016). The definition of each construct in the proposed model, as well as comparison to Baldwin and Ford (1988) and Grossman and Salas' (2011) models, is provided in Table 2. ...
... However, in order to create an effective training program, a backward design process that begins with a needs analysis should be followed. This approach increases the likelihood that trainees will see the link between the training program and outcomes of interest, thereby enhancing motivation (Colquitt et al., 2000) and increasing training effectiveness (Arthur et al., 2003). ...
Article
Health-care professionals undergo numerous training programs each year in order to fulfill licensure requirements and organizational obligations. However, evidence suggests that a substantial amount of what is taught during training is never learned or transferred back to routine work. A major contributor to this issue is low training motivation. Prior conceptual models on training transfer in the organizational sciences literature consider this deficit, yet do not account for the unique conditions of the hospital setting. This chapter seeks to close this gap by adapting conceptual models of training transfer to this setting that are grounded in organizational science. Based on theory and supplemented by semistructured key informant interviews (i.e., organizational leaders and program directors), we introduce an applied model of training motivation to facilitate training transfer in the hospital setting. In this model, training needs analysis is positioned as a key antecedent to ensure support for training, relevant content, and perceived utility of training. We posit that these factors, along with training design and logistics, enhance training motivation in hospital environments. Further, we suggest that training motivation subsequently impacts learning and transfer, with elements of the work environment also serving as moderators of the learning-transfer relationship. Factors such as external support for training content (e.g., from accrediting bodies) and allocation of time for training are emphasized as facilitators. The proposed model suggests there are factors unique to the hospital work setting that impact training motivation and transfer that should be considered when developing and implementing training initiatives in this setting.
... We developed a scale to assess the perception of the availability of job resources for detachment. Based on the literature (e.g., Mellner et al., [45,46]; Korunka and Gerdenitsch [47]; Bennett et al., [48]) we generated 24 items to measure four constructs that define organizational resources for detachment. After obtaining their informed consent, employees were asked to rate on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (1 = never, 5 = very frequently), the extent to which they agreed with each one of the statements. ...
... We developed a scale to assess the perception of the availability of job resources for detachment. Based on the literature (e.g., Mellner et al. [45,46]; Korunka and Gerdenitsch [47]; Bennett et al. [48]) we generated 24 items to measure four constructs that define organizational resources for detachment. After obtaining their informed consent, employees were asked to rate on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (1 = never, 5 = very frequently), the extent to which they agreed with each one of the statements. ...
Article
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Psychological detachment is the central experience of recovery from work-related stress that allows individuals to reduce burnout symptoms. The stressor-detachment model (SDM) contends that job resources moderate the relationship between job stressors and psychological detachment. We designed an instrument to measure job resources from a multidimensional perspective. A sample of n = 394 individuals from the health service industry participated in the study. Data indicate that job resources comprise a four-factor structure underlying a formative model. Consistent with the SDM, a partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis suggests a moderating effect of job resources (e.g., control over working conditions, leaders’ emotional support), between work intensification and psychological detachment. In addition; results indicate that workers who perceive high levels of support from their organization achieved higher levels of detachment compared with those who perceived low levels of support. Theoretical as well as practical implications for stress management practices, occupational health, and well-being are discussed.
... All training uses at least one information-based instructional method, and it is not uncommon for SH training to include only information-based instructional methods. While information-based methods can be effective on their own (Arthur et al., 2003), there are several reasons why we expect SH training that incorporates other types of instructional methods, in addition to information-based methods, will be more effective than SH training using only information-based methods. Each of the categories of instructional methods provides a unique contribution to the learning process. ...
... The study used the d statistic as the common effect size following the tradition in the training literature (Arthur et al., 2003;Lacerenza et al., 2017;Sitzmann et al., 2006). Among the 89 effect sizes, four were d values, and 75 were calculated based on the means and standard deviations. ...
Article
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Widespread agreement that training can play a key role in addressing workplace sexual harassment (SH) has led to a dramatic increase in employer-provided SH training around the world. However, summaries of published research have been qualitative in nature and have yielded inconsistent assessments of SH training's effectiveness in fulfilling that role. The study helps address those uncertain and sometimes conflicting assessments by providing the first meta-analytic investigation of the relationships between SH training and changes in trainees. We found that the largest SH training effect was on declarative knowledge learning (δ = 1.06), followed by attitude change (δ = .41), procedural knowledge-skills learning (δ = .39), and transfer outcomes (δ = .14). Significant moderating effects were found for scope of training, instructional method, and gender of trainees; however, the results varied by training outcome. The effect of SH training did not vary significantly as a function of the training delivery media, training duration, or training setting. Theoretical implications, directions for future research, and practical implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Die Ergebnisse legen des Weiteren nahe, dass die Personen, die informell Lernen 32 % bessere Performance haben als Personen, die nicht informell lernen (Cerasoli et al. 2018, S. 212). Um dies mit den Ergebnissen aus formalen Lernprozessen zu vergleichen, setzten die Autoren die Befunde zu informellem Lernen auch in Bezug zu metaanalytischen Befunden zu formellem Lernen (Arthur et al. 2003). Sie konnten aus den Daten von Arthur et al. (2003) errechnen, dass die Personen, die formelle Trainings besuchen, eine um 23 % höhere Leistung erzielen als die Personen, die kein formelles Training erhalten. ...
... Um dies mit den Ergebnissen aus formalen Lernprozessen zu vergleichen, setzten die Autoren die Befunde zu informellem Lernen auch in Bezug zu metaanalytischen Befunden zu formellem Lernen (Arthur et al. 2003). Sie konnten aus den Daten von Arthur et al. (2003) errechnen, dass die Personen, die formelle Trainings besuchen, eine um 23 % höhere Leistung erzielen als die Personen, die kein formelles Training erhalten. Das heißt, wir haben belastbare Evidenz, die auch für das formelle Lernen spricht: Die Teilnehmenden lernen etwas und sie sind in der Lage das Gelernte auch zu transferieren. ...
Chapter
Das Herz dieses Buches stellt Kap. 5 dar. Bis hierher haben wir den Kontext, eine Meta-Sicht auf organisationale Entwicklung und Lernen, sowie die Auswirkungen auf den organisationalen Rahmen beschrieben. Nun geht es darum, diese Erkenntnisse auf Lernen zu übertragen.
... Die Ergebnisse legen des Weiteren nahe, dass die Personen, die informell Lernen 32 % bessere Performance haben als Personen, die nicht informell lernen (Cerasoli et al. 2018, S. 212). Um dies mit den Ergebnissen aus formalen Lernprozessen zu vergleichen, setzten die Autoren die Befunde zu informellem Lernen auch in Bezug zu metaanalytischen Befunden zu formellem Lernen (Arthur et al. 2003). Sie konnten aus den Daten von Arthur et al. (2003) errechnen, dass die Personen, die formelle Trainings besuchen, eine um 23 % höhere Leistung erzielen als die Personen, die kein formelles Training erhalten. ...
... Um dies mit den Ergebnissen aus formalen Lernprozessen zu vergleichen, setzten die Autoren die Befunde zu informellem Lernen auch in Bezug zu metaanalytischen Befunden zu formellem Lernen (Arthur et al. 2003). Sie konnten aus den Daten von Arthur et al. (2003) errechnen, dass die Personen, die formelle Trainings besuchen, eine um 23 % höhere Leistung erzielen als die Personen, die kein formelles Training erhalten. Das heißt, wir haben belastbare Evidenz, die auch für das formelle Lernen spricht: Die Teilnehmenden lernen etwas und sie sind in der Lage das Gelernte auch zu transferieren. ...
Chapter
Die für uns in diesem Kapitel zentrale Frage lautet: Wie sollte eine technische Unterstützung aussehen, die sowohl die individuellen Bedürfnisse der Lernenden als auch die organisationale Entwicklung in Richtung Meta-Moderner Organisationen unterstützt, sowie als digitaler Nährboden für eine neue Lernkultur dienen kann? Wir möchten hierzu im Laufe des Kapitels ein mögliches Zielbild beschreiben, das unter Berücksichtigung der New Learning Fokusfelder wesentliche technologische Aspekte für zukunftsfähige Lernökosysteme aufzeigt. Dafür werfen wir zuerst einen Blick auf den Status Quo und greifen dann die Trends im Learning Technology/EdTech (Educational Technology) Bereich auf, ergänzt um viele Beispiele von verschiedenen Anbietern. Dies sind vornehmlich Systeme, die wir bereits selbst getestet oder im Einsatz haben. Es gibt darüber hinaus sicherlich noch andere passende oder sogar bessere Anbieter und Tools, uns war es allerdings daran gelegen primär jene zu nennen, mit denen wir bereits Erfahrung sammeln konnten.
... The second objective refers to the acquisition of skills or the improvement of existing skills, which can be seen through the change in a person's behavior after training. Finally, the third objective refers to attitude, which is what the participant feels after the training, including motivation and self-efficacy [8,9]. Figure 1 shows the main objectives of training. ...
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With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, companies had to adapt quickly to survive in the market. During this time, employers played a key role, along with employees involved in Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) activities, as they were responsible for implementing the recommendations of the European Commission. There is no unambiguous definition of OHS in Polish legislation. It is assumed that it is a set of rules defining the manner of performing work, and above all, a method of providing employees with working conditions so that their performance is safe and hygienic. Responsibility for the health and safety in the workplace is imposed on the employer by the legislature. Thus, effective health and safety training is an essential element of the success of any properly operating company. In the literature, no studies have been identified that evaluate the effectiveness of actions during the COVID-19 outbreak. The aim of the article is to present the actions of Polish employers along with their effectiveness assessment related to the protection of employees during the COVID-19 outbreak. The article presents a proposal for conducting remote OHS (Occupational Health and Safety) training using the platform Moodle. The created course was implemented during OHS training conducted in a selected manufacturing company. At its end, an evaluation of the course was carried out, and the collected opinions of training participants allowed the formulation of interesting conclusions, which became the contribution of this paper. The authors pay special attention to three main points of the work. The first is the form of training, which gives the possibility to conduct training at a distance while maintaining its effectiveness. The second important point is the mandatory feedback of the trainees, ensuring the possibility of continuous improvement and quality enhancement of both the program and the form of training. The evaluation was developed on the basis of the extended Kirkpatrick model, which is a completely new approach to OHS training evaluation. The third point emphasized by the authors is the possibility of precise adaptation of the training to other plants and even industries. Therefore, it can be concluded that the course developed by the authors is a very interesting and practical didactic tool with great implementation potential.
... From the theoretical viewpoint, past researchers have focused more on the training design factors and paid minimal attention to trainee personal characteristics and work environment factors (Arthur, Bennett, Edens & Bell, 2003;Chiou, Lee & Purnomo, 2010;Velada & Caetano, 2007). The review of extant empirical literature on the transfer of training uncovers that most studies have, by and large, centered around recognizing the relationship through the earlier established predictors which influence the transfer of training and found inconsistent findings (Chiou et al., 2010;Pham et al., 2013;Tziner, Fisher, Senior & Weisberg, 2007). ...
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... We conduct an inductive multiple-case study (Yin, 2014) for two particular reasons and one general reason. First, previous research on the cocreation dynamics in CEPs and their success and failure factors is very scarce (Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003;Eurich & Wade, 1986;Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2007;Miles & Snow, 1984). Second, our research question is a process one that calls for capturing in detail the phenomena that evolve over time (Langley & Abdallah, 2011). ...
Article
The literature identifies customized executive programs (CEPs) as a significant source of knowledge generation, sharing and distribution within the field of management. For these programs to be successful, overcoming boundaries between companies and business schools needs to be in place. Through the inductive multiple-case study approach, we address the question, “How do business schools and their corporate clients effectively engage in the design and delivery of CEPs?” We find that the two parties jointly use certain boundary objects and create design and delivery trading zones to achieve local coordination to bridge the instrumental, interactional, and cognitive boundaries that separate them. We contribute to the study of customized executive education by developing a grounded process model that emphasizes four factors that lead to successful collaboration, namely, brokering by program directors, boundary crossing, role switching and veiling and unveiling. We conclude by noting the theoretical and managerial implications and providing some concluding remarks.
... According to Tharenou et al. (2007), the intervening forms between preparing hones and employees' job performance remain vague. In extension, less is known around how association important factors may coordinate the ampleness of preparing (Arthur et al., 2003). Weibo et al. (2010) highlighted that job suitability is associated with the compatibility of an employee with a given task. ...
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Employee performance is an important factor in the success of an organization in the profit-oriented private sector. Deterioration of performance among employees will affect negatively towards the quality and productivity of the organization. The paper aims to examine the relationship between motivation, training, and job suitability for the performance of employees. A total of 136 respondents was involved in this study through distributed to employees working in a private company in northern Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that there is a moderate and significant correlation between motivation, training, and job suitability with employee performance. The findings reveal motivational factors are the most significant contributing factors to employee performance, which motivation is claimed to be crucial in improving employee performance. Employees will be more enthusiastic and strive to perform their duties if they are motivated. In addition, training and job suitability are also important elements in determining the level of performance among employees. https://turcomat.org/index.php/turkbilmat/article/view/6011
... In general, training is deemed successful when it increases firm productivity (Awais Bhatti and Kaur, 2010;Barrett and O'Connell, 2001), however this is difficult to determine for a single organization or a single training. Instead, the effectiveness of training is often evaluated using the Kirkpatrick classification which encompasses four criteria: reactions, learning, behaviour and results criteria (Arthur et al., 2003;Campbell and Kuncel, 2002). Reactions are often operationalized as training participants' self-reflection measures. ...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study was to examine the different roles of training in the successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma. Using Q-methodology, a research approach that combines quantitative and qualitative methods to identify patterns between the subjective viewpoints of persons about a particular topic, three approaches to using training in the context of Lean Six Sigma implementation were identified. These findings were used to provide guidance on how training should be integrated in a successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma, taking into account the purpose and timing of training, and organizational characteristics.
... For example, the sequencing of practice units and the concept of overlearning are related to transfer (Donovan & Radosevich, 1999;Driskell et al., 1992). Furthermore, specific training methods such as behaviour | 3 modelling training and error management training can promote transfer depending on the training objectives (Arthur et al., 2003;Keith & Frese, 2008;Lacerenza et al., 2017;Taylor et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Schlenker’s model of responsibility was used in this study to investigate to what extent leadership trainers consider themselves accountable for the transfer of training. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews and evaluated the answers using qualitative content analysis. With respect to the responsibility links of Schlenker’s model, the trainers described two out of three links as being rather strong. The interview data suggest that transfer-enhancing strategies were mostly clear to the trainers. They also reported feeling personally obliged to support trainees in their transfer efforts. Regarding the third link, the trainers perceived limited control over several transfer determinants. They explained that they could facilitate transfer but not produce it. The trainers identified the trainees, their supervisors, and the organisations as other responsible parties. The concept of trainers as transfer managers was scarcely reported among the data. Our findings suggest that client organisations could strengthen accountability by setting adequate and feasible training objectives and by monitoring their achievement. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications with regard to the promotion of transfer.
... When an organization facilitates training for their employees, it is investing in knowledgeable employees. A highly skilled workforce can give organizations a competitive advantage, and multiple studies have shown that training can improve both employee and organizational performance (e.g., Arthur et al., 2003;Kraimer et al., 2011). Furthermore, it is also found that training has a positive effect on creativity (Ekore, 2014). ...
Article
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Skills, such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, problem solving, collaboration, operational skills, and information management, have become increasingly important for 21st-century employees. These skills are often referred to as 21st-century skills and influence how employees handle novel situations. They are indispensable in an economy where the knowledge and skills of employees are seen as a measure for economic potential. This systematic literature review summarizes the current academic knowledge about organizational factors that influence 21st-century skills on an individual level. A search was performed in three databases. The factors found can be sub-divided into three main categories, namely leader characteristics, job characteristics, and organizational characteristics. Transformational leadership was the factor most mentioned in the literature found. Most research found during the search was done on the level of organizational output, exposing a clear gap concerning organizational factors that influence the skill-level of individual employees. These findings can have substantive implications when looking to improve employee skills by altering organizational determinants, by enabling targeted actions to improve these skills for the individual employee.
... With this emphasis on learning and skill development, employers hope expenditures will yield a favorable return on their investment. Studies suggest that many training and development activities are implemented on blind faith in the hope that they will produce results (Arthur et al., 2003;Robinson and Robinson, 1989). One study found that employers who were in the top quartile of their peers relative to the average training expenditure per employee experienced 24 percent higher-gross profit https://ir.iba.edu.pk/businessreview/vol9/iss1/6 ...
... Kirkpatrick's programme evaluation model is an excellent way to evaluate a curriculum by assessing the selfconfidence of the fresh graduates regarding their learning of clinical competency. Kirkpatrick's reaction level model is the most convenient and extensively employed model worldwide to evaluate the effectiveness of a curriculum by assessing self-assessment of graduates (17,22), at the final stage of an educational programme (23). ...
Article
Clinical competency is the core of the medical curriculum. Careful ongoing evaluation of clinical competency is required to ensure continuous reviewing for curriculum development. The objective of this study was to investigate self-perceptions of clinical competency of fresh medical graduates using the Kirkpatrick framework – the most convenient and widely used model for measuring clinical competency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 fresh medical graduates of Widad University College, Malaysia in 2019 using a standardised questionnaire containing 43-items of competency. Respondents were asked to rate self-perceptions of his/her competency in these attributes using a five-point Likert scale against each attribute, where 5 = always competent and 1 = never competent. The response rate was 92%. Out of 43 items, graduates were always competent in taking clinical history and examining a patient thoroughly; frequently competent in eight attributes; sometimes competent in 29; and occasionally competent in four. The graduates have not yet started their houseman-training; and thus, got fewer chances to practice all the procedures. It is expected that graduates’ competency will improve during their houseman training. There is scope for improvement, as faculty need to pay more attention to improving student competency by arranging additional training. The teaching of clinical competency also needs integration with the pre-clinical phase for early exposure. The findings have direct implications for faculty development towards competency-based education that would bridge the gap between education and practice. This study offers other medical schools a window towards comprehensive use of competency tools to assess the competency of their graduates.
... The focus of the present study is the effect of task and training characteristics on the overall effectiveness of the AAR. These characteristics consist of aspects of the learning task to which the AAR is catered (i.e., task characteristics) and aspects of the AAR itself (i.e., training characteristics; Arthur et al., 2003;Bell et al., 2017;Keiser & Arthur, 2021). Other considerations include various individual differences, attitudes, and perceptions of those who complete the task and conduct the AAR, broadly referred to as trainee characteristics (Bell et al., 2017). ...
Article
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This study expands on Keiser and Arthur's (2021) meta-analysis of the after-action review (AAR), or debrief, by examining six additional task and training characteristics that contribute to or attenuate its effectiveness. The findings based on a bare-bones meta-analysis of results from 83 studies (134 ds [955 teams; 4,684 individuals]) indicate that the effectiveness of the AAR (overall d = 0.92) does indeed vary across the pertinent characteristics. The primary impact of this study pertains to the practical implementation of AARs; notably, the findings indicate that the AAR is particularly effective in task environments that are characterized by a combination of high complexity and ambiguity in terms of offering no intrinsic feedback. The types of tasks-often project and decision-making-that more commonly entail these characteristics are frequently used in industries that do not traditionally use the AAR. The results also suggest that more recent variants of the AAR (i.e., a reaction phase, a canned performance review) do not meaningfully add to its effectiveness. These findings are combined with those from prior meta-analyses to derive 11 empirically-based practical guidelines for the use of AARs. In sum, this study highlights the complexity of the AAR that results from the independent and interdependent influence among various components and characteristics, the examination of the effects of novel and ostensibly distinct variants or approaches to AARs, and the extension of AARs to tasks and contexts in which they are less commonly used.
... The stability of meta-analytic estimates may be compromised if obtained with data from a limited number of studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). Though there is no set minimum number of studies required for a meta-analysis, there is some consensus in the literature that at least five studies are necessary to obtain stable estimates (Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003). Thus, we report only meta-analytic estimates for relationships with at least five available effect sizes. ...
... With the goals of systematically documenting a teacher training program on designing PAR proposals, addressing common teacher-level barriers in AR mentioned above, resolving practical issues in classrooms and schools faced by teachers, and developing teachers into action researchers, this teacher training program was developed, implemented, and evaluated. The design and evaluation features of an effective training proposed by Arthur, Bennett, Edens, and Bell (2003) served as the guiding framework for developing and evaluating this teacher training program. They identified several designs and evaluation features associated with the effectiveness of training and development. ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a teacher training program on designing participatory educational action research projects. The program consisted of training teachers to conceptualize an action research problem and design a methodology specific to their proposed topic. Starting with a professional needs assessment on Action Research (AR) as the basis for the planned teacher training opportunity, the teachers underwent training and mentoring sessions to develop a group AR proposal as the outcome of the program and as evidence of their professional growth. At the end of the program, five action research proposals were developed and presented, which include: (1) the design and evaluation of an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) mentoring program for basic education teachers; (2) improving students' conceptual understanding on selected Social Psychology topics through Case-Based Approach; (3) integrating Canvas during an online departmental examination of board course programs; (4) facilitating career choice of Senior High School students through a career guidance program; and, (5) enhancing pre-service elementary teachers' pedagogical knowledge for online teaching through instructor modeling. Four of these five proposals were rated acceptable and approved for implementation by a panel of reviewers. The details concerning the strengths and areas for improvement of each proposal are individually reported in the results section. In conclusion, training as a professional development model has the potential to effectively gauge teachers to develop and design educational action research proposals.
... The first suggests that the instructional content or the material would significantly impact the learning outcomes. This proposition is supported by literature (Arthur et al., 2003;Seidel & Shavelson, 2007). The second suggests that the behaviour and attitude of the learner would moderate the impact of the instructional content on the learning outcomes. ...
Article
The concept of sustainability brought into focus the need for research into how to measure and achieve sustainable growth. The triple bottom line framework and the resource-based view of the firm suggest the need for organisations to look beyond profits and take into consideration the needs and effectiveness of its workforce. Research suggests that an effective workforce can be achieved through constant learning and development. Organisations have also expressed the need for training techniques that are more effective than the traditional methods. Gamification has been proposed as one such technique, and in the current study, the researchers evaluate the effectiveness of gamification in organisational training. For the purpose of the current study, 120 participants were chosen from public sector organisations in India. This is primarily because the technology-enhanced training effectiveness model (TETEM) suggests that the effectiveness of gamification would depend on the culture of the organisation, and prior research has been based in privately owned firms. The findings are in line with the theory of gamified learning and suggest that participants of the gamified module reported higher levels of learning, reaction and learner motivation. Additionally, learner motivation was found to strengthen the impact of gamification on the learning and reaction.
... This clearly indicated that organizations played a key role in instilling both technical and interpersonal competencies. Research in the area of competency building has also determined this effectiveness of internal trainings that are run and managed by organizations (Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003;Gomes, Small, & Yasin, 2019). ...
... Applicability is a particular type of intervention that deals with the promotion of practical knowledge at work and job crafting can be viewed as an antecedent of applicability. Applicability is constituted by training and development activities which refer to the systematic approach to learning aimed at improving individual, team, and organizational effectiveness (Goldstein & Ford,2002;Paradise,2007;Rivera & Paradise,2007), and may produce important benefits for individual employees (Arthur et al., 2003;Hill & Lent, 2006;Satterfield & Hughes, 2007), teams, organizations, and society as a whole (Aguinis & Kraiger, 2009;Noe et al., 2010). However, in order for training and development to be effective, it is highly important to carefully consider the applicability of newly learned knowledge, attitudes, and skills to safeguard the enhancement of both employee and, subsequently, organizational-level outcomes (Antonacopoulou, 2016;Kozlowski et al., 2000). ...
Conference Paper
In the current times of labor market transformations characterized by increasing globalization and digitalization processes, institutions and organizations are aiming at fostering employees' levels of employability via training interventions at work. Higher levels of employability sustain employees' competitiveness and job security as well as organizational productivity. Some scholarly authors define employability as a form of proactive adaptability specific to work that allows employees to identify and implement their career plans. It is also defined as the ability to transition effortlessly among the different occupations, allowing the individual to obtain employment. Given this, interventions aimed at fostering proactivity are deemed to be a possible way to foster employability. In recent years, researchers and practitioners have extensively examined employability, identifying different and separate antecedents, i.e., volition, support for career, skill development, job-related skills, willingness to change jobs, self-efficacy, and applicability of training on the job. In this study, we aim to give a contribution to such literature on training interventions to promote employability by proposing critical scrutiny around training interventions by which we will introduce job crafting intervention as a candidate to foster employability by supporting employees' proactive behaviors. Indeed, job crafting intervention is a specific training aimed at promoting proactive behavior. In particular, it focuses on four main employees' behavioral strategies, namely, (a) reducing job demands, (b) seeking challenges at work, (c) optimizing and (d) enhancing job resources. By promoting such behavioral strategies, employees can foster the applicability of learning by doing at work which directly affect the overall sense of employees' employability. For instance, seeking challenges strategies can indirectly lead to learn novel practices at work affecting their sense of competence and organizational belonging. Likewise, reducing job demands and enhancing job resources can be seen as behavioral strategies which can directly foster practical knowledge (i.e., know-how) and its applicability which in turn may lead to higher levels of perceived employability among employees. Hence, in this study, we will firstly outline the benefit of training interventions at the workplace within which job crafting can be seen as a possible training pathway to foster employability. Secondly, we will present the specific training strategies setting a research agenda for further developments. Ultimately, we aim at lecturing about the pragmatic and moral concern of the notion of employability by proposing a theoretical discussion for practical implications.
... The effectiveness of the training was expressed in terms of the extent to which the trained skills can be apply by the participants in their actual jobs (Hunt, 2003). Therefore, to facilitate the skills transfer in the context of the job performed by the participants, it is important for them to have the opportunity to perform the skills in a supportive post-training environment (Arthur Jr. et al., 2003). In that regard, the village neighborhood heads were granted access to using the Sapawarga application to facilitate the interaction of local citizens with the government. ...
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... He discussed intrinsic (inward feelings of satisfaction, pride and happiness) and extrinsic (coming from the outside such as praise, freedom and recognition) reward. Arthur et al. (2003), mentioned that although learning and behavioral criteria are somehow conceptually linked, there has been limited success in empirically indicating the relationship. They continue to state that the reason for this is that behavioral criteria are affected by environmental variables that influence the transfer of the trained skills on the job. ...
... In a challenging context, Kirkpatrick's taxonomy (See Table 1A) may be perceived as an easy-to-use standard for demonstrating the impact, of complex programmes. Owing to its conceptual simplicity (Russ-Eft and Preskill 2009), prescriptive appeal and high face validity (Arthur et al. 2003), this taxonomy has become the most widely used framework for not only supervisory training programmes (for which it was originally intended) but also for all types of learning and development programmes (Hoole and Martineau 2014;Collins and Denyer 2008), including LDPs (Ely et al. 2010;McLean and Moss 2003), particularly in healthcare organizations (King and Nesbit 2015). ...
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Game-based training research has produced various definitions and measures for learner motivation. Inconsistent findings on learner motivation may have contributed to the misapplication of one type of motivation to explain another; inhibiting future research and generating false implications. This study compared 172 students in game-based or computer-based training learning French. Results showed unique relationships between three measures of learner motivation (i.e. motivation to learn, intrinsic motivation and engagement). Motivation to learn did not differ between conditions, while intrinsic motivation and engagement did. A significant portion of the variance in content reactions was explained by all three measures of motivation, while variance for technology reactions was explained only by the motivation to learn and engagement. None of the measures for motivation accounted for significant variance in declarative or procedural knowledge. Results indicate key differences in three measures of motivation.
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In a global context where competition is increasing, companies are constantly looking for sustainable competitive advantages that will allow them to improve their market shares and profit margins, improving team performance is one of the key factors in this process which allows these organizations to increase their productivity, their competitiveness, and their profitability. Evaluating this team performance is one of the major challenges of human resources management, which has experienced in recent years a profound digital transformation of data and their management, current IT tools are no longer able to use the mass of data resulting from several sources and which does not stop multiplying from one day to another, or to find correlations between them to draw new knowledge and to anticipate future events. The purpose of our research is to establish a team classification model according to several performance factors using Machine Learning algorithms, in particular for dimensionality reduction and clustering, The result of this work represents a decision support model for companies to develop a tailor-made team about the overall strategy of the company, to set up an action plan adapted to each team cluster and to anticipate future events, namely departures
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Au cours des dernières années, le Ministère de la santé (MS) a investi énormément en temps et en ressources dans la formation continue (FC) afin de développer les compétences de son capital humain et faire face aux différents changements et contraintes du contexte. Nul ne peut contester que la décentralisation territoriale ait été à l’origine de l’intérêt croissant et soutenu accordé à la question de développement de compétences notamment le cas du MS. Ce dernier s’est lancé dans un processus de régionalisation des activités de développement des compétences de son personnel, et a par conséquence conféré aux directions régionales de la santé (DRS) un rôle primordial dans la gestion des activités de FC. En effet, dans le cadre de la stratégie nationale de FC 2019-2021, la DRS Marrakech-Safi a élaboré en 2019 un plan régional de FC. Nous avons, à travers cet article, décrit le processus d’élaboration de ce plan, et évalué la pertinence et la cohérence du programme de formation, d’un côté et le transfert des apprentissage d’un autre côté. Nous avons démontré la pertinence du plan de formation par rapport aux besoins exprimés, la satisfaction des participants par rapport à la formation et à son environnement, et enfin l’efficacité du programme de formation exécuté par la DRS en 2019. Plusieurs facteurs sont soulevés, qui ont influencé positivement et négativement le programme de formation 2019
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Purpose Training evaluation is an important part of training programs and evaluating the reactions of trainees is of immense value, but there are few studies on this level of evaluation, as it is a neglected area of research. More so, when trainee reactions to training are poor, human resource managers together with learning and development professionals are able to improve on training programs. Nonetheless, no study has focussed on the aversions of trainees to training, and so this study aims to investigate the aversions of trainees regarding employee training. Design/methodology/approach This study uses the exploratory research design and obtains data from trainees in an online survey using an open-ended question. Thematic text analyses of the statements of 118 respondents are performed using a two-level coding process. Findings A total of 15 first-level codes are identified from the texts and categorized into five second-level codes. Further analyses culminate in the identification of two broad themes; trainers’ presentation aversions and organization of training aversions. Practical implications Attention must be given to the aversions of trainees in the training evaluation literature. This is because of the considerable amount of information that can be generated and based on that, identify the weaknesses inherent in employee training programs and ultimately improve this critical human resource function within organizations. In attending to the trainee aversions, the least and most reported should be resolved holistically for training objectives to be achieved. Originality/value Trainee reaction studies are scarce in the training literature. In addition, most of the existing trainee reaction studies focus on satisfaction while using closed-ended questionnaires. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on the aversions of trainees and which uses an open-ended question.
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The work environment plays a vital role in the transfer of the newly attained knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) at the workplace. In the past decades, a series of studies have investigated the direct relationship between the work environment and training transfer. Surprisingly, empirical findings noted the inconsistent relationship between the work environment and training transfer. Whereas, the moderating effect between these relationships has been less examined in the training transfer literature. Therefore, addressing this gap, the prospective study was designed to investigate the moderating role of organizational justice as a potential moderator between the relationships of work environment and training transfer in Pakistani large-scale textile organizations (LSTO). Survey data were collected from 336 front-line managers by employing a multi-stage sampling technique. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression technique were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that supervisor support, peer support, and opportunity to use learning (i.e., dimensions of work environment) correlate positively with training transfer. The findings also confirmed the moderating role of procedural justice and distributive justice (i.e., dimensions of organization justice) between the relationship of work environment and training transfer. These results underscore the critical role played by organizational justice to enhance the transfer of training at the workplace. This study shows, for the first time, that how organizational justice is an important mechanism to stimulate the work environment to training transfer.
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This paper leverages technological and methodological advances in natural language processing to advance our understanding and approaches to leadership research by introducing structural topic models (STM) to researchers wanting to inductively code massive amounts of unstructured texts. Specifically, we illustrate the application of STM applied to a large corpus (N ≈ 8000) of unstructured text responses from a diverse sample of leaders to inductively generate a classification system of leader challenges and simultaneously examine whether the challenges being experienced by leaders covary with leader characteristics. Overall, we identify nine central leader challenges. Results indicate that certain leader challenges are more prevalent depending on the leader’s characteristics (e.g., gender), and that two challenges, Daily Management Activities and Communication, were significantly related to boss’ ratings of performance. We also highlight additional applications of this technique to aid leadership researchers who wish to inductively derive meaning from large amounts of unstructured texts.
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Mitarbeitende in Corporate-Learning-Abteilungen und Learning & Development- Funktionen gelten oft noch als Organisatoren von Trainingskursen und Administratoren der Lernmanagementsysteme (LMS). Jedoch hat der massive Einfluss, der durch die Digitalisierung bedingten Veränderungen unserer Berufswelt auf Jobs und deren benötigte Kompetenzen entsteht, auch Einfluss auf die Anforderungen an die Lernabteilungen der Unternehmen. COVID-19 hat diese Entwicklung zusätzlich beschleunigt. 40 Prozent der Kernkompetenzen unserer Berufe werden sich in den nächsten Jahren ändern und neue Berufe, die heute noch niemand kennt, werden bald die Mehrheit bilden. Der Aufbau einer flexiblen, adaptionsfähigen Belegschaft ist der zentrale Auftrag an Learning & Development (L&D). Der Beitrag zeigt auf, wie L&D seinen Wertbeitrag neu bestimmt und seine relevante strategische Rolle begründet.
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We propose a theoretically-driven conceptual model describing relationships that impact the formation of nonfamily employees’ distributive justice judgements within family-run small and medium sized enterprises (family-run SMEs). This model is important because family-run SMEs usually struggle to retain quality nonfamily employees and negative distributive justice judgements have been shown to affect voluntary turnover. Of particular interest, a new construct termed market-driven learning opportunities (MLOs) is argued to offset the detrimental impact compensation inequity judgments have on nonfamily employees’ distributive justice assessments. This mitigating effect occurs because MLOs have the potential to increase nonfamily employees’ skills that are valuable to the firm and in the marketplace. Thus, a paradox exists where providing MLOs encourages nonfamily employees to stay to take advantage of these opportunities, while simultaneously encouraging them to leave to reap the rewards from possessing these skills.
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Zusammenfassung Angesichts der digitalen Transformation schulischer Kontexte ergeben sich neue Anforderungen an die berufliche Handlungskompetenz von Lehrkräften. Dies führt zu einem erhöhten Handlungsbedarf im Bereich der Lehrkräftefortbildung. Diese befindet sich als eine spezifische Form beruflicher Fortbildung an der Schnittstelle zwischen Lehrkräftebildung und Erwachsenen- und Weiterbildung, so dass eine Betrachtung dieser Lernkontexte aus dieser Perspektive subdisziplinübergreifende Impulse für die Umsetzung und Gestaltung von Lehrkräftefortbildung geben kann. Im Beitrag werden daher aktuelle Herausforderungen der Lehrkräftefortbildung vor dem Hintergrund der digitalen Transformation anhand des Mehrebenensystems der Erwachsenen- und Weiterbildung aufgezeigt und mit Blick auf die Erkenntnisse und Konzepte der Erwachsenen- und Weiterbildung diskutiert.
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Purpose This article aims to investigate the challenges faced during the training and development (T&D) evaluation process from the point of view of faculty members and HR managers in Saudi Arabian public universities, and to examine the influence of these challenges on the effectiveness of T&D programmes in public universities. Design/methodology/approach Exploratory research using semi-structured interviews to determine the challenges faced during T&D evaluation was employed. Participants included faculty members ( n = 23) and senior managers ( n = 05) working in four public universities in Saudi Arabia. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Findings The outcome highlights the challenges faced during the T&D evaluation process: a lack of performance measurement and role ambiguity H.R.M. practices. Finally, this study aims to investigate how do these challenges influence the higher education sector. Originality/value To the best of the researcher's knowledge, this is one of the first attempts to explore challenges within the T&D evaluation process in Saudi Arabian higher education. The results should therefore broaden the scope of the available literature and fill a research gap, particularly regarding the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) of Nations.
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Das selbstgesteuerte Experimentieren ist laut den nationalen Bildungsstandards sowie den Lehrplänen im Fach Chemie ein wichtiger Bestandteil der naturwissenschaftlichen Schulbildung. Offene Experimentierformen sind jedoch wenig etabliert. Um das selbstgesteuerte Experimentieren in die Unterrichtspraxis zu implementieren, wurde im Rahmen dieses Forschungsprojekts eine eintägige Lehrkräftefortbildung zur Konzeption von selbstgesteuerten Experimenten im Chemieunterricht durchgeführt. Dazu wurde ein literaturbasiertes Strukturierungskonzept entwickelt, mit dem die Lehrkräfte kochbuchartige Schulversuche zu selbstgesteuerten und kompetenzorientierten Experimenten mit beliebigen Öffnungsgraden modifizieren können. Begleitend zur Fortbildung wurde im Prä-Post-Follow-Up-Design das fachdidaktische Wissen der Teilnehmenden hinsichtlich der Planung von selbstgesteuerten Experimenten empirisch überprüft. Zur Erfassung dieses Konstrukts wurde ein neues Messinstrument literaturbasiert entwickelt und die Güte des Messinstruments evaluiert. Die Auswertungen zeigen, dass die Fortbildung hinsichtlich des fachdidaktischen Wissens der Lehrkräfte kurz- sowie langfristig lernförderlich ist und die Fortbildung von den Teilnehmenden positiv bewertet wird. Die Reliabilitätsanalyse sowie die Validierungsstudie zeigen, dass der Test sowohl reliabel als auch valide ist. In Folgestudien könnte die langfristige Verhaltensänderung der Lehrkräfte bezüglich der Implementierung des selbstgesteuerten Experimentierens in den Unterricht untersucht werden.
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With the rapid change of the industrial environment and social development, vocational training must be constantly updated in accordance with these changes, and combine and expand the use of civilian training resources to increase vocational training pipelines and enhance competitiveness. Thus, vocational training organizations play an important role in the function of future labor force development and the sustainability of education. The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of training organizations’ service quality and trainees’ individual characteristics on the effectiveness of the vocational training. The study employed Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model to measure the unemployed effectiveness of the vocational training and the SERVQUAL to quantity the service quality of the vocational training organization. A questionnaire survey was conducted at a vocational training organization for beauty and hairdressing in Taiwan. This study distributed 479 questionnaires and obtained 216 valid samples. The data was analyzed by using the reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results revealed that training organizations’ service quality and trainees’ personal characteristics significantly positively affect training effectiveness for trainees. This paper serves as a reference for training organizations and policy makers to improve and monitor the service quality of vocational training organizations, elevate training effectiveness, and achieve the sustainability of vocational educations.
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In job-related continuing education, transfer is considered a central criterion for success, albeit one that is difficult to achieve. The systematic literature review follows the premise that transfer must be systematically promoted and that the role of trainers in this process has been insufficiently considered so far. With the aim of analyzing the empirical research on transfer determinants, 19 meta-analyses from the period between 1988 and 2021 were reviewed. The results were first summarized and then interpreted with regard to possible approaches to transfer promotion by trainers. As expected, the trainers’ options seem to be greatest regarding the training design. Depending on the training objectives, different teaching-learning methods and principles proved to be beneficial for transfer. In addition, trainers can affect certain trainee characteristics, such as motivation and self-efficacy. They can facilitate transfer in the work environment by initiating its support, including important stakeholders, and offering assistance beyond the training itself. The literature review concludes that trainers can promote transfer and should have the necessary competencies to do so.
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The increasingly complex and turbulent 21st century work environment poses challenges for businesses that can threaten their long-term sustainability. Given the rapid developments in technology, increasing rates of employee turnover, skills shortages, and changing expectations from Generation Z, the youngest generation now entering the workforce, organizations are recognizing the importance of developing a career resilient workforce. Individual employees' career resilience frames their capacity to respond when faced with career challenges, allowing them to continue functioning effectively, adapt in a flexible manner, and to successfully deliver work outcomes. To sustain a resilient workforce, managers must actively plan, develop, and deploy human resource management initiatives aimed at instilling career resilience in the youngest workplace entrants. By strategically designing generationally-appropriate management practices to maximize Generation Z talent, organizations can bolster their business sustainability to remain competitive in the changing economy.
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Contexte : Malgré le grand investissement déployé en matière de la formation continue, toutes les études réalisées jusqu’à nos jours marquent le faible transfert des connaissances dans la pratique du personnel de la santé. Le but de la présente étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité d’une formation continue chez le personnel de la santé et de déterminer les facteurs d’influence du transfert des connaissances acquises durant cette formation. Matériels et méthodes : C’est une étude descriptive rétrospective basée sur un échantillon de 23 sages-femmes bénéficiaires de la formation continue en enregistrement du rythme cardiaque fœtal organisée au niveau du centre hospitalier universitaire Mohammed VI de Marrakech/ Safi. L’évaluation faite selon les trois premiers niveaux du modèle de Kirkpatrick soit la réaction, les apprentissages et le transfert des connaissances. Les données ont été recueillies à l'aide des fiches de satisfactions, un test de connaissances et une grille d’observation ainsi un questionnaire et un entretien semi directif. Résultats : Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que la formation continue en enregistrement cardiaque fœtal pour les sages-femmes avait un effet favorable sur le niveau 1, soit la réaction selon le modèle de Kirkpatrick avec un taux de satisfaction élevé pour les huit critères adoptés. Elle était efficace au niveau 2, soit les apprentissages par obtention d’une moyenne de 14.88 sur 20, et non efficace au niveau 3 avec un taux nul du transfert des connaissances. En termes des facteurs entravant le transfert, les bénéficiaires ont identifié trois types de facteurs : personnels, organisationnels et situationnels. Conclusion : Le transfert des connaissances issues de la formation continue chez le personnel de la sante devrait prendre de l’importance en intégrant les mesures de l’évaluation de l’efficacité et en pensant aux facteurs influençant le changement des comportements. Mots-clés : Evaluation, Efficacité de la Formation Continue, Modèle de Kirkpatrick,
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The present study investigates the relationship between a leader's expectation, Leader-member exchange (LMX), training & development (T&D), organizational culture (OCL) and employee performance (EP) in the context of the banking sector of Pakistan. It also examines the relationship between leaders' expectations, LMX, T&D, organizational culture and employee performance with the mediating effect of organizational commitment. Furthermore, this study examines the moderating role of gender between employee performance and organizational commitment. This study was motivated by the inconsistent findings in the literature on the leadership, in particular the Pygmalion effect (leaders' expectation) and leader-member-exchange on employee performance with the mediation of organizational commitment and moderation role of gender. These inconsistencies led to a new stream of research that indicates the importance of examining especially the effect of leader’s expectation and leader-member-exchange on individual productivity with the mediation of organizational commitment. With this purpose in mind, this study considers these theories, the social exchange theory is the main one and Pygmalion mechanism and leader-member exchange are supportive theories of mapping and positioning the potential relationships between the variables within the conceptual framework. The data was collected through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 middle level bank employees in the top ten banks in three major cities of Pakistan, Lahore, Islamabad, and Karachi. Out of the 650 questionnaires, 350 were returned, of which 280 were deemed usable for actual data analysis using smart PLS-SEM. The direct relationship as well as the mediation of organizational commitment between the variables was analysed by using smart PLS-3 software. Findings showed that Leader's expectation, LMX, organizational culture and organizational commitment have a positive relationship with employee performance except T&D. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating role of gender between organizational commitments and employee performance. The study identifies practical, methodological and theoretical implications and recommendations for future research.
Article
Researchers and practitioners in postsecondary and workplace settings recognize the value of noncognitive constructs in predicting academic and vocational success but also perceive that many students or employees are lacking in these areas. In turn, there is increased interest in interventions designed to enhance these constructs. We provide an empirically informed theory of change (ToC) that describes the inputs, mechanisms, and outputs of noncognitive construct interventions (NCIs). The components that inform this ToC include specific relevant constructs that are amenable to intervention, intervention content and mechanisms of change, methodological considerations, moderators of program efficacy, recommendations for evaluating NCIs, and suggested outcomes. In turn, NCIs should provide benefits to individuals, institutions, and society at large and also advance our scientific understanding of this important phenomenon.
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the relationship between different organisational development programmes (360-degree feedback; Coaching; Job assignment; Employee assistance programmes; On-the-job training; Web-based career information; Continuous professional development; External education provision) and employees’ career development. The implications of the moderating effects of gender on the relationships between these eight organisational programmes and career development are assessed. Design/methodology/approach To examine hypothesised relationships on eight organisational programmes and career development, this paper computed moderated regression analyses using the PROCESS macro (3.5), for a two-way analysis of variance (Hayes, 2018). The data collected are based on a survey sample of employees (n = 322) working in Scotland. Findings Two main findings arose from this empirical study. First, there are significant direct relationships between seven out of the eight organisational development programmes and their influences on employees’ career development. Second, gender is a significant moderator for four of the programmes’ relationship with career development, namely, coaching, web-based career information, continuous professional development and external education provision. However, gender failed to moderate the four other programmes’ (i.e. 360-degree feedback, job assignment, employee assistance programmes and on-the-job training) relationship with career development. Originality/value This paper concludes that closer attention should be given to the organisational design of these development programmes and consideration of potential gender differences in employees’ perception of their importance for career development in their organisation. To date, the majority of research in the literature has concentrated on the impact of training on career development, so this study contributes to the body of knowledge on a set of organisational development programmes and their effect on career development moderated by gender.
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Examined the development of organizational commitment, academic self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and motivation in a socialization-type training context with data collected from 666 military trainees. The hypotheses were that (1) training fulfillment, or the extent to which training meets or fulfills a trainee's expectations and desires, (2) trainee reactions, and (3) training performance would be related to the development of posttraining attitudes. Support was obtained for each hypothesis. Training fulfillment was positively related to posttraining organizational commitment, physical self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and training motivation, even after pretraining attitudes and a set of individual variables were controlled. Pretraining motivation, trainee reactions, and training performance were also related to the development of posttraining attitudes.
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Studies of the influence of trainees' characteristics on training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content. Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees' attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training.
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Meta-analysis procedures were applied to the results of 70 managerial training (MT) studies. The meta-analysis results for 34 distributions of MT effects representing 6 training-content areas, 7 training methods, and 4 types of criteria (subjective learning, objective learning, subjective behavior, and objective results) indicated that MT was moderately effective. For 12 of the 17 MT method distributions, the 90% lower-bound credibility values were positive, and thus the effectiveness of these training methods, at least minimally, can be generalized to new situations. A list of the 70 MT studies is included. (97 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Since the beginning of the century, feedback interventions (FIs) produced negative--but largely ignored--effects on performance. A meta-analysis (607 effect sizes; 23,663 observations) suggests that FIs improved performance on average ( d  = .41) but that over one-third of the FIs decreased performance. This finding cannot be explained by sampling error, feedback sign, or existing theories. The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes. The results suggest that FI effectiveness decreases as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and away from the task. These findings are further moderated by task characteristics that are still poorly understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article describes the development of a new technique for identifying outlier coefficients in meta-analytic data sets. Denoted as the sample-adjusted meta-analytic deviancy statistic or SAMD, this technique takes into account the sample size on which each study is based when determining outlier status. An empirical test of the SAMD statistic with an actual meta-analytic data set resulted in a substantial reduction in residual variabilities and a corresponding increase in the percentage of variance accounted for by statistical artifacts after removal of outlier study coefficients. Moreover, removal of these coefficients helped to clarify what was a confusing and difficult-to-explain finding in this meta-analysis. It is suggested that analysis for outliers become a routine part of meta-analysis methodology. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Kirkpatrick's model (1959a, 1959b, 1960a, 1960b) of training evaluation criteria has had widespread and enduring popularity. This model proposed four “levels” of training evaluation criteria: reactions, learning, behavior, and results. Three problematic assumptions of the model may be identified: (1) The levels are arranged in ascending order of information provided. (2) The levels are causally linked. (3) The levels are positively intercorrelated. This article examines the validity of these assumptions, the frequency of each level in published evaluation studies, correlations from the literature in regard to Assumptions 2 and 3, and implications for the researcher and training manager.
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We proposed a model that included individual and situational antecedents of self-efficacy development during training. Initial performance and self-efficacy levels, achievement motivation, and choice were examined as individual variables. Constraints, operationalized at both the individual and aggregate levels of analysis, were examined as situational influences. Mid-course efficacy was hypothesized to have positive linear relationships with training reactions and subsequent performance, and an interactive relationship with performance when training reactions were considered as a moderator. Survey data were gathered at two points in time from 215 students enrolled in 15 eight-week long university bowling classes. All of the hypothesized antecedents of mid-course self-efficacy were significant except aggregate and individual situational constraints, although both constraints related negatively to training reactions. Time 2 self-efficacy exhibited significant positive influences on training reactions and subsequent performance, but the hypothesized moderated relationship was not supported.
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The influence of the work environment on the transfer of newly trained supervisory skills was examined. Participants were 505 supermarket managers from 52 stores. The work environment was operationalized in terms of transfer of training climate and continuous-learning culture. Climate and culture were hypothesized to have both direct and moderating effects on posttraining behaviors. Accounting for pretraining behaviors and knowledge gained in training, the results from a series of LISREL analyses showed that both climate and culture were directly related to posttraining behaviors. In particular, the social support system appeared to play a central role in the transfer of training. Moderating effects were not found. Implications for enhancing the transfer of training are discussed.
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Examined the development of organizational commitment, academic self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and motivation in a socialization-type training context with data collected from 666 military trainees. The hypotheses were that (1) training fulfillment, or the extent to which training meets or fulfills a trainee's expectations and desires, (2) trainee reactions, and (3) training performance would be related to the development of posttraining attitudes. Support was obtained for each hypothesis. Training fulfillment was positively related to posttraining organizational commitment, physical self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and training motivation, even after pretraining attitudes and a set of individual variables were controlled. Pretraining motivation, trainee reactions, and training performance were also related to the development of posttraining attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although training evaluation is recognized as an important component of the instructional design model, there are no theoretically based models of training evaluation. This article attempts to move toward such a model by developing a classification scheme for evaluating learning outcomes. Learning constructs are derived from a variety of research domains, such as cognitive, social, and instructional psychology and human factors. Drawing from this research, the authors propose cognitive, skill-based, and affective learning outcomes (relevant to training) and recommend potential evaluation measures. The learning outcomes and associated evaluation measures are organized into a classification scheme. Requirements for providing construct-oriented evidence of validity for the scheme are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study used a pre/post design to assess student learning for the purposes of examining relationships among student grades, student learning, and student evaluations of teaching. These relationships were reframed in terms of reaction (Level I) and learning (Level II) evaluation criteria. Participants were 652 undergraduate students enrolled in seven sections of an introductory psychology course. Our results indicated a medium relationship between student grades and the pre/post learning measure. In addition, a small relationship was observed between student ratings of teaching effectiveness and a pre/post measure of learning. We conclude that student ratings and learning measures assess different aspects of teaching effectiveness and should not be used interchangeably. The most appropriate criterion for assessing teaching effectiveness is a function of the goal of evaluation. However, reaction and learning measures may be used in conjunction to obtain a more complete picture of instructor effectiveness.
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We present a conceptual framework specifying the hypothesized influences of situational constraints on work outcomes and individual difference to work outcome associations. In addition to reviewing the relevant literature and discussing the implications for researchers and practitioners, we suggest a systematic program of needed research.
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The present study was conducted to determine whether trainees' general beliefs about training affect pretraining motivation and transfer of training in a large-scale training curriculum. In addition, the influence of social support for training from four organizational constituents (top management, supervisors, peers, and subordinates) and task constraints in the work environment on pretraining motivation and training transfer were evaluated. Nine hundred sixtyseven managers and supervisors completed a questionnaire that assessed 14 constructs. Structural equations analysis with LISREL VII indicated that the overall reputation of training, intrinsic and compliance incentives, organizational commitment, and three social support variables (subordinate, supervisor, and top management support) were predictive of pretraining motivation. In addition, pretraining motivation and subordinate, peer, and supervisor support were predictive of managers' perceived training transfer. These findings suggests that previous theory and research (e.g., Noe, 1986; Noe & Schmitt, 1986) serve as a useful heuristic for predicting the effects of general beliefs about training on training effectiveness. Implications of the findings for future research and practice are discussed.
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The development and evaluation of systems for describing and classifying tasks which can improve generalization of research results about human performance is essential for organizing, communicating, and implementing these research findings. The present report describes research undertaken to develop one such system--a task characteristics approach. Basic objectives were to develop descriptive characteristics of tasks; assess the reliability of rating scales devised to measure these characteristics; and determine if these characteristics represented correlates of performance. Major components of a task were identified and treated as categories within which to devise task characteristics or descriptors. Multiple correlations were obtained between task characteristic ratings and the performance measures.
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1. To enable the students to acquire basic knowledge about contemporary theory and practice in the area of strategic human resources management with a particular focus on HR planning and development. 2. To enable the students to acquire applied experience through a group research project. 3. To build the capacity of the students for self-learning and development in the area of human resources.
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This article presents a review of the skill retention and skill decay literature that focuses on factors that influence the loss of trained skills or knowledge over extended periods of nonuse. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to a total of 189 independent data points extracted from 53 articles. Results indicate that there is substantial skill loss with nonpractice or nonuse, with the amount of skill loss ranging from an effect size (d) of -0.01 immediately after training to a d of -1.4 after more than 365 days of nonuse. Most of the study's hypotheses for moderators were supported. Physical, natural, and speed-based tasks were less susceptible to skill loss than cognitive, artificial, and accuracy-based tasks. Additionally, certain methodological variables, such as using recognition tests, using similar conditions of retrieval at retention, and using behavioral evaluation criteria, resulted in less skill loss over time. Implications of the results for training and future research are discussed.
Article
The US Navy's Tactical Decision Making Under Stress program investigated how team members in shipboard Combat Information Centers (CICs) anticipate each other's needs and coordinate their actions without overt communication. This included training strategies that would foster the shared understanding teams need to coordinate implicitly. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss one such strategy: cross-training. The authors define cross-training, review 2 empirical tests of cross training interventions, and discuss lessons learned from these tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book reviews recent efforts to deal with taxonomic issues in the behavioral sciences. Some of the material is based on an extensive research program directed by the first author. The book updates this work and integrates it with recent related research. The program attempted to develop and evaluate systems for describing and classifying tasks that could improve predictions about human performance. Emphasis is on a common task-descriptive language to integrate the human performance research literature and improve generalizations of research findings. The book brings together ideas from such diverse fields as human learning, experimental and differential psychology, task analysis, and human factors technology. These fields in one form or another are concerned with the prediction of human task performance, but there has so far been a lack of communication across these fields. This book provides the needed integration. The effort represents one of the few attempts to bridge the gap between basic research on human performance and the applications of the research to real-world problems. The book deals with conceptual and methodological issues in developing useful taxonomic structures in various areas of the behavioral sciences, and relates these to developments in other sciences. Innovative efforts in areas of human performance are reviewed and evaluated according to a variety of criteria. The world of human tasks is not impossibly diverse and common task dimensions that allow improved predictions of human performance can be identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The volume outlines the overall background, research approach, and paradigm used by TADMUS, with specific focus on how to train decision making at the individual and team levels—especially how to provide training that will prepare individuals to operate in complex team environments. The chapters explore complex, realistic tasks with experienced Navy participants. Throughout the book, the contributors explore the research implications and the lessons learned that may guide those interested in applying the results of research in operational environments. Although TADMUS focused on a military decision-making environment, its program of research has applicability across a variety of task environments that pose similar demands on human operators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Responds to the article by E. F. Holton (1996) that criticized D. L. Kirkpatrick's (1976)4-level model of evaluation and proposed an alternative model. Kirkpatrick comments on his reactions to Holton's use of the word "flawed," to describe a model that has been quoted and used all over the world. In response to the criticism that the 4-level is a taxonomy, not a model, Kirkpatrick notes that others, not he called it a model and that he did not care what it is called as long as it helps to clarify the meaning of evaluation in simple terms and offers guides and suggestions on how to accomplish an evaluation. Kirkpatrick comments that Holton's article tried to tear down the 4-level model without giving any credit to the concepts it depicts even though some of those concepts are repeated in the proposed model. Kirkpatrick questons Holton's qualifications or experience with the human resource development profession. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the effects of framing training program assignments on training outcomes. A model was developed that suggests that the framing of training assignments can provide feedback regarding past performance and result in different attitudinal and motivational levels going into training. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 differently framed training programs (remedial vs. advanced). Attributions regarding past performance were found to interact with training assignments to affect pretraining self-efficacy. Both perceptions of past performance and expected assignment were found to moderate the relationship between training assignment and fairness perceptions. Also, motivation to learn was a key variable linking pretraining characteristics and training outcomes. Implications for training effectiveness research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A review of 30 meta-analyses that have been conducted in organizational behavior and human resource management using procedures described by J. E. Hunter et al (1982) suggests that there is confusion regarding the use and interpretation of confidence intervals and credibility intervals. This confusion can lead to conflicting conclusions about the relationships between variables. The most frequent mistake has been the attempt to address the accuracy of the estimate of the mean effect size using "confidence intervals" based on the corrected standard deviation instead of on the standard error of the mean r or d. The corrected standard deviation should be used to generate a "credibility interval" to assess the extent to which moderators might account for the unexplained variance in effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied the effect of humor and humorous examples on the comprehension and retention of lecture material. Intact classes of university students ( N = 508) viewed either a serious lecture or 1 of 3 versions of a humorous lecture. The 3 versions of the humorous lecture included humorous examples related to the concepts in the lecture (concept humor), unrelated to the concepts (nonconcept humor), or a combination of concept and nonconcept examples (mixed humor). A test of comprehension and retention was given twice: immediately after the lecture and 6 wks later. Immediate comprehension was not facilitated by the use of humorous examples. Upon retesting, however, retention of concept humor material was significantly improved by viewing a lecture with humorous examples illustrating concepts. Earlier research findings are accounted for in terms of these results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Advances in telecommunications and simulation technologies have created opportunities for conducting distributed team training through networked simulations. In distributed team training, military teams train together in the same battlespace despite the physical separation. in these types of training environments, multiple users are located at multiple sites; consequently, the efficient and effective conduct of training is a challenge. One area that is particularly challenging is the measurement of team performance. Two case studies are reported in which team performance measurement instruments were developed and tested in a distributed training environment. The measurement tools were designed within the context of an instructional approach known as event-based training, which relies on the creation of explicit linkages among learning objectives, exercise events, performance measures, and after-action review or feedback. Active duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from the Marine Corps, Air Force, and Army participated in several days of training exercises conducted within a network of simulators that were geographically distributed across the United States. The development and use of the measurement instruments are described, data from both case studies are presented, and implications for training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the viability of knowledge structures as an operationalization of learning in the context of a task that required a high degree of skill. Over the course of 3 days, 86 men participated in 9 training sessions and learned a complex video game. At the end of acquisition, participants' knowledge structures were assessed. After a 4-day nonpractice interval, trainees completed tests of skill retention and skill transfer. Findings indicated that the similarity of trainees' knowledge structures to an expert structure was correlated with skill acquisition and was predictive of skill retention and skill transfer. However, the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the method used to derive the expert referent structure. Moreover, knowledge structures mediated the relationship between general cognitive ability and skill-based performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This meta-analysis examined the effects from 126 studies that employed organizational development (OD) interventions to modify satisfaction and/or other attitudes. Raju and Burkes's (1983) Taylor series approximation 1 (TSA 1) validity generalization procedure was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Multi-faceted interventions have been more effective in modifying satisfaction and attitudes than were OD interventions that used a single human-processes or technostructural technique. For specific interventions, team building and lab training were the most effective means of changing satisfaction and other attitudes. Also, OD seems to affect attitudes more than satisfaction. Caution is encouraged in generalizing these findings, given (1) the non-random selection of techniques, (2) the frequent moderating effects of both the participant's organizational level and the methodological rigor of the studies, and (3) this study's frequent failure to account for a substantial amount of the variability of the effect sizes.
Article
A meta-analysis of the effects on worker productivity of 11 types of psychologically based organizational interventions showed that such programs, on average, raised worker productivity by nearly one-half standard deviation. The strength of effects was found to vary by type of intervention, criterion of productivity, contextual factors in organizations, and features of research design. Also discussed in the paper are comparisons of conclusions reached through meta-analysis versus traditional methods of literature review.
Article
Corporations competing in the global market face a number of challenges and opportunities in effective human resources training. Many firms address this issue by emphasizing multimedia-based training systems. Given the rapid increase in multimedia-based training, it is important that barriers to effective use of this technology be identified. There is substantial evidence in the human resources training literature that low self-efficacy levels among trainees can form a barrier to a specific training technique. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that receptiveness to multimedia-based training among trainees may differ based on multimedia self-efficacy. This issue was examined through the use of factor analysis, which revealed two significant selfefficacy factors: developed self-efficacy and existing self-efficacy. These factors proved to be highly significant to respondents' perceptions of multimedia training effectiveness. The finding suggests that training effectiveness is determined not only by the training content and media presentation but also by the trainees' self-efficacy.
Article
Studies of the influence of trainee characteristics on training effectiveness have focused on the ability level necessary to learn program content. Motivational and environmental influences on training effectiveness have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to test an exploratory model describing the influence on trainee career and job attitudes on training outcomes (learning, behavior change, performance improvement). Results of the study suggest that job involvement and career planning are antecedents of learning and behavior change. Future research directions and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Article
The roles of general ability (g) and specific abilities (s1…sg) were investigated in prediction of job-training-school grades. Subjects were 78,041 Air Force enlistees in 82 jobs. General ability and specific abilities were defined by scores on the first and subsequent unrotated principal components of the enlistment selection and classification test, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Linear models analyses revealed that s1…s9 added little to the prediction afforded by g. It was also determined that a common prediction equation for all jobs was almost as predictive as an equation for each job.
Article
In today's fast-paced world of change, many of the performance bottlenecks found within organizations are caused by a lack of worker knowledge and skills. Because organizations lack the resources to address all their training needs, analyzing performance needs has become increasingly important. This article focuses on the dynamics of training needs analysis. Thefirst section of the article describes the role of training needs analysis within an organization. The second section describes three elements that interact to influence the needs analysis process and results. The three elements are organization characteristics, decision-maker characteristics, and analyst characteristics. The interaction of these elements influences the process used to identify the needs, the solutions that are identified, and the final product.
Article
An augmented framework for training criteria based on Kirkpatrick's (1959a, 1959b, 1960a, 1960b) model divides training reactions into affective and utility reactions, and learning into post-training measures of learning, retention, and behavior/skill demonstration. A total of 34 studies yielding 115 correlations were analyzed meta-analytically. Results included substantial reliabilities across training criteria and reasonable convergence among subdivisions of criteria within a larger level. Utility-type reaction measures were more strongly related to learning or on-the-job performance (transfer) than affective-type reaction measures. Moreover, utility-type reaction measures were stronger correlates of transfer than were measures of immediate or retained learning. These latter findings support recent concurrent thinking regarding use of reactions in training (e.g., Warr & Bunce, 1995). Implications for choosing and developing training criteria are discussed.
Article
Presents a descriptive review regarding current training theory and research. Prescriptions regarding future research; Ways to identify research gaps; Highlighted issues which require a different research orientation; Organizational analysis; Discussion.
Article
Previous investigations into the processes and outcomes of training have been restricted to conventional “closed” settings. However, learning is likely to become increasingly “open,” with greater discretion granted for individuals to choose how and when they will acquire new skills and information. In a study of 106 junior managers over a 7-month period, the impact of 11 trainee characteristics was investigated in relation to immediate learning scores, reactions to the program, and changes in rated job behaviors. It was found that learning score was significantly independently predicted by general training attitude, the use of an analytic learning strategy, and (low) age. Post-training reactions were identified as being of three kinds: reported enjoyment, usefulness, and difficulty. These were shown to be differentially associated with the trainee characteristics studied. Significant associations were found between learning score and changes in rated job performance.
Book
This review examines issues and topics concerning systematic modes of instruction designed to produce environments that shape behavior to satisfy stated objectives. Training here is defined as the acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes that results in improved performance in an on-the-job environment. Even a cursory inspection of this review displays the diverse nature of literature in this field which includes such topics as: need assessment techniques, evaluation methodology, and particular modes of instruction; in addition, there are topics with social and political implications such as training for second careers and training hard-core unemployed youth. This is the first examination of the topic in this series since J. P. Campbell's (1971) review. Computer searches covering the period since his review produced over 3000 references from the Educational Resources Information Center and Psychological Abstracts bibliographic data bases. The resulting eye strain was partially alleviated by a set of informal decision rules which helped determine the materials read and considered for this review. First, consistent with the definition of training, the selection process emphasized topics related to systematic instruction designed to produce transfer in work organizations. Thus, topics that emphasized the development of basic principles in learning (e.g. massed vs spaced learning) were excluded unless the research was directly relevant to an instructional program for training purposes. Also, topics such as organization development which have implications for quality of work life and institutional effectiveness that extend beyond the considerations of most training programs were excluded as a separate topic. However, there is an attempt to describe relevant literature from a wide variety of disciplines which touch on many important developments. Therefore, this review examines discussions on such topics as criterion development, found in the educational psychology literature; need assessment methodology, developed in vocational education; and instructional systems approaches, evaluated in military environments.This review also attempts to conceptualize training issues broadly. It would have been possible to complete this article by examining only the different types of training approaches utilized. However, such an approach would have excluded many important issues that should affect our understanding of training as a system within a work organization. For example, it is possible to consider training as part of the socialization process. Also, it is important to consider training and its evaluation as an intervention which affects the lives of people in work organizations. This review attempts to provide such a perspective as well as examine the more traditional topics.