Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 129
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society (Impact Factor: 5.27). 03/2003; 62(1):129-34. DOI: 10.1079/PNS2002221
Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Potential mechanisms for this protection are diverse since whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. First, whole grains are concentrated sources of dietary fibre, resistant starch and oligosaccharides, carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA lower colonic pH, serve as an energy source for the colonocytes and may alter blood lipids. These improvements in the gut environment may provide immune protection beyond the gut. Second, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, including trace minerals and phenolic compounds, and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Additionally, whole grains mediate insulin and glucose responses. Although lower glycaemic load and glycaemic index have been linked to diabetes and obesity, risk of cancers such as colon and breast cancer have also been linked to high intake of readily-available carbohydrate. Finally, whole grains contain many other compounds that may protect against chronic disease. These compounds include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. As a consequence of the traditional models of conducting nutrition studies on isolated nutrients, few studies exist on the biological effects of increased whole-grain intake. The few whole-grain feeding studies that are available show improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood lipid improvement and antioxidant protection.
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- "There is much research that suggests the inclusion of whole cereal flours, or mixtures of different grains or their fractions, to increase the nutritional value of products based on refined wheat flour (Sanz-Penella & Haros, 2014). Epidemiological studies confirm that high WG intake protects against cancer, cardiovascular disease , diabetes, and obesity (Slavin, 2003). "
ABSTRACT: There is an increased amount of evidence showing that consumption of whole grains and whole-grain-based products is associated with a reduction of the risk of developing many diseases, due mainly to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of their components.In this study, cookies, baked using different types of flours and fermentation methods, were digested in vitro and supplemented to cultured liver cells. Three different flours (ancient KAMUT® khorasan wheat grown in North America, ancient khorasan wheat grown in Italy, and modern durum wheat) and two different types of fermentation (standard and lactic fermentation) were used. This experimental design allowed us to supplement cells with a real food part of the human diet, and to consider possible differences related to the food matrix (types of flour) and processing (methods of fermentation). Cells were supplemented with the bioaccessible fractions derived from cookies in vitro digestion. Although results herein reported highlight the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of all the supplementations, cookies made with khorasan flours appeared the most effective, particularly when the ancient grain was grown in North America under the KAMUT® brand. In light of the attempts to produce healthier food, this study underlines the importance of the type of grain to obtain baked products with an increased nutritional and functional value.
- "Similar to other biomass, straw contains cell walls made of highly lignified structural carbohydrates and small amounts of extraneous materials. Chemical analysis shows that straw is not only rich in carbohydrates, but also rich in bioactive compounds and vitamins (Slavin 2003). The cell walls consist primarily of cellulose and hemicellulose. "
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- "Whole-grain products, such as whole-grain bread, have been recommended because of their high content of dietary fibre, B-vitamins , vitamin E and several minerals of which P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn are the most important. Each component may partly account for its beneficial effects on human health (Slavin, 2003). However, the main parts of minerals in cereals are complexly bounded to phytic acid (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaphosphate) as phytate, consequently reducing their bioavailability (Febles, Arias, Hardisson, Rodríquez-Alvarez, & Sierra, 2002; Kumar, Sinha, Makkar, & Becker, 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Whole-grain foods play an important role in human diet as they are relatively rich in minerals, however, the absorption of those minerals in human gut can be very low due to high content of the mineral binding phytate. Therefore, the object of this study was to identify phytase-active lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which could be used as a starter to increase mineral bioavailability in whole-meal bread. Hence, LAB isolates were isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs, tested for phytase activity, and phytase active isolates were identified. Studies of phytase activity of the isolates were carried out at conditions optimal for leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30°C). The phytase active isolates belonged to the species Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Phytase activities of the tested LAB isolates were both extra- and intra-cellular. The highest extracellular phytase production was found in L.panis with a volumetric phytase activity of 140U/mL. Phytate degradation in whole-wheat dough fermented with L.panis or L.fermentum was 90% and 70%, respectively.