Hypoglycemic agent YM440 suppresses hepatic glucose output via gluconeogenesis by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats

Pharmacology Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Ibaraki, Tsukuba, Japan
European journal of pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.53). 06/2003; 468(2):151-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01670-4
Source: PubMed


Using a glucose clamp, we had shown that YM440, (Z)-1,4-bis[4-[(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl)methyl]phenoxy]but-2-ene, reduced the increased hepatic glucose output in obese Zucker rats. We further examined effects of YM440 on 14C-incorporation from [14C]bicarbonate into blood glucose via gluconeogenesis, and on gluconeogenic enzymatic activities. Fed obese Zucker rats showed a 4-fold increase of 14C-incorporation into blood glucose compared to that in lean rats. Glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities in obese rats were increased 1.4-fold and 1.6-fold compared with lean rats. YM440 (300 mg/kg for 2 weeks) decreased 14C-incorporation into blood glucose by 29% in obese rats. Glucose-6-phosphatase but not fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was reduced by YM440 and closely correlated with 14C-incorporation into blood glucose, indicating a key role for glucose-6-phosphatase in hepatic glucose output. These results suggest that the increased gluconeogenesis in obese rats is mainly due to the increased activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and that YM440 suppresses hepatic glucose output by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase activity.

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    ABSTRACT: The novel hypoglycemic agent YM440 ((Z)-1,4-bis{4-[(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl)methyl] phenoxy}but-2-ene) is a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. YM440 has unique pharmacological profiles both in vitro and in vivo, but, it is not clear whether the compound has a significant effect on hepatic or peripheral insulin response throughout the body. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of YM440 on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. Treatment of ZF rats with YM440 (300 mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks significantly decreased plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin without inducing obesity. YM440 caused a 2-fold increase in the glucose infusion rate during euglycemic clamping compared with the vehicle control. YM440 also decreased the percent change in hepatic glucose production rate caused by intravenous insulin infusion in ZF rats. YM440 had no significant effect on the glucose disposal rate. These results indicate that YM440 ameliorates hepatic, but not peripheral insulin resistance in ZF rats. These findings strongly suggest that the main target organ of YM440 is the liver, unlike other PPARgamma agonist.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The novel hypoglycemic agent, YM440 ((Z)-1,4-bis{4-[(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) methyl] phenoxy}but-2-ene) is a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, (PPAR) gamma. YM440 has been shown to counteract insulin resistance in diabetic rodent models. However, it is not clear whether this compound has a significant effect on hyperlipidemia in vivo. Hyperlipidemia has been reported to be a risk factor for the early development of renal disease. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of chronic treatment with YM440 on hyperlipidemia and renal injury in obese Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Treatment of 8-week-old ZF rats with YM440 (100 mg/kg/day) for 16 weeks decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. YM440 markedly reduced the rate of progression of both albuminuria and proteinuria. YM440 normalized urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, which is a marker for renal proximal tubular damage, and ameliorated the rise in systolic blood pressure compared to the vehicle control. YM440 also blocked the development of nephromegaly. Histological analyses revealed that both glomerular area expansion and tubular cast accumulation gradually lessened in YM440-treated ZF rats. Regression analyses between the plasma triglyceride levels and the renal parameters (urinary protein excretion and albumin excretion) indicated that the renal parameters correlated positively with the plasma triglyceride levels. In conclusion, the hypolipidemic effects of YM440 prevent renal injury in ZF rats. YM440 might be useful for preventing the early development of diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes by ameliorating metabolic control problems.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · European Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and energy balance implicated in the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands and activators of PPAR-gamma has helped to unravel the molecular basis of its function, including molecular details regarding ligand binding, conformational changes of the receptor, and cofactor binding, leading to the emergence of the concept of selective PPAR-gamma modulators (SPPARgammaMs). SPPARgammaMs bind in distinct manners to the ligand-binding pocket of PPAR-gamma, leading to alternative receptor conformations, differential cofactor recruitment/displacement, differential gene expression, and ultimately differential biological responses. Based on this concept, new and improved antidiabetic agents for the treatment of diabetes are in development. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanism of action and biological effects of recently characterized SPPARgammaMs, including metaglidasen/halofenate, PA-082, and the angiotensin receptor antagonists, recently characterized as a new class of SPPARgammaMs.
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