Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients Meeting Task Force Criteria for Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients meeting Task Force criteria for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) have not been systematically described. We report qualitative and quantitative MRI findings in ARVD using state-of-the-art MRI.
MRI was performed on 12 patients with ARVD who were prospectively diagnosed using the Task Force criteria. The imaging protocol included breath-hold double inversion recovery spin-echo and gradient-echo images. Ventricular volumes and dimensions were compared to 10 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. High intramyocardial T1 signal similar to fat signal was observed in 9 (75%) of the 12 patients and in none of the controls. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was seen in 5 (42%) patients, trabecular disarray in 7 (59%), and wall thinning in 3 (25%). Both the RV end-diastolic diameter and the outflow tract area were significantly higher in ARVD patients compared to controls (51.2 vs 43.2 mm, P < 0.01; and 14.5 vs 9.3 cm2, P < 0.01, respectively). ARVD patients had a higher RV end-diastolic volume index and lower RV ejection fraction compared with controls (127.4 vs 87.5, P < 0.01; and 41.6% vs 57%, P < 0.01, respectively).
High intramyocardial T1 signal indicative of fat is seen in a high percentage (75%) of patients who meet the Task Force criteria for ARVD. Trabecular disarray is seen more frequently than wall thinning and aneurysms. RV dimensions and volumes differ significantly in ARVD compared to controls, indicating a role for quantitative evaluation in the diagnosis of ARVD.
Available from: Brian Ghoshhajra
- "CMR qualitative parameters for both 1994 and 2010 criteria (assessment of regional wall movement abnormalities and presence of RV dilation) were independently reported by experienced clinical cardiac imagers (radiologists and cardiologists with at least 5 years of experience performing and interpreting CMR). Regional wall motion abnormalities were graded as per standard department clinical procedures as 1) normal: systolic wall thickening > 40%; 2) hypokinetic: wall thickening < 40%; 3) akinetic: systolic wall thickening < 10%; 4) dyskinetic: myocardium that moved outward in systole; 5) aneurysmal: myocardial segments with persistent bulging in diastole and outward movement in systole .A flow diagram showed the detailed availability of quantitative and qualitative data (Figure 2). When quantitative measures of RV size and function were not available, and in whom abnormal size or function was reported, a repeat quantitative analysis by 2 qualified CMR physicians in consensus using GE Advantage Workstation with MEDIS Mass Analysis package. "
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We sought to evaluate the effect of application of the revised 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) on the prevalence of major and minor Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) criteria for Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) versus application of the original 1994 TFC. We also assessed the utility of MRI to identify alternative diagnoses for patients referred for ARVC evaluation.
968 consecutive patients referred to our institution for CMR with clinical suspicion of ARVC from 1995 to 2010, were evaluated for the presence of major and minor CMR criteria per the 1994 and 2010 ARVC TFC. CMR criteria included right ventricle (RV) dilatation, reduced RV ejection fraction, RV aneurysm, or regional RV wall motion abnormalities. When quantitative measures of RV size and function were not available, and in whom abnormal size or function was reported, a repeat quantitative analysis by 2 qualified CMR physicians in consensus.
Of 968 patients, 220 (22.7%) fulfilled either a major or a minor 1994 TFC, and 25 (2.6%) fulfilled any of the 2010 TFC criterion. Among patients meeting any 1994 criteria, only 25 (11.4%) met at least one 2010 criterion. All patients who fulfilled a 2010 criteria also satisfied at least one 1994 criterion. Per the 2010 TFC, 21 (2.2%) patients met major criteria and 4 (0.4%) patients fulfilled at least one minor criterion. Eight patients meeting 1994 minor criteria were reclassified as satisfying 2010 major criteria, while 4 patients fulfilling 1994 major criteria were reclassified to only minor or no criteria under the 2010 TFC.Eighty-nine (9.2%) patients had alternative cardiac diagnoses, including 43 (4.4%) with clinically significant potential ARVC mimics. These included cardiac sarcoidosis, RV volume overload conditions, and other cardiomyopathies.
Application of the 2010 TFC resulted in reduction of total patients meeting any diagnostic CMR criteria for ARVC from 22.7% to 2.6% versus the 1994 TFC. CMR identified alternative cardiac diagnoses in 9.2% of patients, and 4.4% of the diagnoses were potential mimics of ARVC.
Available from: Robert Murray Hamilton
- "Dilatation of the right ventricle is a nonspecific but common finding of ARVC/D (Fig. 2). In a study by Tandri et al.24) the patients who met the 1994 Task Force criteria for diagnosis of ARVC/D showed a linear correlation between the duration of symptoms and right ventricular end diastolic volume index. Disproportionate dilatation of the right ventricular outflow tract is often seen but is a subjective finding. "
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ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a genetically determined disease that progresses continuously from conception and throughout life. ARVC/D manifests predominantly in young adulthood. Early identification of the concealed cases in childhood is of utmost importance for the prevention of sudden cardiac death later in life. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely requested in patients with a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of ARVC/D and in family members of the patients with ARVC/D. Although the utility of MRI in the assessment of ARVC/D is well recognized in adults, MRI is a low-yield test in children as the anatomical, histological, and functional changes are frequently subtle or not present in the early phase of the disease. MRI findings of ARVC/D include morphologic changes such as right ventricular dilatation, wall thinning, and aneurismal outpouchings, as well as abnormal tissue characteristics such as myocardial fibrosis and fatty infiltration, and functional abnormalities such as global ventricular dysfunction and regional wall motion abnormalities. Among these findings, regional wall motion abnormalities are the most reliable MRI findings both in children and adults, while myocardial fibrosis and fat infiltration are rarely seen in children. Therefore, an MRI protocol should be tailored according to the patient's age and compliance, as well as the presence of other findings, instead of using the protocol that is used for adults. We propose that MRI in children with ARVC/D should focus on the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities and global ventricular function by using a cine imaging sequence and that the sequences for myocardial fat and late gadolinium enhancement of the myocardium are reserved for those who show abnormal findings at cine imaging. Importantly, MRI should be performed and interpreted by experienced examiners to reduce the number of false positive and false negative readings.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Morphologic and functional abnormalities are found most commonly in the "triangle of dysplasia" . Tandri et al systemically described qualitative and quantitative CMR findings in patients meeting Task Force criteria for the diagnosis of ARVD using state-of-the-art CMR . Intra-myocardial fat was noted in a high percentage (75%) of patients who met the Task Force criteria for ARVD, more commonly in the basal regions (RV inflow and outflow) and lateral apex. "
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ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a genetic cardiomyopathy characterized clinically by ventricular arrhythmias and progressive right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The histopathologic hallmark is fibro-fatty replacement of RV myocardium. It is inherited in an autosomal pattern with variable penetrance. ARVD is unique in that it most commonly presents in young, otherwise healthy and highly athletic individuals. The cause of ARVD is not well-known but recent evidence suggests strongly that it is a disease of desmosomal dysfunction. The disease involvement is not limited only to the RV as left ventricle (LV) has also been reportedly affected. Diagnosis of ARVD is challenging and is currently based upon a multi-disciplinary work-up of the patient as defined by the Task Force. Currently, implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are routinely used to prevent sudden death in patients with ARVD. Cardiovascular MR is an important non-invasive diagnostic modality that allows both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of RV. This article reviews the genetics of ARVD, current status and role of CMR in the diagnosis of ARVD and LV involvement in ARVD.
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