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Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of Clitoria ternatea root

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Clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats. Moreover, the extract exhibited a significant inhibition in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. In the acetic acid-induced writhing response, the extract markedly reduced the number of writhings at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice.

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... Antibacterial of S. aureus can be produced from ultrasound-assisted aqueous leaf and petal extract, as well as ethanolic leaf and callus extract of C. ternatea (Shahid et al. 2009;Anthika et al. 2015). In addition, C. tertanea has also an antipyretic activity that can reduce fever (Devi et al. 2003). ...
... Leaf and flower extracts of C. ternatea have been identified as having inflammatory activity (Devi et al. 2003;Bathia et al. 2013;Suganya et al. 2014;Singh et al. 2018). Petroleum ether extract and ethanol resulted in the analgesic activity that ethanol-treated extract showed up to 2 hours of long-lasting effect (Bathia et al. 2013). ...
... Petroleum ether extract and ethanol resulted in the analgesic activity that ethanol-treated extract showed up to 2 hours of long-lasting effect (Bathia et al. 2013). Flavonoids were indicated to have important roles for antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in C. ternatea (Devi et al. 2003). The methanol extract of C. ternatea root at doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight., yeast-provoked raised the temperature in a dosedependent manner and decreased the temperature body to be normal (Parimaladevi et al. 2004). ...
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Clitoria ternatea L., known as "bunga telang" in Indonesia, is an important medicinal plant belongs Fabaceae, which is an ornamental perennial climber. It has widely distributed throughout Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America, Pacific (Northwestern, South-Central, and Southwestern). This review aims to study the relation between ethnobotany and bioprospecting of C. ternatea. The literature study revealed that Indonesian communities use flowers part of C. ternatea as an eye medicine, boils disease, an ornamental plant, and a symbol in traditional ceremonies. Leaf, flower, seed, and root of this species have bioprospecting for medicine, agriculture, as well as food and beverage. Ethnobiology exploration of C. ternatea in Indonesia is an initial step to observe the bioprospecting potential. Then, it can be continued to further research to produce commercial products where these products will provide an economic impact and motivate communities to take a part of conservation actions. The present study assesses the limited works that have been carried out on bioecology, ethnobotany, bioprospecting, and market potential. We hope that the study's output can spur further research and industry approach.
... Aδ and C fibers are the primary nociceptive neurons involved in transmission of pain stimuli. [8][9][10] Recent studies with a number of herbal extracts have shown promising results. It has been shown that these compounds isolated from various medicinal plants express their antiinflammatory activities by down regulating expression of several crucial proinflammatory mediators like inducible NO synthase (iNOS), PGs, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), TNF-α and IL-10. ...
... It has been shown that these compounds isolated from various medicinal plants express their antiinflammatory activities by down regulating expression of several crucial proinflammatory mediators like inducible NO synthase (iNOS), PGs, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), TNF-α and IL-10. [3,9,10] Due to the adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids, the search is on for new drugs with lesser side effects. Many valuable drugs of today (e.g., atropine, ephedrine, tubocurarine, digoxin, reserpine, aspirin, vincristine, morphine, and quinidine) came into use through the study of herbal and indigenous remedies. ...
... The number of writhes (characterized by contraction of the abdominal musculature and extension of the hind limbs) was then counted for 20 min. [9,10] ...
... Extracts of C. ternatea roots and leaves have been reported to demonstrate anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities (Devi et al., 2003;Parimaladevi et al., 2004;Bhatia et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2018). Oral administration of the methanolic root extracts and ethanolic floral extracts of C. ternatea was Porcine α-amylase assay Significant α-amylase inhibition, reduction in glucose release, hydrolysis index and glycemic index Chusak et al., 2018a reported to significantly inhibit carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats (Devi et al., 2003;Singh et al., 2018). ...
... Extracts of C. ternatea roots and leaves have been reported to demonstrate anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities (Devi et al., 2003;Parimaladevi et al., 2004;Bhatia et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2018). Oral administration of the methanolic root extracts and ethanolic floral extracts of C. ternatea was Porcine α-amylase assay Significant α-amylase inhibition, reduction in glucose release, hydrolysis index and glycemic index Chusak et al., 2018a reported to significantly inhibit carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats (Devi et al., 2003;Singh et al., 2018). Results with an oral dosage of 400 mg extract per kg body weight were on par with a 20 mg/kg oral dosage of diclofenac sodium (Devi et al., 2003), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. ...
... Oral administration of the methanolic root extracts and ethanolic floral extracts of C. ternatea was Porcine α-amylase assay Significant α-amylase inhibition, reduction in glucose release, hydrolysis index and glycemic index Chusak et al., 2018a reported to significantly inhibit carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats (Devi et al., 2003;Singh et al., 2018). Results with an oral dosage of 400 mg extract per kg body weight were on par with a 20 mg/kg oral dosage of diclofenac sodium (Devi et al., 2003), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. In an antipyretic study, oral administration of C. ternatea methanolic root extracts significantly reduced the body temperature of Wistar rats that had yeast-induced elevated body temperature (Parimaladevi et al., 2004). ...
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The perennial leguminous herb Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) has attracted significant interest based on its agricultural and medical applications, which range from use as a fodder and nitrogen fixing crop, to applications in food coloring and cosmetics, traditional medicine and as a source of an eco-friendly insecticide. In this article we provide a broad multidisciplinary review that includes descriptions of the physical appearance, distribution, taxonomy, habitat, growth and propagation, phytochemical composition and applications of this plant. Notable amongst its repertoire of chemical components are anthocyanins which give C. ternatea flowers their characteristic blue color, and cyclotides, ultra-stable macrocyclic peptides that are present in all tissues of this plant. The latter are potent insecticidal molecules and are implicated as the bioactive agents in a plant extract used commercially as an insecticide. We include a description of the genetic origin of these peptides, which interestingly involve the co-option of an ancestral albumin gene to produce the cyclotide precursor protein. The biosynthesis step in which the cyclic peptide backbone is formed involves an asparaginyl endopeptidase, of which in C. ternatea is known as butelase-1. This enzyme is highly efficient in peptide ligation and has been the focus of many recent studies on peptide ligation and cyclization for biotechnological applications. The article concludes with some suggestions for future studies on this plant, including the need to explore possible synergies between the various peptidic and non-peptidic phytochemicals.
... It is a perennial herb found in India, China, Philippines and Madagascar. It is widely found in the humid, low land tropics, occurring naturally as well as in cultivated form (Devi et al. 2003, Gupta et al. 2010. Varieties (white-flower and blue flower) of C. ternatea are found in India, China, Madagascar and Philippines. ...
... In Ayurvedic system of medicine, it has been used as a memory enhancer, nootropic, antistress, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, tranquilizing and sedative agent (Jain et al. 2003, Mukherjee et al. 2008. Several studies have been carried out to explore the medicinal properties likes anthelmintic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, Immunomodulatory, anti-histaminic; cholinergic activity of C. ternatea (Devi et al. 2003, Chauhan et al. 2012. ...
... C. ternatea has shown significant antioxidative properties which were found to be comparable with standard antioxidants used in the study (Rao et al. 2009). Several workers reported its medicinal value such as anti-imflammatory (Devi et al. 2003), anti-oxidant (Sarumathy et al. 2011), immunomodulatory, hypoprotective (Daisy et al. 2004, Solanki & Jain 2011) etc. Sarumathy et al. (2011 prepared an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of C. ternatea and subjected it to GC-MS analysis. Seven compounds wereidentified in this plant by GC-MS viz., n-hexadecanoic acid (48.77), 1butanol, 3-methyl-acetate (30.27), propane, 1,1,3-triethoxy-( 3.92), Z, Z, Z-1, 4, 6, 9-nonadecatetraene (4.60), undecanoic acid (2.80), 3-trifluoroacetoxy pentadecane (3.59) and 4-ethyl -5-octyl-2, 2-bis(trifluoromethyl)cis 1, 3 -dioxalone -(6.05) through coupled GC-mass spectroscopy. ...
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Clitoria ternatea is a perennial herb of India which is reported to possess several therapeutic properties. It is also found in China, Philippines and Madagascar. It is a vigorous, persistent, herbaceous perennial legume. Most of the plant parts are reported to possess therapeutic properties. In the traditional system of medicine, Clitoria ternatea has been utilized for treatment of worm infestation, infertility, skin problems, tonsillitis, cough, asthma traditionally etc. In the present study, fifty percent hydromethanolic extract of leaf of Clitoria ternatea (CTE) was prepared and subjected to various biochemical qualitative tests and GC-MS analysis to detect the presence of various phytoconstituents in CTE. Biochemical tests confirmed the presence of various phytochemicals viz., saponins, resins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, etc. GC-MS analysis revealed the occurrence of thirty compounds in CTE. The main phyto-composition of Clitoria ternatea is predicted to be Butyl-2-methyl-propylphthalate (20.11%), Butyl-2-methylpropylphthalate (10.39%), Butylocty-lphthalate (11.29%), Diisononylphthalate (3.54%) etc., whereas, Butyl-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate was major phytoconstituents with 30.19% of total constituents. Thus it could be inferred that the therapeutic potential of CTE is because of different phytochemicals present in the extract prepared.
... Aδ and C fibers are the primary nociceptive neurons involved in transmission of pain stimuli. [8][9][10] Recent studies with a number of herbal extracts have shown promising results. It has been shown that these compounds isolated from various medicinal plants express their antiinflammatory activities by down regulating expression of several crucial proinflammatory mediators like inducible NO synthase (iNOS), PGs, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), TNF-α and IL-10. ...
... It has been shown that these compounds isolated from various medicinal plants express their antiinflammatory activities by down regulating expression of several crucial proinflammatory mediators like inducible NO synthase (iNOS), PGs, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), TNF-α and IL-10. [3,9,10] Due to the adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids, the search is on for new drugs with lesser side effects. Many valuable drugs of today (e.g., atropine, ephedrine, tubocurarine, digoxin, reserpine, aspirin, vincristine, morphine, and quinidine) came into use through the study of herbal and indigenous remedies. ...
... The number of writhes (characterized by contraction of the abdominal musculature and extension of the hind limbs) was then counted for 20 min. [9,10] ...
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Objective: Extracts of the root of Calotropis gigantea (family: Apocynaceae) have been used as a natural therapeutic agent in traditional medicine to treat inflammation and pain. This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of C. gigantea root (MECG). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of MECG was evaluated using formalin-induced pain and glutamate-induced paw licking models. Antagonism of opioid receptors using naloxone was used to determine the involvement of central pathways of pain. The acute inflammation was measured by carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema models. Cyclooxygenase (COX) assay was carried out to determine the action of MECG on prostaglandins (PGs). Results: MECG 200 mg/kg dose was found to produce a significant (P < 0.001) and dose-dependent analgesic activity in the models used. MECG caused significant inhibition of edema in the carrageenan and dextran-induced inflammation tests. MECG was found to reduce the expression of COX, thus confirming the inhibitory action of MECG on PGs. Conclusion: The findings suggest that MECG possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms. The results justify its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
... CT does possess anti-inflammatory activities. In a study, antiinflammatory effects were found to have in the methanolic extraction of CT roots (@200 mg/kg and 400 mg/ kg) in rats as CT inhibits acetic acid induced rat paw oedema (Parimala et al., 2003) [36] . Anti-inflammatory activity was also shown in the ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of CT (Suganya et al., 2014) [37] . ...
... CT does possess anti-inflammatory activities. In a study, antiinflammatory effects were found to have in the methanolic extraction of CT roots (@200 mg/kg and 400 mg/ kg) in rats as CT inhibits acetic acid induced rat paw oedema (Parimala et al., 2003) [36] . Anti-inflammatory activity was also shown in the ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of CT (Suganya et al., 2014) [37] . ...
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Dyes and Food Colorings play an important role in the Food Industry. A trend was seen at that time for using natural dyes instead of artificial dyes. A natural dye can be extracted from Clitoria ternatea (CT/Blue pea) flower because of its vivid blue color. The reason for this deep blue color is because of the Anthocyanin compounds contained in the flower. Clitoria ternatea extraction was obtained through different methods and they vary with their manufacturing process. This plant was widely used in traditional medicine because it is rich in bioactive compounds. In treating diabetics, blood pressure, retinal damage, edema, and indigestion both the aerial and underground parts of this plant are being used. Researchers proved this plant's medicinal activities such as nootropic activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. Currently, this plant's uses are widely spread in the nanotechnology field as well.
... Blue pea is a perennial herb found in India, Madagascar, China and Philippines. It is broadly originate in the low land tropics, humid, occurring naturally and in cultivated form (Devi et al. 2003, Gupta et al. 2010 [6,9] . White and blue flower of butterfly pea are found in India, China, Madagascar and Philippines. ...
... Blue pea is a perennial herb found in India, Madagascar, China and Philippines. It is broadly originate in the low land tropics, humid, occurring naturally and in cultivated form (Devi et al. 2003, Gupta et al. 2010 [6,9] . White and blue flower of butterfly pea are found in India, China, Madagascar and Philippines. ...
Research
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The present study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of the Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp and Clitoria ternatea flower (blue) extract obtained by methanol solvent. The extracts were evaluated antioxidant activity by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and antimicrobial activity through well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of mangosteen pericarp extract was recorded highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (11mm) while butterfly pea flower extract was recorded highest inhibition against E. coli (12mm). Manosteen extract and butterfly pea extract were observed to have high-quality antioxidant activity. The IC50 values of mangosteen extract was 51.53 μg/ml and butterfly extract was 92.42μg/ml evaluated. Based from the results methanol was proper solvent to extract the antioxidant antimicrobial compounds form Clitoria ternatea and mangosteen.
... 14 C. ternatea has been known for its property as antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. 15 The root of the plant contains a flavonol glycoside, which has a strong antibacterial effect. 16 The flower and seed parts of C. ternatea contain an active peptide compound, cliotide, which functions as a strong antimicrobial agent. ...
... 10 Flowers from C. ternatea contain methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane, and aqueous. 15 Despite the beneficial properties of C. ternatea, very few studies have examined its potential against pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. ternatea flower juice against biofilms of P. gingivalis. ...
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Introduction: Clitoria ternatea flower contains flavonoid such as anthocyanin that gives the blue color to its flower and has antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flower juice of Clitoria ternatea against Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm viability in vitro. Methods: This study was experimental laboratory research using biofilm assay method. P. gingivalis was cultured in BHI broth in 37°C for 24h under anaerobic condition. Fresh flowers of Clitoria ternatea were extracted using mortar and pestle and diluted into 6 different concentrations: 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as positive control and biofilm without treatment as negative control. The flower juice was distributed into 96 well-plates that contained biofilm of P. gingivalis and incubated for 1h, 3h, 6h, and 24h in 37°C, anaerobic atmosphere. Biofilm was measured using crystal violet dye with microplate reader (490 nm). Data were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA test and Post Hoc test with p<0.05 was set as significant different. Result: Result showed that Clitoria ternatea flower juice significantly reduced the Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm viability in all concentration and all incubation time. The most effective concentration to inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm was 100% in 1h incubation time which biofilm was diminished (Optical Density=0.00). One way ANOVA test and Post Hoc test showed a significant biofilm reduction in all concentration and all incubation time after treatment with the flower juice compared to control (p<0.05). Conclusion: Clitoria ternatea flower juice has antibiofilm effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis. This result showed this flower juice may be useful for combating periodontal pathogens. However, further studies using other bacteria are still needed to confirm this result.
... The anthocyanins and delphinidin glucoside present in blue flowered variety [23]. Pharmacologically it is reported for improved cognitive abilities, learning and memory, neuronal degenerative disorders [24][25][26][27]; nootropic and anticonvulsant activities [28]; antimicrobial and insecticidal [29][30]; antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory [31][32]; antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, [33] and platelet aggregation inhibitory [34] activities. The detailed pharmacognostic study of two varieties of C. ternatea viz. ...
... Ethnobotanically, it is used in various urinary troubles like infection, burning sensation in urinary track, lack of urination, frequent urination (Singh et al., 2010) and also reported for purification after surgical removal of tumor (Das et al., 2003). Pharmacologically, it is reported for improved cognitive abilities, memory and learning, neuronal degenerative disorders (Rai et al., 2000), nootropic and anticonvulsant activities (Rai et al., 2005), antimicrobial and insecticidal (Yadava et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (Parimaladevi et al., 2004), antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective (Devi et al., 2003) and platelet aggregation inhibitory (Zingare et al., 2013) activities, anthelmintic (Salhan et al. 2011). The plant contains several secondary metabolites such as Kaempferol and its glucoside-clitorin, taraxerol and a lactone aparajitin (Barik et al., 2007). ...
Article
Pharmacognostic screening is the first and foremost step to determine identity and to assess the quality and purity of the crude drug. The genus “Clitoria” includes about 48 species under the family “Fabaceae”. Clitoria ternatea Linn. isa traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant commonly known as “Aparajita”, “Butterfly pea” and also “Shankhapushpi”, is found all over India. Clitoria ternatea Linn. have reported to possess a number of pharmacological activities such as nootropic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic and antidote to animal stings. The present study provided the scientific data for the proper identification and establishment of standards for the Clitoria ternatea Linn. The pharmacognostic screening were focused on macroscopic, qualitative and quantitative microscopy, powder behavior, physico-chemical parameters, quantitative estimation of primary and secondary metabolites and also the TLC profile. The plant extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis for screening of medical constituents. Establishing standard is an essential step to identify the quality and purity of the drug. The study establishes the pharmacognostical standards of the crude drug and helps to differentiate the plant sample from the adulterants. Keywords: Clitoria ternatea Linn., Fabaceae, Pharmacognosy, Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis, Phytochemical screening, TLC profile.
... Clitoria ternatea Linn (Fabaceae) is a high nutrient legume that is widely used as a cattle fodder plant in many regions (Gomez and Kalamani, 2003). All components of the plant (roots, seedlings, and leaves) are used for medicinal purpose and have been found to improve cognitive performance and reduce dementia, cure respiratory illnesses including asthma and bronchitis, reduce inflammation, and work as a laxative and diuretic (Devi et al., 2003;Jain et al., 2003). Numerous investigations on the therapeutic characteristics of this plant have been done, with much of this study focusing on the study of C. ternatea neurological function. ...
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Many people around the world believed that herbal tea had a lot of antioxidants contained in it, thus it was widely drunk all over the world. However, the antioxidant capacities of herbal tea may be various because it is affected by the usage of different plants as its primary ingredient. As a result, this study examines the antioxidant activity of herbal tea made from dried Citrus sp. and Clitoria ternatea flower petals. The antioxidant potential was assessed by performing a DPPH and H2O2 scavenging activity assay on 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity assay, total phenolic, and flavonoid content assay, ABTS reduction, and FRAP assay. This study showed that pure telang (Clitoria ternatea) herbal tea has antioxidant properties. Dried Telang (Clitoria ternatea) tea had the highest activity of antioxidants as we refer to the results of it had the highest activity value in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay and also had the lowest IC-50 value. Followed by TEMON infusion which showed the second-highest antioxidant activity after pure telang infusion. The decrease in antioxidant activity in the mixture of telang and lemon was due to the mixture of lemons which tended to have the lowest antioxidant activity among the three types of infusions tested. The addition of dried lemon has the aim of enhancing the flavor of the tea infusion.
... Different parts of the C.ternatea were also found to have high levels of phenolic and antioxidant contents [30]. Several studies have reported that phenolic compounds acts as a potent iron-chelating, antiinflammatory, nutrigenomic epigenetic antioxidants [31,32]. e phenolic compound such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, myricetin, coumarins, and lignans [33,31], present in CT extract may have different functional properties such as scavenging of ROS [34,12], inhibiting the generation of free radicals and chain-breaking antioxidant activity [35]. ...
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In the present study catecholaminergic neurotoxin MPTP was used to lesion dopaminergic pathways in the experimental animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). e main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of Clitorea ternatea (CT) on biomarkeres of Parkinson's disease in mice. Swiss albino mice (adult male) were divided into control group, MPTP-treated group (30 mg/kg body weight, i.p in 0.9% saline, single dose), CTE treated groups (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) after MPTP exposure for 21 days. Striatal total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum and striatal xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, the marker of oxidative stress, and the DNA repair enzyme PARP (poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase) were estimated. ere was a significant increase (p<0.05) in XO and PARP activities and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in TAC with MPTP treatment. CT treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced these changes showing a significant neuronal protection. MPTP-challenged mice treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg of CT indicated significant neuronal protection by decreasing the XO and PARP activities. MPTP challenged mice treated with CT restored the TAC level significantly (p<0.05). Comparatively CT treatment at higher dose (400 mg/kg) was more effective in neuronal protection as indicated by biochemical parameters. In conclusion, CT extract enriched with bioflavonoids showed a significant neuroprotective effect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in mice by decreasing XO and PARP activities in and increasing TAC activity.
... The effect lasted up to 5 hours after the drug administration. The antipyretic effect shown by the methanolic extract of the plant can be compared to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt.) which is a well-known standard antipyretic agent [12] . ...
... The whole plant and seed extracts are used for stomatitis, hematemesis, insomnia, epilepsy, psychosis, purgative, cathartic [10,11]. The roots and root bark possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic, laxative properties [10,12]. The leaves are mainly used for the treatment of nostalgia and eruptions. ...
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Objective: The present study aims at the investigation of antioxidant activities both by qualitative (thin-layer chromatography [TLC] bioautography) and quantitative (in vitro) methods and thereby comparison of the same in different parts of the plants of Clitoria ternatea (Fabaceae). Methods: Leaves, stems, and seeds were macerated with methanol separately and preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. The extracts were developed using two mobile phase combinations such as Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5:4:0.2) for test 1 and toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (5:3:2) for test 2 on silica gel GF254 TLC plates and further sprayed with DPPH. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were assayed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH method with the different concentrations of test extracts (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/ml) and standard ascorbic acid. Results: The methanolic extract of the leaves, stems, and seeds revealed to possess chiefly alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids and have shown promising antioxidant activity by all the methods in dose-dependent manner. Leaves were found to be most potent having IC50 value of 111.652 µg/ml and 106.683 µg/ml which is almost similar to the stems (IC50 of 111.685 µg/ml and 106.26 µg/ml), respectively, in DPPH method and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Seeds failed to produce any significant activity in any of the methods performed. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of leaves and stems can act as a potential antioxidant and antiradical, which are highly comparable with standard.
... The effect lasted up to 5 hours after the drug administration. The antipyretic effect shown by the methanolic extract of the plant can be compared to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt.) which is a well-known standard antipyretic agent [12] . ...
... Anti-inflammatory activity of polyherbal formulation "Jatyadi Ghrita", the ingredients of Jatyadi Ghrita are Jasmine officinale, Azadirachta indica, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Rubia cordifolia, Trichosanthes dioica, Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Randia spinosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Cow's ghee 26 . Trichosanthes dioica (TSD) was studied for Anti inflammatory activity in different in vivo methods as Carrageenininduced rat paw oedema and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats 27 . ...
... In several countries it is also utilized as livestock (Gomez and Kalamani, 2003). The biological activity of C. ternatea, was reported as follows: improvement of cognitive function, reduction of dementia, treatment of bronchitis and asthma, diuretic actions, and insecticidal and antimicrobial activity (Devi et al., 2003). However, the other activities of the flowers are little known, except that the flowers are a source of flavonoids and anthocyanins (Kazuma et al., 2003). ...
Article
The present study explored the total phenolic contents, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic activities of four Indonesian plants, namely Theobroma cacao pod husk (yellow variant and purple variant of pod husk), Annona muricata leaves, and Clitoria ternatea flower. Antioxidant properties of the extracts and fractions were evaluated using a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) assay, and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the microdilution method using resazurin as a colouring agent. The antidiabetic assay was performed by an α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using a glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results revealed that the pod husk extract of T. cacao of both variants (yellow and purple) had good antioxidant activity and antidiabetic activity with IC50 as of 41.3 and 44.5 μg/ml for the DPPH assay, and 41.6 and 27.7 μg/ml for the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. Meanwhile, for antibacterial test, T. cacao pod husk of both variants also possessed the most active extracts with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) as of 0.62 mg/mL against S. aureus. Moreover, the FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis suggested the presence of phenolic molecules containing in the extracts. This study revealed that T. cacao pod husk could be a potentially rich source of naturally occurring antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic medicine.
... Roots of Clitoria ternatea are used in treatment of scorpion bites. Analgesic and antiinflammatory, [78] antihistaminic, antipyretic, antioxidant, respiratory protective and neuroprotective [79] properties of roots are proven scientifically. ...
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Scorpions use their sting as a defensive weapon or as a mechanism to incapacitate prey. The scorpion sting possesses venom and the character of the poison depends on the scorpion species. Some may lead to death. Ayurveda and Sri Lankan traditional physicians treat scorpion sting by administering medicines internally and externally, in various forms. Data was gathered from Ayurveda and Sri Lankan traditional medical books, through interviewing physicians, research journals and internet. Herbs, minerals and animal sources are used to treat scorpion sting. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antioxidant, cardioproective, respiratory protective, neuroprotective properties and anti-scorpion venom activity of these ingredients are scientifically proven. Due to these properties, these ingredients are capable of overcoming the symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, itching, spasms, neurotoxicity and also cardiac and respiratory failure occurring through scorpion sting. It is concluded that Ayurveda and Sri Lankan traditional physicians possess multi-faceted, effective treatment methods for scorpion stings which can be scientifically proven.
... The present study was carried out to evaluate the antiinflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of C. ternatea based on the reports that C. ternatea possesses antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity (Mukherjee, Kumar, Kumar, & Heinrich, 2008;Devi, Boominathan, & Mandal, 2003). Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disease characterized by swelling, pain and injuries of cartilage, synovial membrane, tendons, muscles and bone. ...
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Objective Clitoria ternatea is a well-known bioactive plant used to treat several inflammatory ailments in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. The present investigation aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea roots (EECT) in animal models. Methods The anti-inflammatory activity of the EECT was evaluated by carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema. Results EECT showed a significant reduction in mean paw edema volume in both carrageenan and histamine-induced inflammation. The efficacy of EECT in rheumatoid arthritis was tested against Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritic model in Wistar rats. The anti-arthritic effect of EECT was determined by systematic scoring of arthritis symptoms and measuring paw edema. A considerable decrease in paw diameter was observed in the EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg) treated groups after day 7. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg) and EECT (400 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in paw diameter from day 14 compared with CFA control (P < 0.001). The anti-arthritic activity was also confirmed from the altered biochemical, haematological (Hb, RBC and WBC) and anti-oxidant parameters (SOD, MDA, CAT, and GSH). EECT (400 and 200 mg/kg) also showed a marked inhibition of joint destruction. Conclusion This study provides a pharmacological rationale for the traditional use of C. ternatea against inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis in India.
... (11). Clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats (12) In our study the ethanoloic extracts of Clitoria ternatea flower showed potential anti-diabetic activity at a dose of 400mg/kg level. Previous studies showed, Antihyperglycenmic Clitorea ternatea showed antihyperglycenmic activity (13). ...
... Antipyretic activity (17,18) Fourteen groups of (6 rats/group) were used and the rectal temperature was recorded with a thermometer. Hyperthermia was induced at first by subcutaneous injection 20% (w/v) aqueous suspension of yeast in a volume of 10 ml/kg. ...
... In traditional Ayurvedic medicine, it has been used to treat infertility, urinogenital disorder, bronchitis, purgative and diuretic 17,18,19,20 . A recent study showed that it has anti-hyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic 21 , anti-inflammatory 22 and antihelminthic 23 activities. ...
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Objective: To investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of leaf and fruit of Trichosanthes dioica and leaf of Clitoria ternatea were studied on the altered non-enzymatic antioxidant system such as reduced glutathione (GSH), Vitamin E, C and A in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: Male adult Wistar albino rats divided into eleven groups of six rats each were assigned to non-diabetic and diabetic groups (Group I to XI). Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight), on confirming diabetes after 48 h of injection. Group I and II were kept as non-diabetic and diabetic control. The other diabetic groups (Group III to Group X) were treated with both individual and combined ethanolic extracts of T. dioica and C. ternatea at the doses of 200, and 400 mg/kg of body weight were administrated orally at a single dose per day for 28 consecutive days. Group XI was treated with Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg body weight), a standard oral hypoglycemic drug used as a reference drug for comparison. After completion of experimental period serum, liver and kidney were used for estimating GSH, plasma, and liver for estimating Vitamin E, C and A, and pancreas, liver and kidney were used for histopathological changes in the diabetic rats. Results: A significant increase in GSH, Vitamin E, C and A levels were observed in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extracts of T. dioica (leaf and fruit) and C. ternatea (leaf) compared to diabetic control rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas, liver and kidney damage and confirmed the biochemical findings. Conclusion: These results suggest that T. dioica and C. ternatea are beneficial in the control of diabetes by the noticeable antioxidant property.
... (11). Clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats (12) In our study the ethanoloic extracts of Clitoria ternatea flower showed potential anti-diabetic activity at a dose of 400mg/kg level. Previous studies showed, Antihyperglycenmic Clitorea ternatea showed antihyperglycenmic activity (13). ...
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To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic potential of extracts Clitoria ternate flower (CTF) AND Tribulus terristris seed (TTS) by in-vivo pharmacological models using rats. Ternate flower (CTF) AND Tribulus terristris seed (TTS). Extraction by cold maceration techniques using hydro-alcoholic solvent. Evaluation of chemical constituents by various chemical tests. Acute toxicity studies as per OECD guidelines and calculation of ED 50 Anti-inflammatory activity by Carragenan induced rat paw models. Anti-diabetic activity by Alloxon induced diabetes in rats. Statistical analysis by Students t Test. Extraction by Cold Maceration method. Estimation of Phytochemicals by various chemical tests.(3) Acute Toxicity studies by OECD guidelines and dose selected were 200mg and 400mg/kg(4) Phytoconstituents are mostly presents in the Clitoria terneta flower and photosterols and flavonoids are not present in the Tribulus tertaris seed which are highly present in Clitoria terneta flower.Anti-inflammatory Activity of Clitoria ternata flower and Tribulus terristris seed highly seen in group III and V of CTF AND TFS. Least amount present in group II of 39% in CTF and 45% of group IV in TTS..Anti-diabetic Activity of Clitoria ternata flower and Tribulus terristris seed values are Mean ± SEM of Six Animals. Statistical Significance: a = p < 0.001 and b = p < 0.05 as compared to control From the acute toxicity studies the ED 50 of the extract were fixes as 200 and 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity of both CTF & TTS were calculated by in-vivo methods using rat models. The 400mg/kg of both Clitoria ternata flower (CTF) and Tribulus terristris seed (TTS) extracts showed potential anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity. Further studies are required for structural elucidation of the active component(s) involved in the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of Tribulus terrestris L. and Clitoria ternate *Corresponding Author
... Anti-inflammatory activity of polyherbal formulation "Jatyadi Ghrita", the ingredients of Jatyadi Ghrita are Jasmine officinale, Azadirachta indica, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Rubia cordifolia, Trichosanthes dioica, Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Randia spinosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Cow's ghee 26 . Trichosanthes dioica (TSD) was studied for Anti inflammatory activity in different in vivo methods as Carrageenininduced rat paw oedema and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats 27 . ...
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The genus Trichosanthes L. of the family Cucurbitaceae is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. The herb has been used for overcoming problems like constipation, fever, skin infection, wounds etc. According to ayurveda leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The present review describes the morphological and pharmacological aspects of T. dioica and summarizes the most interesting findings obtained in the preclinical research related to the plant.
... [15] It enhances memory [16] and increases acetylcholine content in rats. [17] Its nootropic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, [18] antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, [19] antidiabetic, [20] antiasthamatic [21] and hepatoprotective [22] properties are also reported. Since a systematic study of its antidiarrheal activity has not been undertaken, this study was done to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of C. ternatea ethanol extract (CTE) in rats. ...
Article
Background: Clitorea ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) is a plant which is traditionally used for the treatment of wide range of pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, local anesthetic, antidiabetic, insecticidal, blood platelet aggregation-inhibiting and diarrhea in India. However, scientific evidence does not exist in any literature to corroborate the claim of therapeutic success of the plant species in diarrhea. Aim of the study: The core aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of C. ternatea ethanol extract (CTE). Materials and methods: The antidiarrheal activity was evaluated using castor oil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)-induced diarrhea method. The effects of CTE on gastrointestinal motility, intestinal transit and enteropooling were also examined in rats. Results: CTE (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05-0.01) protection of rats against castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhea, inhibited intestinal transit and delayed gastric emptying. CTE dose dependently and significantly delayed the onset of castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhea, decreased the frequency of defecation and reduced the severity of diarrhea in the rats compared with loperamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: These findings confirm the ethno medicinal use of C. ternatea as a valuable natural remedy for the treatment, management and/or control of diarrhea.
... Moreover, the extract exhibited a significant inhibition in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. In the acetic acid-induced writhing response, the extract markedly reduced the number of writhings at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg po in mice [204]. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Clitoria ternatea flower extract were carried out in rats (carrageenan paw edema) and mice (hot plate). ...
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The pharmacological studies showed that many medicinal plant possessed antiinflammatory activity. Biochemical and molecular investigations revealed that the anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants and plant-derived compounds were related to their interactions with several key enzymes, signaling cascades involving cytokines and regulatory transcription factors, and to their antioxidant effects. The current review highlighted the medicinal plants possessed antiinflammatory effects with special focus on their mode of action.
... In Indian traditional medicine, CT is an herbal medicine known for the treatment of neurological disorders and considered to enhance human intellect (Mukherjee et al., 2008). CT has been shown to have a number of pharmacological activities such as possessing nootropic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antistress (Jain et al., 2003), antiasthmatic (Taur and Patil, 2011), antipyretic, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities (Parimaladevi et al., 2003). The root of CT has been reported to improve learning ability, enhance memory and increase acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats (Rai et al., 2001(Rai et al., , 2002Taranalli and Cheeramkuczhi, 2000). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. Aim of the study: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model. Materials and methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-300g) were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries (PBOCCA) or sham operation. Then, these rats were given oral administration of CT root extract at doses of 100, 200 or 300mg/kg on day 28 post-surgery and tested using behavioural tests (open-field test, passive avoidance task, and Morris water maze) and electrophysiological recordings (under urethane anaesthesia). Results: Treatment with CT root extract at the doses of 200 and 300mg/kg resulted in a significant enhancement in memory performance in CCH rats induced by PBOCCA. Furthermore, CCH resulted in inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) formation in the hippocampus, and CT root extract rescued the LTP impairment. The CT root extract was confirmed to improve the glutamate-induced calcium increase via calcium imaging using primary cultured rat neurons. No significance difference was found in the CaMKII expression. These results demonstrated that CT root extract ameliorates synaptic function, which may contribute to its improving effect on cognitive behaviour. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated an improving effect of CT root extract on memory in the CCH rat model suggesting that CT root extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of cognitive deterioration in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.
... The roots of C. ternatea have bitter taste with purgative, laxative and diuretic properties commonly used in the treatment of indigestion, constipation, fever, arthritis and eye ailments . The root extracts have been reported to exhibit analgesic, anti-pyretic, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, anti-convulsant, anti-stress, anti-diarrheal and anti-asthmatic properties (Devi et al., 2003;Jain et al., 2003;Taur & Patil, 2011). C. ternatea is also used as a brain tonic in the Indian traditional medicine and is believed to promote better memory and intelligence (Gomez & Kalamani, 2003). ...
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Clitoria ternatea L., or commonly known as butterfly pea, from the family of Fabaceae, is a perennial medicinal plant. Its flower which is deep blue or white in colour is commonly used as a natural food colorant. The plant originates from tropical Asia and known to possess essential bioactive compounds where the extracts from its roots, leaves and seeds are used in the phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical investigations for therapeutic drug development. The root extracts have been reported to exhibit analgesic, anti-pyretic, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, anti-convulsant, anti-stress, anti-diarrheal, anti-asthmatic and most importantly, in the treatment of central nervous system disorders. The root extracts have shown memory enhancing properties in neonatal rats. The aim of the study was to induce roots from the seedling explants of Clitoria ternatea L. for the establishment of a root suspension culture system that could function as efficient alternative to the ex-vitro plants from the soil for harvesting of medicinal secondary metabolites. The sterilized seeds of Clitoria ternatea L. were germinated on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the cotyledon and hypocotyl from the 7 - 8 days old seedlings were placed in the media supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at different concentrations. It was evident that NAA was the potential growth hormone for root induction in Clitoria ternatea L. The cotyledon explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of root induction (70%) while 1 mg/L NAA produced the highest average number of roots from cotyledon explants. The study provided an efficient protocol for the induction of roots and callus from Clitoria ternatea L.
... Clitoria ternatea has been reported for nootropic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant [33], anti-diabetic [34], and antipyretic, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities [35], among others. It enhances the memory [36] and increases acetylcholine content in rats [37] as well as antidepressant activity [38]. ...
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Depression refers to a state of low mood and aversion to activity characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and concentration. The reasons for the disease include stimulation of MAO-A, inhibition of NA and 5-HT. Symptoms include the diminished interest of pleasure, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, a decrease in appetite and libido, insomnia, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. There are plenty of synthetic drugs used to treat depression but not enough blissful for patients, moreover, these synthetic drugs have potential side effects. After decades of serious obsession with the modern medicinal system, people have started looking at the ancient healing systems like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Many scientists are researching plant material for treating this disorder and there are lots of publications on it. But this is not sufficient for treating depression; further outcome should come into light that’s the purpose of our review.
... Extracts of C. ternatea has been used since time immemorial to treat mental disorders since it has property of being a good nervine tonic [8]. There are reports on callus induction and antimicrobial activity of seed and callus extracts of C. ternatea L. [9,10]. ...
Article
Objective: Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Extracts of plants and herbs such as Clitorea ternatea are used as diuretic. This work attempts to find out antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of C. ternatea roots against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans.Methods: The agar well-diffusion method was done using Mueller Hinton agar and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. The microorganism grown in peptone water was inoculated into culture medium. 4 mm diameter well punched into the agar was filled with 20 μl of aqueous and alcoholic root extracts C. ternatea extracts in various concentrations (100-25 μg/ml). The plates were incubated and antimicrobial activity was evaluated.Results: Aqueous root extract of C. ternatea with the concentration of 100 μg/ml showed zone of inhibition against E. coli (ATCC 25922) 18 mm, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) 14 mm, multidrug resistant strain of K. pneumoniae 15 mm. Alcoholic extract of C. ternatea with the concentration of 100 μg/ml showed zone of inhibition of 35 mm against E. coli (ATCC 25922), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) 22 mm, and multidrug resistant strain of K. pneumoniae 28 mm. C. albicanswas resistant to both extract of C. ternatea root. Conclusions: Alcoholic extract of C. ternatea is a better antibacterial agent against multidrug resistant Klebsiella species and other Gram-negative pathogens. Further, studies are required to identify active substances from the alcoholic extracts of C. ternatea for treating infections.
... While the second group injected by 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution in the same location and served as carrageenan positive group. The standard group received a commercial fenoprofen calcium dihydrate product (Nalfosab ® Capsules, Sabaa Company, Alexandria, Egypt) in a dose equivalent to 45 mg/kg fenoprofen calcium dihydrate orally [32][33][34][35][36]. In the test groups, the three formulae were administrated orally using the same dose of fenoprofen calcium dihydrate given to the standard group [37]. ...
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Background: Fenoprofen calcium dehydrate (FCD) is counted as a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic drug. FCD is slightly water soluble. It is indicated for mild pain relief, where the suggested dosage is 200 mg orally every 4 to 6 h. Aim: Reduce dissolution efficiency, reach an extended therapeutic effect and reduce the frequency of the drug side effects. Method: Combination of the co-evaporated drug:triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin complex prepared in a ratio of 1:3 and either of two polymers-hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) or ethyl cellulose (EC)-in the same formulation. Invitro dissolution studies were carried in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and intestinal (pH 6.8) fluids, by using the USP dissolution tester (rotating paddle apparatus). The FCD in vitro release from EC/drug complex was markedly retarded. Interaction between fenoprofen, TA-β-CD, EC, HPMC in the solid state were confirmed by FT-IR, DSC, XRD and SEM. In vivo studies assessed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the results were compared with the market product Nalfosab(®) Capsules. Results: Remarkable inhibition of inflammation and nociception after 24 h was attained for EC/drug complex. Conclusions: EC/drug complex has a sustained effect due to high remaining amount after elapsing with remarkable inhibition of inflammation.
... It is commonly called "shankpushpi". In traditional Ayurvedic medicine, it could serve as therapeutic agents for various diseases like urinogenital disorder, bronchitis, purgative, diuretic, anthelmintic, rheumatism 10,11,12,13 , antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic 14 , anticancer activity 15 , antihelmintic 16 and neurological disorders 17 . Recent studies showed that it has hypoglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities 18,19 . ...
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Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care from ancient period. India is blessed with several herbal plants for the treatment of major and minor health problems without studying any phytochemical in detail. Plants are a rich source of bioactive constituents with interesting biological activities and are considered to be less toxic and free from side effects compared to synthetic drugs. Clitoria ternatea a valuable medicinal plant used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was to analyze the bioactive compounds from ethanolic extract of leaf of Clitoria ternatea L. by FT-IR and GC-MS techniques. The FT-IR analysis identified the functional groups such as primary alcohols, phenolics, alkane, alkynes and ketones. GC-MS revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds like -(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, (2S,5S)-2,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-one, 5,10-dihexyl-5,10-dihydroindolo (3,2-b) indole-2,7 dicarbaldehyde, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z), 2- hydroxy-1-(hydroxyl methyl) ethyl ester (CAS), neophytadiene and nonacosane (CAS). Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various bioactive compounds which are known to exhibit medicinal activities.
... The effect extended up to 5 hours after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of the extract was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt., p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent [31]. ...
... Moreover, the extract exhibited a significant inhibition in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. In the acetic acid-induced writhing response, the extract markedly reduced the number of writhings at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg po in mice (88) . The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Clitoria ternatea flower extract were carried out in rats (carrageenan paw edema) and mice (hot plate). ...
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Clitoria ternatea contained tannins, phlobatannin, carbohydrates, saponins, triterpenoids, phenols, flavanoids, flavonol glycosides, proteins, alkaloids, antharaquinone, anthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, Stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, volatile oils and steroids. The plant showed many pharmacological effects including antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, CNS, antimicrobial, gastro-intestinal antiparasitic, insecticidal and many other pharmacological effects. This Review will highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Clitoria ternatea.
... The methanol extract of Clitoria ternatea showed a significant antipyretic activity. Clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats (Devi et al., 2003). ...
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Clitoria ternatea is a twining herbal medicinal plant mostly found in Asia. Various constituents are found in different parts of the plant. The plant Clitotia ternatea is traditionally used for food coloring, stress, infertility and gonorrhea. The plant has been widely used in Ayurveda. Pharmacologically it is an anxiolytic, anti inflammatory, analgesic, anti-microbial and anti carcinogenic. It is also Cns Depressant, nephroprotective and has anti-Stress activities. Generally Clitoria ternatea has larvicidal activities, proteolytic activities, antihelmintic activities, antihyperglycenmic activity, diuretic activity, antioxidant activity, antihistaminic activity and treat goiter. As Clitoria ternatea plant has great usefulness it should be cultivated, conserve and further research should be conducted for human well being. This article will focus on pharmaco-chemical characterization of Clitoria ternatea with the traditional and pharmacological uses of Clitoria ternatea.
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Clitoria ternatea is a native plant with medicinal and nutritive significance in Asia. The goal of this work was to examine the antiproliferative role of Clitoria ternatea against colorectal (HCT116), breast (MCF-7), and thyroid (TT) cancer cell lines at cellular and molecular levels. A phytochemical analysis, the cytotoxic effect, an apoptotic induction cell cycle analysis, and the expression level of GAX, DIABLO, and NAIP1 genes were assessed. The plant extract exhibited a clear cytotoxic action against the utilized cancer cell lines via a low IC50, foremost by means of cell cycle arrest at the pre-G0, G1, and S phases associated with an apoptotic induction. An apparent raise in the mRNA levels of GAX and DIABLO and a concomitant decrease in the NAIP1 mRNA level were observed in the used cancer cells treated with the IC50 of the plant extract. This study concluded that an ethanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that it could possibly be utilized as a new source of an apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent for colon, breast, and medullary thyroid cancer cell line treatments with further detailed studies.
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Clitoria ternatea L. var. pilosula Wall. from ancient times has a place in the heart of Hindus due to its sacred value for the lord Shiva. This plant have dual significance firstly, they are promising future food secondly, these medicinal plants can have some active constituents for future pharmaceutical study. They are used in the treatment of a number of ailments including body-aches, infections, urinogenital disorders and as antihelmintic and antidote to animal stings. Establishing the standard is an essential step to identify the quality and purity of the drug. This can be achieved through the pharmacognostical and phytochemical analysis. In present study investigation of macroscopic, microscopic characters were studied along with powder behaviour, fluorescence studies and phytochemical screening etc. Fluorescence analysis showed the plant sample is free of any foreign matter and adulternants. The reaction of the leaves powder with different chemical indicated the presence of the compound such as phenol, coumarins, alkaloids, tannin, xanthoprotein and reducing sugar. The pharmacognostical study helps to reveal the purity of the sample. The study establishes the pharmacognostical and physico-chemical standards of the crude drug and helps to differentiate the plant sample from the adulterants.
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Shankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea) grown under polyhouse and open-field conditions were investigated for physicochemical parameters of their powdered samples, qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacities and development of chemical profiles using solvent extracts in methanol, hydroalcoholic and water. The two samples were similar in their physicochemical parameters except for the higher extractive yield from the open-field grown plants. Although the primary metabolites were equal in the polyhouse and field-grown, the secondary metabolites were higher in the polyhouse-grown plant samples. Methanolic extract of polyhouse-grown samples was richer in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenoids than the open-field-grown ones. The DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing activity, and total antioxidant activity, values were higher in methanolic extract of polyhouse-grown plant sample. There was a positive correlation between phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities: in the polyhouse-grown samples the total phenol content correlated with DPPH assay, while in the open-field-grown plant samples it correlated with hydroxyl radical assay.
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Background While several biologics have been reported from different parts of Clitoria ternatea, a herbaceous climber of the family Fabaceae, specific production of cationic peptides other than cyclotides (<3.7 kDa) has barely been investigated or their bioactive potential looked into. Objective To uncover potential bioactivities and characteristics of novel cationic peptides from C. ternatea seeds. Methods C. ternatea seed cationic peptide purified by simple and cost-effective procedures was analyzed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Antioxidant potential was quantified by in vitro antioxidant assays. Physicochemical characterization and Tandem mass spectrometry were performed. Results An 8.5 kDa cationic peptide purified from C. ternatea seeds was active against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli at a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 8-32 μg/ml. This activity was totally uncompromised at pH 5-8 or after 1 h of heat treatment at 70-80 ºC, but was sensitive to protease treatment. Concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing capacity demonstrated the antioxidant potential of the peptide. Tandem MS analysis of trypsin-digested peptide based on shotgun proteomics detected matching peptide sequences with one or two cysteine residues but had low sequence coverage (≤17%) to known sequences in the C. ternatea protein database. Taken together, the distinct characteristics of this novel 8.5 kDa peptide clearly distinguishes it from known cyclotides of C. ternatea. Conclusions Insights have been obtained into the functional characteristics of what appears to be a novel cationic peptide from C. ternatea seeds, exhibiting significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.
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Clitorea ternatea has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a brain stimulant to treat mental illnesses and mental functional disorders. In this study, the metabolite profiles of crude C. ternatea root extract (CTRE), ethyl acetate (EA), and 50% aqueous methanol (50% MeOH) fractions were investigated using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–DAD–MS/MS), while their effect on the stress-like behavior of zebrafish, pharmacologically induced with reserpine, was investigated. A total of 32 compounds were putatively identified, among which, a series of norneolignans, clitorienolactones, and various flavonoids (flavone, flavonol, isoflavone, and isoflavanone) was found to comprise the major constituents, particularly in the EA and 50% MeOH fractions. The clitorienolactones, presently unique to the species, were present in both the free and glycosylated forms in the roots. Both the EA and 50% MeOH fractions displayed moderate effects on the stress-induced zebrafish model, significantly decreasing freezing duration and elevating the total distance travelled and average velocity, 72 h post-treatment. The results of the present study provide further evidence that the basis for the use of C. ternatea roots in traditional medicine to alleviate brain-related conditions, such as stress and depression, is attributable to the presence of clitorienolactones and the isoflavonoidal constituents.
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Clitoriaternatea has been reported to possess various biological activities such as analgesic, anxiolyticanti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-fungal, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, nephro-protective and sedative. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate its docking behavior of eight selected constituents of Clitoriaternatea namely Nonanoic acid, Benzoic acid, Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid,2-Octanoicacid,9 Octadecanoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione against Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 and MMP 9) using Patch Dock method. In addition to this, Molecular physicochemical, Drug-likeness,ADME(Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) analyses were also carried out using mol inspiration and Swiss ADME methods respectively. The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid, and 9 Octadecanoic acid violated the five rules of thumb. About drug-likeness property, Benzoic acid exhibited a better score compared to all other ligands. Docking studies revealed that 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione has maximum interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-355.28 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (-392.21kcal/mol) and similarly Benzoic acid has exhibited the least interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-155.83 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (,-155.67 kcal/mol). As compared to the other investigated ligands,3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione and 9 Octadecanoic acids were the two ligands that showed interactions with amino acid residue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the present study outcomes might provide new insight in understanding these eight ligands, as potential candidates for MMP’s inhibitory activity. © 2021, Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, c/o Dr. Pratima Sharma. All rights reserved.
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Clitoria ternatea has been reported to possess various biological activities such as analgesic, anxiolyticanti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-fungal, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, nephro-protective and sedative. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate its docking behavior of eight selected constituents of Clitoriaternatea namely Nonanoic acid, Benzoic acid, Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid,2-Octanoicacid,9 Octadecanoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- 1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione against Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 and MMP 9) using Patch Dock method. In addition to this, Molecular physicochemical, Drug-likeness ,ADME(Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) analyses were also carried out using mol inspiration and Swiss ADME methods respectively. The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that Pentadecanoic acid, Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, Palmitic acid, and 9 Octadecanoic acid violated the five rules of thumb. About drug-likeness property, Benzoic acid exhibited a better score compared to all other ligands. Docking studies revealed that 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3- methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione has maximum interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-355.28 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (-392.21kcal/mol) and similarly Benzoic acid has exhibited the least interaction energy for both MMP 2 (-155.83 kcal/mol) and MMP 9 (,-155.67 kcal/mol). As compared to the other investigated ligands,3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)hexane-1,6-dione and 9 Octadecanoic acids were the two ligands that showed interactions with amino acid residue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the present study outcomes might provide new insight in understanding these eight ligands, as potential candidates for MMP’s inhibitory activity.
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Clitoria ternatea root is widely used in neuralgia for traditional and herbal medicine. In this study we evaluate the therapeutic strategies to accelerate the reconstruction of lost myelin sheath. The Methanolic root extract of Clitoria ternatea was tested at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg when administered orally for a period of 28 days after induction demyelination in wistar rats by giving intra cranial injection of ethidium bromide at a dose of 1µg/0.03ml of PBS/kg body weight. The efficacy was expressed in terms of behavioural studies were observed on 1 st , 2 nd and 4 th week. After 28 days the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue was subjected to histopathological and biochemical studies. The result from behavioural, histopathological and biochemical studies suggested that the Methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea root have potential protective effect on the ethidium bromide induced demyelination on wistar rats by intra cranial administration. In the pharmacological evaluation of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea root for their protective effect on demyelinated motor neuron diseases. Please cite this article in press as G. Neelamma et al. Evaluation of In Vivo Neuroprotective Effect of Root of Clitoria Ternatia Against Ethidium Bromide Induced Demyelination Rat Model.
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Backround; Fever is known as pyrexia may occur due to infection, inflammation, or any tissue damage and diseases states. Normally the infected or damaged tissue initiates the enhanced formation of pro-inflammatory mediators like cytokines which further increase the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) near hypothalamic area and thereby trigger the hypothalamus to elevate the body temperature. Objective; Antipyretics are the agents which reduce the elevated body temperature. Most commonly used antipyretic agent paracetamol may be fatal due to its side effects. Methods; In this review paper, Chemical abstract, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, were the sources to collect information regarding antipyretic activity. Results; This review compiles antipyretic plants that may be useful to treat fever which are used traditionally. These medicinal plants could be good alternatives for traditional allopathic antipyretics.
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An extension of the "squirming test" is described which makes the method specific for nonnarcotic analgesics. The intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid causes squirming and an increase in capillary permeability that is measured by direct estimation of plasma-bound dye (Pontamine Sky Blue) which has leaked into the peritoneal cavity. Nonnarcotic analgesics inhibit squirming and leakage of dye. Values for the oral ED50s for both effects are given for a number of typical compounds. Narcotic analgesics, in doses that produce analgesia, inhibit squirming but do not significantly affect leakage of dye. Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and also inhibit squirming have no significant effect on leakage of dye over the range of doses which inhibit squirming. Corticosteroids do not significantly inhibit either squirming or leakage of dye.
(x926): Amer. 07. Path., 2, 4o*. The sun is the greatest of remedies. PUNY: Natural History. Consumptive People are likewise generally observed to be very quick, full of Spirit, hasty, and of a sharp ready Wit, and are commonly very impatient, and tenacious of the least Disrespect that is shewn them
  • A Jacobs
  • W M Bortawmk
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JAcoBs, A., and BORTaWmK, W. M. (x95o): Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 43, 453. M'~DLA~, E. M. (x926): Amer. 07. Path., 2, 4o*. The sun is the greatest of remedies. PUNY: Natural History. Consumptive People are likewise generally observed to be very quick, full of Spirit, hasty, and of a sharp ready Wit, and are commonly very impatient, and tenacious of the least Disrespect that is shewn them... BENJAMIN MARTEN: A new theory of consumptions, London, 1720, p.
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  • Nadkararni
Statistical method for the analysis of biomedicinal data
  • R F Woodson