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Evaluation of a teaching certificate program for pharmacy residents

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... [1][2][3][4] American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) accreditation standards for postgraduate year one (PGY1) pharmacy residency programs include specific competencies for teaching and learning, and TLC programs are often incorporated as requirements for pharmacy residency completion in order to facilitate resident mastery of teaching-related competencies. 5 As such, the availability of programs has grown significantly over the last 15 years, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] with approximately 70 programs affiliated with schools and colleges of pharmacy throughout the United States available. 3,4 As the recruitment of qualified faculty members is vital to the ongoing success of pharmacy education, programs on TLC can play a vital role in preparing faculty members to meet these expectations. ...
... Teaching and learning curricula provide pharmacy residents and fellows with foundational teaching and scholarship exposure. [1][2][3][4][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]19 While it is important to evaluate the quality and impact of these programs, it is also necessary to seek input from employers about the value of these programs in recruiting qualified pharmacy This study is the first to evaluate the perceived value in the hiring process of a pharmacy faculty candidate having completed a TLC program. The findings highlight the importance of a candidate completing a TLC program, specifically pharmacists who are recent graduates or have less than five years of professional experience. ...
... In addition, several studies have reported that program participants also perceive the utility of TLC programs. 6,7,8,22 For example, pretest and posttest evaluations conducted by Castellani and colleagues among 10 pharmacy residents completing a TLC program found that self-reported confidence in 24 of the 30 teaching abilities evaluated had significantly increased by the end of the program. 6 Silvia and colleagues conducted a survey at the end of a seminar series for pharmacy residents and found that self-reported knowledge improved in all areas assessed. ...
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Objective. To determine the perceived value that pharmacy practice department chairs ascribe to pharmacy faculty candidates having completed a teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) program and related activities.Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was created that was intended to capture the overall impressions of pharmacy practice chairs regarding the value of TLC programs, relative importance compared to other accomplishments (eg, residency completion, board certification), and importance of specific activities. Following pilot testing and establishment of intra-rater reliability, invitations to complete the electronic survey instrument were sent to pharmacy practice chairs (or their equivalent) at accredited Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States.Results. Of the 127 pharmacy practice chairs invited, 53 completed the survey (response rate of 41.7%). The majority of respondents held a PharmD degree (90.6%), had been in their role of chair for zero to five years (60.4%), and represented a private institution (54.7%). The majority of respondents who answered the question (32 of 49) felt it was very important or important (16.3% and 49.0%, respectively) that teaching experiences be completed within a formal teaching and learning curriculum program. These programs were believed to be most important for candidates with less than five years of professional experience. Teaching and learning curriculum programs were not deemed to be more important than other accomplishments by most responders. The perceived most important TLC program activities were instruction on didactic and experiential teaching strategies, and experience developing learning objectives, developing examination items, evaluating examination results, and facilitating case conferences or practice laboratory activities.Conclusion. Teaching and learning curriculum programs may provide the foundational experiences needed for pharmacy graduates to stand out among other candidates, although department chairs' perceptions of the value of teaching and learning curriculum experiences varied.
... Integrating opportunities for PGY2 residents to provide constructive feedback to students/residents as part of their training may be accomplished through a variety of means, including teaching and learning curriculum programs (previously referred to as teaching certificate programs) and academicfocused practice experiences that offer residents the opportunity to work directly with students and/or other pharmacy residents. [8][9][10] In their survey-based study of ASHP-accredited residency programs, Stegall-Zanation et al reported that only 27% of programs offered a teaching and learning curriculum program. 11 Although the commonness of such programs may have increased since publication of this study, wide variability in content and delivery of teaching skills has been observed within these types of development programs. ...
... This is not dissimilar from published reports that detail the perceived impact of teaching certificate programs on resident teaching ability, which are more longitudinal in nature. 4,7,10 In a small survey-based study that included a blend of 10 PGY1 residents, PGY2 residents, and fellows enrolled in the teaching and learning curriculum program, Castellani et al reported a significant improvement in participants' self-reported confidence after providing feedback to students, both immediately after cessation of the program and after completion of residency/fellowship training. 10 In a larger survey-based study that included The stand-alone program described here can serve to compliment longitudinal teaching and learning curriculum programs, while affording PGY2 residents the opportunity to engage in the teaching of PGY1 residents, which is an uncommon opportunity across residency programs that do and do not offer such a curriculum program. ...
... 4,7,10 In a small survey-based study that included a blend of 10 PGY1 residents, PGY2 residents, and fellows enrolled in the teaching and learning curriculum program, Castellani et al reported a significant improvement in participants' self-reported confidence after providing feedback to students, both immediately after cessation of the program and after completion of residency/fellowship training. 10 In a larger survey-based study that included The stand-alone program described here can serve to compliment longitudinal teaching and learning curriculum programs, while affording PGY2 residents the opportunity to engage in the teaching of PGY1 residents, which is an uncommon opportunity across residency programs that do and do not offer such a curriculum program. 11 As PGY2 residents graduate and transition into the role of preceptor, they may serve as a formal evaluator for platform presentations at a local and/or regional residency conference. ...
Article
Objective. To implement and assess the perceived impact of a program designed to engage postgraduate year-2 (PGY2) pharmacy residents in formal co-evaluation of platform presentations at a regional residency conference. Design. A PGY2 formal co-evaluator program was designed and conducted over two years. Postgraduate year-2 residents were paired with a preceptor for modeling, coaching, and facilitating. To assess the perceived usefulness of this program, a 2-question presurvey and an 11-question postsurvey were distributed to participating residents. Assessment. Eighty-two residents completed the program and pre/postsurveys (response rate594.3%). The percentage of residents who rated themselves as skilled in critically evaluating a platform presentation increased from 56.1% to 100%, while the percentage of residents who rated themselves as skilled in providing constructive feedback increased from 67.1% to 98.8%. Conclusion. This novel program, which was designed to engage PGY2 pharmacy residents in formal platform presentation co-evaluation, was well received and improved resident self-reported skills. © 2016, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.
... This resulted in five more publications. [26][27][28][29][30] Finally, manual searches were performed in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, a nonindexed journal, using the search terms described above, which resulted in eight additional papers. [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] In total, 19 papers focused on 21 programs designed to improve teaching effectiveness for pharmacy residents or faculty members met the inclusion criteria. ...
... A summary of the data examined for this manuscript is reported in Table 2. Nineteen publications were reviewed, which represented 21 distinct programs. 19,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] Twenty of the 21 programs were residency teaching programs. Only one pertained solely to faculty development. ...
... 31 Ten of the 20 residency teaching programs were for PGY1residents, 22,25,26,30,[32][33][34][36][37][38] one was for PGY2 residents only, 22 and seven included both PGY1 and PGY2 residents. 19,21,23,24,27,28,32,35 Two programs did not specify the audience. 29,36 Three of the seven programs for PGY1 and PGY2 residents also allowed fellows, faculty members, or preceptors to participate. ...
Article
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members. © 2016, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.
... 1 Within the scope of these standards, specific curricular content and teaching methods offered in resident teaching programs varies, though pedagogy instruction prior to mentored teaching experiences is common. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Guidelines for resident teaching experiences were developed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) to promote standardization. 10 These guidelines address teaching experience standards for residencies with or without a formal teaching program or certificate program through an affiliated academic institution. ...
... A live seminar approach appears common for pedagogy instruction within teaching programs, although prerecorded or distance learning sessions have also been used. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][11][12] In fall 2010, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (ACPHS) began offering a teaching program to residents and fellows affiliated with the main campus in Albany, New York and the satellite campus in Colchester, Vermont. While not a "certificate program" according to New York State Department of Education requirements, the teaching program was designed to include requirements comparable to established resident teaching certificate programs in other states. ...
... While not a "certificate program" according to New York State Department of Education requirements, the teaching program was designed to include requirements comparable to established resident teaching certificate programs in other states. [3][4][5]9,12,13 Our teaching program offered pedagogy instruction (Part I) prior to engaging in teaching experiences under the direction of a faculty mentor on either campus (Part II). For the first 2 offerings, Part I involved monthly seminars delivered in both synchronous and asynchronous formats; seminars were offered live through distance learning, with recorded content later posted in a learning management system. ...
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Objective: To describe the shift to an asynchronous online approach for pedagogy instruction within a pharmacy resident teaching program offered by a dual-campus college. Design: The pedagogy instruction component of the teaching program (Part I) was redesigned with a focus on the content, delivery, and coordination of the learning environment. Asynchronous online learning replaced distance technology or lecture capture. Using a pedagogical content knowledge framework, residents participated in self-paced online learning using faculty recordings, readings, and discussion board activities. A learning management system was used to assess achievement of learning objectives and participation prior to progressing to the teaching experiences component of the teaching program (Part II). Assessment: Evaluation of resident pedagogical knowledge development and participation in Part I of the teaching program was achieved through the learning management system. Participant surveys and written reflections showed general satisfaction with the online learning environment. Future considerations include addition of a live orientation session and increased faculty presence in the online learning environment. Conclusion: An online approach framed by educational theory can be an effective way to provide pedagogy instruction within a teaching program.
... 10 With nonacademic positions, clinical pharmacists will teach as part of their job responsibilities, including providing presentations and in-services to other health care professionals and peers; precepting pharmacy students and residents; and educating patients. 5,10,11 In a 2006 Position Statement, ACCP recommended that residents have opportunities to learn about teaching methods as part of their overall training. 5 An ACCP commentary in 2011 discussed the benefits of, and strategies for, incorporating teaching experiences within residency programs, as well as the various limitations and challenges of doing so. ...
... 12 Although including teaching opportunities for residents can be beneficial, various reports have recognized some inherent problems. 10,11,13 Unless properly planned, teaching opportunities can lack guidance on how to teach, how to give instruction on preparing for the experience, how to ensure focus and standardization, and how to provide evaluation and feedback on the teaching experience. Moreover, improperly planned teaching opportunities provide little direction on how to improve residents' teaching skills. ...
... Moreover, improperly planned teaching opportunities provide little direction on how to improve residents' teaching skills. 10,11,13,14 In 2001, Romanelli and colleagues described a program developed at the University of Kentucky to prepare residents to teach, which incorporated seminars on "how to teach," how to develop a teaching philosophy and portfolio, and teaching experiences in varied settings, which included formalized feedback and evaluation of the process. 13 Residency programs have shown that these more structured programs, or teaching certificate programs, result in increased resident confidence and preparation for teaching. ...
Article
Postgraduate year one (PGY1) and postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies serve to develop pharmacists into skillful clinicians who provide advanced patient-centered care in various general and specialized areas of pharmacy practice. Pharmacy residencies are a minimum requirement for many clinical pharmacy positions, as well as for positions in academia. The role of clinical pharmacists typically includes teaching, regardless of whether they pursue an academic appointment. Common teaching duties of pharmacist-clinicians include giving continuing education or other invited presentations, providing education to colleagues regarding clinical initiatives, precepting pharmacy students (early and advanced experiences) and residents, and educating other health care professionals. Although ASHP provides accreditation standards for PGY1 and PGY2 residencies, the standards pertaining to teaching or education training are vague. Through the years, teaching certificate programs that develop residents' teaching skills and better prepare residents for a diverse pharmacy job market have increased in popularity; moreover, teaching certificate programs serve as an attractive recruitment tool. However, the consistency of requirements for teaching certificate programs is lacking, and standardization is needed. The Task Force on Residencies developed two sets of guidelines to define teaching experiences within residencies. The first guideline defines the minimum standards for teaching experiences in any residency-training program. The second guideline is for programs offering a teaching certificate program to provide standardization, ensuring similar outcomes and quality on program completion. One of the main differences between the guidelines is the recommendation that residency programs offering a teaching certificate program be affiliated with an academic institution to provide the pedagogy and variety of teaching experiences for the resident. Residency program directors should consider adopting these guidelines to offer consistent teaching experiences. In addition, residents should inquire about the elements of teaching in a program as an aid to selecting the training best suited to their needs.
... 1,2 The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) supported this recommendation through inclusion of teaching and education-related competencies in the 2016 accreditation standard for residency programs (competency R4). 3 Residency teaching and learning curricula were developed by pharmacy faculties to address the growing need for clinician-educators prepared to provide formal assessments of teaching activities. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] To encourage consistency across programs, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) provides guidelines for resident e680 AM J HEALTH-SYST PHARM | VOLUME 75 | 2018 ...
... 16 Several programs have reported the benefits of a teaching certificate program or other formal teaching program, including increased resident interest in teaching, increased potential to recruit well-trained faculty members, increased resident confidence in their teaching abilities, increased availability of assistance in finding teaching positions, improvement of residents' effectiveness as role models, and improved preceptor preparation. 5,7,8,16,18 In 2003, Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy (AUHSOP) collaborated with a local community hospital to establish a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency program. From 2003 until 2009, the residency program offered a 4-week, academia-oriented elective learning experience for 9 residents interested in improving their teaching skills. ...
Article
Purpose: The evolution and expansion of a school of pharmacy-sponsored resident teaching and learning program (RTLP) are described. Summary: Since its establishment in 2012, Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy's RTLP has grown to include up to 12 residency programs in Alabama and on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Florida. Program requirements include seminar attendance, teaching experiences and observations, and development of an electronic teaching portfolio. Residents are provided support and guidance from an assigned faculty mentor and from chosen teaching mentors in each teaching activity. A program satisfaction survey was developed to assess residents' reasons for RTLP participation and their views on the manageability of program requirements, the level of residency program support received, the usefulness of seminar content, and other aspects of the program. Resident feedback has been used by RTLP coordinators to modify and refine program requirements. Major changes have included a switch to alternative information delivery mechanisms, clarification of mentor roles and responsibilities, and a transition from longitudinal seminars to intensive workshop days. At the end of the 2016-17 residency year, the RTLP had hosted a total of 66 residents from 12 different residency programs, with a 93.9% retention rate and a more than 3-fold increase in total resident enrollment. Conclusion: Evolution of a school of pharmacy-sponsored RTLP was essential to meet the growing needs of affiliated residency programs while optimizing faculty resources.
... The implementation of teaching certificate programs (TCPs) during pharmacy residency training is a fairly new concept over the last 20 years. 2 Perceived benefits of participating in a TCP include efficiently preparing presentations, creating concrete lecture objectives, effectively leading discussions, and critically and objectively evaluating student performance. 3 Since no standards exist to direct the implementation or assessment of TCPs, programs are highly variable in structure, and little data exist to describe their effectiveness. ...
... 5 An analysis of residentsʼ confidence levels in teaching areas (delivery, assessment, and feedback) at various time points in their program (baseline, end of program, and end of residency) was also conducted at the University of Arizona. 2 Results from ten participants showed that confidence increased significantly in 24 of the 30 abilities from the beginning of the program to the end of the program during a single program year. Participants (n ¼ 14) completing a Boston area TCP reported that their knowledge level increased in teaching-related content areas. ...
Article
Objective To assess the effect of a yearlong postgraduate teaching certificate program (TCP) on self-perceived teaching abilities. Methods Participants characterized perceived teaching abilities on a 5-point Likert scale upon entry and completion of the TCP using a 29-item teaching self-assessment instrument (1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = barely acceptable, 4 = good, and 5 = very good). Four teaching-related domains were assessed: delivery of content, assessment of student learning, providing student feedback, and modeling the profession. Pre- and post-program self-assessment scores were compared using paired t-tests. Results During five program years, 81 participants completed teaching self-assessments upon entry and completion of the one-year program. Overall, teaching abilities increased significantly during the program (3.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001). Each domain score also increased significantly (p < 0.001): delivery (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 4.4 ± 0.3), assessment (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4), feedback (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5), and modeling (3.9 ± 0.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.3). Conclusion Participation in the TCP results improved self-perceived teaching abilities across all program objectives over the program year, thus validating the program design and content. Such development is beneficial given the increasing expectation for pharmacists to act as effective educators.
... Published descriptions of residency teaching certificate programs outline three core components: structured seminars on teaching, practical teaching experiences, and a teaching portfolio requirement. [4][5][6][7] Our school of pharmacy offers the Mastery of Teaching Certificate Program that includes an additional component: a specific teaching mentor. We conducted an evaluation to determine whether these four components (structured seminars on teaching, practical teaching experiences, a teaching portfolio requirement, and a specific teaching mentor) contribute to the development of residentsʼ comfort and confidence in teaching and, therefore, should be used as a basis for teaching programs. ...
... Structured seminars have typically been associated with the teaching certificate programs and content varies by program including topics, such as lecture preparation, classroom learning assessment, precepting, and an introduction to careers in academia. [5][6][7] As many of the residents did not previously have formal instruction on teaching before residency, our interpretation is that the residents first appreciate learning how to teach. ...
Article
Identified components of existing residency teaching programs are as follows: (1) structured seminars, (2) practical teaching experiences, (3) teaching portfolio development, and (4) teaching mentorship. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether these components contribute to the development of residentsʼ self-perceived comfort and confidence in teaching. A survey was designed to determine the extent to which the four components are integrated into teaching programs and their relationship to a residentʼs self-perceived comfort and confidence in his or her teaching abilities. An electronic survey link was e-mailed to the directors of all American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited Pharmacy Practice residencies (n = 546) requesting the survey be forwarded to the 2009–2010 residents. The four components were assessed for the likelihood of an association with the residentsʼ perception of their confidence for teaching skills using a univariate logistic regression analysis. Structured seminar participants reported comfort and confidence in developing objectives, assessing learning, managing classroom environs, and developing portfolios. Participants with practical teaching experiences reported confidence in presenting lectures. Those who precepted reported confidence in implementing active learning strategies, assessing learning, precepting APPE students, and providing feedback to students. Residents who maintained portfolios reported comfort and confidence in portfolio development and writing teaching philosophies. Mentored residents reported comfort and confidence in managing classroom environments. Structured seminars and practical experiences had the greatest influence on enhancing residentsʼ comfort and confidence in teaching experiences. These components should be carefully considered as essentials when developing residency teaching programs.
... 7 Other programs with a variety of nuances began appearing in the literature thereafter. [8][9][10][11][12][13] Programs for which there are published evaluative data show enhanced confidence in teaching abilities among these graduates. 7,12 In addition, graduates from teaching certificate programs generally have significantly more confidence in their teaching abilities than graduates from the same residency who did not complete the program. ...
... [8][9][10][11][12][13] Programs for which there are published evaluative data show enhanced confidence in teaching abilities among these graduates. 7,12 In addition, graduates from teaching certificate programs generally have significantly more confidence in their teaching abilities than graduates from the same residency who did not complete the program. 7 Although confidence in teaching abilities appears to increase as a result of teaching certificate program completion, little is known about the perceived effects of such programs on graduates' current positions of employment after they have completed residency training. ...
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To determine the value of completing a pharmacy resident teaching certificate program on graduates' current positions of employment. Annually from 2003 to 2007, program graduates of the Indiana Pharmacy Teaching Certificate (IPTeC) program were invited to take a 13-question Web-based survey 1 year after completing the program. Fifty-three of the 62 graduates (85%) surveyed responded. Almost half of the respondents strongly agreed or agreed that having completed the IPTeC program helped them obtain their current position. More than 90% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the seminar participation and teaching experience from the IPTeC program helped them in their current position. About 80% of respondents would recommend the program to others. Completing a pharmacy resident teaching certificate program helped some graduates obtain and excel in their current position.
... T he study by Castellani et al. 1 contains observational data regarding an important element of postgraduate training in pharmacy. We are impressed with the authors' novel approach. ...
... Duncan and Dunn 4 have offered a model for more rigorous analysis of Likert scale data. Castellani et al. 1 did not, however, provide evidence that their Likert scale was subjected to such analysis, and we submit that the appropriateness of a parametric test was not established. Furthermore, while the use of parametric tests can be demonstrated to be reliable in some applications with a large number of data points, in this study the relatively small sample (n =10 or 11) would further compromise the appropriateness of using this test with these data. ...
... The availability of postgraduate teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) programs (also known as teaching certificate programs) for pharmacists pursuing postgraduate training has significantly increased over the last 15 years. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] The increase in availability of TLC programs has been fueled by the need for highly trained clinical pharmacy practitioners who can also serve as academicians. 12,13 The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) accreditation standards for postgraduate year one (PGY1) pharmacy residency programs require that residents achieve competencies in teaching, education, and dissemination of knowledge. ...
Article
Objective. To describe the landscape of teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) programs sponsored by US schools and colleges of pharmacy and evaluate their adoption of best practice recommendations. Methods. A 28-item electronic survey instrument was developed based on best practice recommendations published by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), and American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) for the conduct of TLC programs. The survey instrument was electronically distributed to 137 accredited colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Results. Eighty-eight institutions responded, resulting in a response rate of 64%. Sixty-one TLC programs were included in the final analysis. Seventy-five percent of TLC programs reported using best practice recommendations; however, 10% of respondents indicated they were not aware of the published recommendations. Inconsistencies among programs were noted in required teaching experiences, participant evaluation, and ongoing programmatic assessment. Conclusion. Most institutions offering TLC programs are aware of published best practice guidelines and have adopted a majority of the published best practices. However, considerable variability exists across the country. Development of a formal external validation process for TLC programs is necessary to ensure consistent quality.
... Such programs have existed for twenty years and have been found to be effective in improving resident confidence in teaching, in addition to providing multiple other benefits both in service as preceptors and in traditional academia. [4][5][6] Additionally, Gettig and colleagues found the majority of Residency Teaching Certificate Program (RTCP) participants felt the experience aided in obtaining their current position. 7 Despite a need for well-prepared educators and the availability of RTCPs, there is no standard structure or assessment for such programs. ...
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Background: Discovering methods of Residency Teaching Certificate Programs (RTCPs) will allow for collaboration in developing best practices to ensure both high quality of programming and outcomes for participants. Objective: The primary objective of this project is to describe and compare how RTCPs are conducted in the state of Ohio. Secondarily, to identify current practices in assessing RTCPs in both programmatic effectiveness and individual resident teaching outcomes. Methods: The seven coordinators of the seven Ohio RTCPs (n=7) were contacted via email and asked to participate in an IRB-approved interview, either in-person or telephonically. Standardized questions were developed to inquire about six categories of interest: demographics/background, administration/logistics, content, assessment of the resident, program financing, and program continuous quality improvement (CQI). All seven programs participated in interviews. Data was coded by multiple members of the research team for presentation in aggregate form. Results: RTCPs include seminar days at the respective pharmacy colleges; however, the number, length, and content of seminars vary. The majority of programs (n=5) stated using inherited curriculum and materials passed down from previous coordinators. While each RTCP requires participants to submit a teaching portfolio, only three of seven programs assess the summative portfolios. All programs (n=7) award participants a certificate based on completion of requirements without a defined minimum performance standard. Two programs are collecting participant feedback after every session for CQI however no programs are completing an annual programmatic assessment of resident outcomes. The majority of coordinators (n=7) are interested in collaborating and sharing "best practices" between RTCPs in the state. Conclusions: Although published and available resources exist surrounding the development and delivery of RTCPs, in Ohio, their use varies greatly. The most striking outcomes highlighted the lack of resident and program assessment of outcomes in RTCPs. The research has brought forth ideas of ways to improve these programs through resident assessment, program assessment and also leads to reflection and innovation around the best way to deliver these programs.
... Castellani et al. have shown that participation in a teaching certificate program increases the residents' confidence in their teaching abilities pharmacy. 22 In a recent article, Wahl and colleagues 13 reported the impact of a teaching certificate program on the career experiences of alumni. The alumni agreed/strongly agreed that the teaching certificate program stimulated their interests in pursuing careers in academia and increased the likelihood in obtaining academic positions. ...
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Purpose Teaching certificate programs have been developed by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to provide organized instruction for pharmacy residents seeking competence in classroom teaching or clinical precepting. The objective of this study is to appraise current status of teaching certificate programs offered by US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods A survey instrument was developed and sent to pharmacy practice department chairs/vice chairs at 132 US colleges/schools of Pharmacy. In addition, data collection was conducted by visiting websites of 132 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Descriptive statistics and content analysis methods were used for data analysis. Results Out of 132 pharmacy schools surveyed, 69 schools reported offering teaching certificate programs for pharmacy residents. The programs enroll Post-Graduate Year 1 (PGY1) and Post-Graduate Year 2 (PGY2) residents, fellows, preceptors, and faculty. These programs utilize longitudinal, concentrated, or combination of both experiences. While various teaching activities are required by all 69 programs, the requirements for attending seminar, research design, project and grant proposal writing were reported by 62%, 12%, and 0.07% of the reported programs, respectively. Programs were found to offer seminars on various topics such as teaching or pedagogical methodologies, assessment of student learning, and development of teaching portfolios. The national guidelines and recommendations are not fully met by the existing teaching certificate programs. With a total enrollment of 2,596 residents in 34 teaching certificate programs, since their inception, the overall completion rate was 91%. This study identifies a number of challenges including financial resources to develop a quality program. Data provided by 14 teaching certificate programs demonstrate that 33% of the graduates have accepted full-time faculty positions. Conclusion Our study has identified teaching certificate programs that provide residents with opportunities for formal instruction and development of skills that can help prepare them for a faculty position. This study may assist colleges and schools of pharmacy that are planning to develop such programs for pharmacy residents and fellows.
... There are many pharmacy residency programs that prepare residents for academia, especially through teaching certificate programs. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] However, only a few publications have examined program outcomes related specifically to pharmacy student teaching. Some opportunities offered by institutions to stimulate pharmacy student knowledge and interest in academia include teaching electives and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). ...
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Objectives. To determine if a teaching assistant (TA) program for third-year pharmacy students (PY3s) improves confidence in teaching abilities. Additionally, 3 assessment methods (faculty, student, and TA self-evaluations) were compared for similarities and correlations. Methods. An application and interview process was used to select 21 pharmacy students to serve as TAs for the Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course for 2 semesters. Participants’ self-perceived confidence in teaching abilities was assessed at the start, midpoint, and conclusion of the program. The relationships between the scores were analyzed using 3 assessment methods. Results. All 21 TAs agreed to participate in the study and completed the 2 teaching semesters. The TAs confidence in overall teaching abilities increased significantly (80.7 vs 91.4, p<0.001). There was a significant difference between the three assessment scores in the fall (p=0.027) and spring (p<0.001) semesters. However, no correlation was found among the assessment scores. Conclusions. The TA program was effective in improving confidence in teaching abilities. The lack of correlation among the assessment methods highlights the importance of various forms of feedback. © 2016, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.
... One common theme noted to be necessary to improving educational effectiveness is introspection [14][15][16]. Commenting on undergraduate and graduate-level education, Donnelly has noted that frequent self-reflection can aid professional educators in continuously improving their instructional approaches, and that systematic, purposeful review of one's teaching philosophy, methods, and efficacy ensures optimal student outcomes [14]. Unfortunately, other than encouraging frequent self-reflection there is a paucity of information to be found in the medical literature about how to best develop a teaching philosophy or whether a standardized approach is beneficial to this process, especially within the context of pharmacy education. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized reflection tool on the development of a teaching philosophy statement in a pharmacy residency teaching and learning curriculum program (RTLCP). Pharmacy residents participating in the RTLCP over a two-year period were surveyed using a pre/post method to assess perceptions of teaching philosophy development before and after using the tool. Responses were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale to indicate level of agreement with each statement. For analysis, responses were divided into high (strongly agree/agree) and low (neutral/disagree/strongly disagree) agreement. The level of agreement increased significantly for all items surveyed (p < 0.05), with the exception of one area pertaining to the ability to describe characteristics of outstanding teachers, which was noted to be strong before and after using the tool (p = 0.5027). Overall results were positive, with 81% of participants responding that the reflection tool was helpful in developing a teaching philosophy, and 96% responding that the resulting teaching philosophy statement fully reflected their views on teaching and learning. The standardized reflection tool developed at Shenandoah University assisted pharmacy residents enrolled in a teaching and learning curriculum program to draft a comprehensive teaching philosophy statement, and was well received by participants.
... Following development of the STLC program at the University of Kentucky, other sites implemented similar programs. 9 One challenge to implementation of an STLC program for some residency sites is the lack of a nearby academic institution to host and administer a program. In 2000, the University of Kentucky was contacted by near- A description of the STLC program and its requirements can be accessed on the University of Kentucky Pharmacy Residency Programs website at: http://www. ...
Article
Objectives. In 1999, the University of Kentucky (UK) College of Pharmacy first reported the development of a STLC Program for pharmacy residents. The primary goal of this program was to provide a forum for participants to gain knowledge of contemporary health professions and pharmacy education issues, to develop experience in teaching/learning, and to document accomplishment in this area. Methods. The STLC program was designed as an elective experience that would provide residents with training in various teaching methodologies and offer a forum through which accomplishment in the area could be documented. The program consists of 3 main requirements: attendance at formal semi-nars, completion of a requisite amount of small group and didactic evaluated teaching, and submission of a teaching portfolio. Results. Since its inception the program has grown beyond UK and now involves 1 other onsite program and two-way teleconferencing to 2 other residency programs. Since 1999, over 50 residents have been awarded certificates. Summary. Feedback from residency candidates, residents, and employers has been overwhelmingly positive. Future plans involve increased multidisciplinary involvement and continued outreach to other offsite programs.
... A growing number of pharmacy residency programs offer residency teaching certificate programs to expose residents to careers in academia and build the residents' teaching skills. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] PFF is similar to residency teaching certificate programs except that PFF focuses on classroom and laboratory teaching opportunities for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, while residency teaching certificate programs emphasize classroom and experiential teaching opportunities for post-graduate year (PGY) 1 or 2 residents. While the availability of PFF and resident teaching certificate programs is increasing, they are not universally available due to reasons such as lack of trained mentors, partnering institutions and courses, or funding (current PFF programs are not nationally funded). ...
Article
Introduction Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) is a national effort to give graduate students opportunities to receive mentorship in teaching and academic careers. The PFF Program, founded in 2005, expands this program to Academic Health Center (AHC) graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, such as pharmacy. The objectives (1) assessed the number/type of institution/department partnerships, as well as the unique types of content mentors added to the program since its inception, and (2) outlined the number of PFF graduates and their current career status. Methods PFF is a two-semester interprofessional program (fall = weekly teaching methods course and spring = teaching field placements at partnering institutions). Two program mentors are utilized: (1) a teaching mentor/program director who delivers course content and evaluates teaching and (2) a content mentor who is the course coordinator/faculty at the partnering institution. Results The number of partnerships has grown from 5 to 15 institutions, the number of department partnerships has grown from 1 to 11, and the number of content mentors has grown from 5 to 30 (six in pharmacy). Of note, ten of the content mentors are PFF alumni. In total, 68 PFF students have completed the program, seven graduates were from Pharmacy. The majority of the PFF graduates who have completed their degree or training have secured faculty positions; five of the seven PFF graduates in pharmacy became faculty members. Discussion PFF is a sustainable program for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at an AHC to learn how to teach in an academic setting.
... [20][21][22][23] Because of this perceived linkage, several college of pharmacy-affiliated residency programs have established teaching certificate or academia preparation programs. [24][25][26] These programs are primarily designed to mentor trainees in variable didactic and experiential teaching experiences, offer faculty seminar series on academia-related topics, and generate a heightened interest in scholarship. The influence of these types of programs on resident publication rates or scholarship interest levels has not been reported. ...
Article
This study examined barriers to pursuing scholarly activities among pharmacy residents.Methods Pharmacy residents of American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited programs in the Southeastern region of the United States during the 2009–2010 residency cycle were invited to participate in a web-based survey to assess interests in and barriers to pursuing scholarly activities (e.g., peer-reviewed manuscript development). A 22-question, web-based survey instrument was developed and pilot tested to assess demographics, confidence, interest and intent in pursuing scholarly activities, and barriers to scholarly activity. The survey instrument was administered in April 2010, and respondents were given four weeks to complete. Descriptive statistics (e.g., frequency and median ± IQR) were used to report respondent characteristics and identifiable barriers.ResultsA total of 209 out of 405 (52%) residents completed the survey. Respondents were primarily female (80%), under the age of 30 years (86%), and in a first-year residency program (75%). The majority of respondents (79%) intended on pursuing scholarly activities beyond their residency project. Lack of time was the most frequently reported and was ranked the most important barrier to pursuing scholarly activities. Lack of knowledge of the processes associated with scholarly activity and limited mentorship from residency preceptors were identified as barriers by 37% and 25% of residents, respectively.Conclusions Noteworthy barriers to pharmacy residents’ pursuit of scholarly activity were identified including lack of time, mentorship, and knowledge of the process. Pharmacists involved in mentoring residents should facilitate opportunities for scholarly activities, including peer-reviewed publications.
... 2,3 Teaching certificate programs provide pharmacy residents with more teaching and precepting experiences, increase residents' confidence in their teaching abilities, and aid in obtaining employment. [4][5][6][7] Furthermore, exposing residents to various activities within academia may stimulate their interest in pursuing this pharmacy career path. 8,9 Teaching certificate programs may also serve as a recruitment tool to help fill the estimated 27% of vacant faculty positions that remain unfilled because of a lack of qualified applicants. ...
Article
Objective: To describe the impact and application of material learned in a pharmacy resident teaching certificate program on the career experiences of alumni 1 to 11 years after completion of the program. Design: A teaching certificate program was established in 2001 that brought together residents from various training programs throughout Wisconsin to discuss essential educational skills in a dynamic learning environment. The purpose of the program was to teach participants the fundamental skills to continue to develop as a pharmacy educator throughout their career. Assessment: An electronic survey instrument was sent to alumni of the program. Greater than 70% of respondents agreed that the teaching certificate program reinforced their desire to teach in practice and that the program helped qualify them for their current or previous practice position. Alumni in academic positions more strongly agreed that the program changed their career interest to include academia and qualified them for their position in academia. Conclusions: A teaching certificate program can reinforce or stimulate interest among pharmacy residents in pursuing an academic career and prepare them for this role. Completion of the program led to a high level of confidence among the majority of alumni in their ability to precept students and residents and influenced some alumni involved in the hiring of pharmacists.
... 2 In response, many colleges and schools of pharmacy have initiated teaching certificate programs or residency programs that emphasize teaching in order to foster an interest in teaching that will help meet their needs for preceptors and full-time faculty members in the future. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9] In a 2010 survey of residency programs, 312 programs stated that they offered an opportunity for residents to participate in a formal teaching certificate program generally administrated through a nearby college or school of pharmacy. 10 This paper describes the evolution of such a program over the last 7 years. ...
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Objective: To assess the evolution and effectiveness of the Academician Preparation Program to provide knowledge and skills in teaching and evaluating to pharmacy residents, as well as generate interest in academic careers. Design: Participants attended seminars and participated in additional teaching, precepting, facilitating, and evaluating activities. Residents maintained a teaching portfolio and met with a faculty mentor quarterly to review their progress toward completion of the requirements for the Academician Preparation Program certificate. Assessment: Since the program was first offered in 2005, it has expanded to 7 sites throughout the state. As of June 2012, 155 residents had completed the program and 20 (13%) had accepted full-time academic positions. Many others were serving as adjunct faculty members or preceptors. The majority of those enrolled in pharmacy residencies completed the program. Conclusion: An optional, organized academic preparation program was of interest to residents, fostered academic careers, and helped meet residency accreditation guidelines.
... 1 The skills required to become an effective teacher were not always taught or evaluated, possibly because of an emphasis on patient-careÀrelated responsibilities. 3 Since that time, teaching programs have been developed throughout the country to provide organized instruction for residents seeking competence in either classroom teaching or clinical precepting. 4 Although there is no standardization of components or requirements offered in a teaching certificate program, many programs provide formal instruction in several components of teaching, including preparing classroom lectures and presentations, facilitating small-groups, precepting students, writing examination questions, and developing a teaching philosophy. ...
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Article
Objectives: To identify and assess changes made to the Indiana Pharmacy Resident Teaching Certificate program over 10 years to adapt to the growing number and changing needs of pharmacy educators in the next generation. Design: In 2011, all resident program participants and directors were sent an electronic survey instrument designed to assess the perceived value of each program component. Assessment: Since 2003, the number of program participants has tripled, and the program has expanded to include additional core requirements and continuing education. Participants generally agreed that the speakers, seminar topics, seminar video recordings, and seminar offerings during the fall semester were program strengths. The program redesign included availability of online registration; a 2-day conference format; retention of those seminars perceived to be most important, according to survey results; implementation of a registration fee; electronic teaching portfolio submission; and establishment of teaching mentors. Conclusion: With the growing number of residents and residency programs, pharmacy teaching certificate programs must accommodate more participants while continuing to provide quality instruction, faculty mentorship, and opportunities for classroom presentations and student precepting. The Indiana Pharmacy Resident Teaching Certificate program has successfully evolved over the last 10 years to meet these challenges by implementing successful programmatic changes in response to residency program director and past program participant feedback.
... 1 Many pharmacy practice residency programs are responding to this demand by instituting teaching certificate programs or teaching experiences to help build residents' teaching skills. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Results of one study revealed that of the 447 people surveyed who completed a pharmacy practice residency, 65% had lectured at a college of pharmacy, medicine, or nursing during residency. 10 Delivering lectures, precepting students, and participating in teaching development programs are intended to increase residents' teaching skills, but current certificate programs and teaching experiences are not standardized or nationally accredited. ...
Article
Continued growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the United States and increasing requirements for Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences are just two factors driving an increased need for pharmacy faculty to serve as instructors in the classroom and experiential settings.[
... 4 Most residencies and fellowships provide limited opportunities for teaching, but only select residency programs offer formalized training in teaching methods. [5][6][7][8][9][10] Residencies and fellowships include required research activities that appear to be valuable, 11 but residency programs focus on the development of practice abilities rather than research abilities. The impact of residency and fellowship programs on the development of research and scholarship abilities is unclear. ...
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Article
Prospective, ongoing faculty development programs are important in the initial orientation and short- and long-term development of faculty in higher education. Pharmacy practice faculty are likely to benefit from a comprehensive faculty development program due to the complex nature of their positions, incomplete training in select areas, and multiple demands on their time. The need for faculty development programs is supported by the increased need for pharmacy practice faculty due to the increased number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, expanding enrollment in existing colleges and schools, and loss of existing senior faculty to retirement or other opportunities within or outside the academy. This White Paper describes a comprehensive faculty development program that is designed to enhance the satisfaction, retention, and productivity of new and existing pharmacy practice faculty. A comprehensive faculty development program will facilitate growth throughout a faculty member's career in pertinent areas. The structure of such a program includes an orientation program to provide an overview of responsibilities and abilities, a mentoring program to provide one-on-one guidance from a mentor, and a sustained faculty development program to provide targeted development based on individual and career needs. The content areas to be covered in each component include the institution (e.g., culture, structure, roles, responsibilities), student-related activities, teaching abilities, scholarship and research abilities, practice abilities and the practice site, and professional abilities (e.g., leadership, career planning, balancing responsibilities). A general framework for a comprehensive pharmacy practice faculty development program is provided to guide each college, school, department, and division in the design and delivery of a program that meets the needs and desires of the institution and its faculty.
... Pharmacy residency programs have reported the development of certificate programs to provide formal training to their residents in the area of teaching skills. 25,26 The recent announcement by ACCP of the establishment of the ACCP Academy provides further evidence as to the recognition of currently limited, high-quality professional development opportunities and areas in need of improvement. 27 The ACCP Academy will eventually include a research and scholarship track to enhance and recognize participants' abilities in that area. ...
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Article
The development and validation of a survey to describe the research knowledge, attitudes, and skills of pharmacy practice residents are described. A survey was drafted to determine if pharmacy practice residency experience and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-required project improve the residents' objectively and subjectively assessed research knowledge, to determine if the residency experience and the ASHP-required project affect the residents' attitudes regarding research as a component of their future professional practice, and to subjectively assess the effect of the residency experience and the ASHP-required project on other essential skills, such as problem solving, critical thinking, and time management. An initial questionnaire was developed and underwent content validation testing by clinical pharmacists and faculty, residents, and research fellows. Following content validation, the questionnaire underwent construct validity testing (for discriminative validity and responsiveness) in students, residents, and clinical pharmacists and faculty. Reliability was tested in a subgroup of subjects who completed the questionnaire twice within two to four weeks. From the content validation phase, average scores for individual questions ranged from 1.00 to 2.00. Discriminative validity testing of the revised questionnaire demonstrated the instrument's ability to discriminate between groups expected to differ. Effect-size and mean-knowledge score differences indicated high levels of responsiveness, signifying the instrument's ability to detect change over time or after an intervention. A survey questionnaire developed to measure research knowledge and interest among pharmacy practice residents demonstrated its validity and reliability with significant sensitivity and responsiveness.
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate graduates' perceptions of the impact of a teaching (education) specialization and identify aspects of the specialization that could be enhanced. Methods: A 20-item online survey was emailed to graduates of the education specialization at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Regression analysis was used to examine (1) association between overall self-rated competence on abilities and skills as a teacher and the number of types of teaching experiences and (2) association between overall self-rated competence on abilities and skills as a teacher and history of holding a faculty position. Chi square was used to determine differences between the two cohorts in confidence areas. Results: Fifty-six out of 69 alumni (81.2%) responded to the survey. Graduates reported high levels of confidence in most teaching abilities. There was a high level of agreement that the specialization enhanced motivation to teach. Regression analysis indicated statistically significant associations between self-rated competence on abilities and skills across a variety of teaching experiences (e.g., classroom lecturing, precepting, continuing education, staff training, lab instruction, facilitating small groups) and history of faculty employment. Enhanced skills in experiential education and teaching outside of academia were identified as further areas for development. Conclusion: The education specialization offered at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy may be an alternative entry level PharmD pathway for stimulating interest in academia. The majority of graduates agreed that they have applied the knowledge and skills to their careers.
Article
Problem description: The questions evaluated are: To what extent does the program meet the needs and expectations of the participants?; To what extent are the program outcomes being met?; In what ways does the program need to be modified to better meet the expectations and needs of the target audience?; In what ways does the program need to be modified to better fulfill its intended outcomes?; How accepting are the current residency programs of the modifications proposed for the 2018-2019 year? Quality improvement methods: The new teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) program coordinator and Assistant Dean conducted a practical participatory evaluation. The plan was: complete initial data collection and review, create a new syllabus, and review new syllabus with all residency program directors. Results of cqi inquiry: All stakeholders felt the program was meeting their needs and expectations and the program was meeting its outcomes. Interpretation and discussion: Problems found included: all assessments for the program outcomes were perception and completion data, no data were collected to show improvement across the participants' time in the program, and residency program directors did not complete an end-of-year survey to determine their perceptions of the program. Based on the results several changes and a new syllabus were done for the program. Conclusion: Overall this project answered the five key questions in its objectives. This work provides one example of a quality assurance project that can occur for a TLC program. This process could be adapted for any TLC program.
Article
Objective To determine if self-perceived teaching proficiency obtained from a teaching certificate at the end of post-graduate training is appropriate to measure program effectiveness and if the teaching certificate program influenced the decision to choose academia as a career. Methods Pharmacy practice faculty from U.S. Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy were surveyed to determine teaching activities included in teaching certificate programs from a list of 21 teaching activities, if they felt their teaching certificate prepared them to conduct the teaching activities by the end of the program, and to indicate if, after one year in academia, they continued to believe the teaching certificate program prepared them to perform the teaching activities. Results There were 1620 faculty surveyed and a 32% response rate. The self-perceived ability at the end of residency compared at two time points (directly at the end of residency and retroactively after one year in academia) was similar for 15 of the 21 skills. Self-perceived ability at the 1-year time point was significantly higher for four skills (p < 0.05): writing a course syllabus, developing a grading rubric, writing an experiential rotation syllabus, and serving as a student advisor. Self-perceived abilities were significantly lower at the latter time point for two skills—incorporating active learning and delivering a lecture. Overall, 70% of respondents reported that the teaching certificate program influenced their decision to choose a career in academia. Conclusion Self-perceived ability to perform teaching skills measured at the end of teaching certificate programs is similar to self-perceived ability measured at the end of one year in academia indicating self-perception of ability is an appropriate measure of teaching certificate program efficacy. Greater emphasis on skills involving delivering a didactic lecture and incorporating active learning seems warranted.
Article
Introduction A school-based teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) program began in 2009 to expose participants to careers in academia and develop participant’s teaching abilities. Objective To assess participants’ perceptions of the TLC program and how it impacted their positions one to four years after completion of the program. Methods A 25-item survey containing quantitative and qualitative assessments was sent to all previous participants of the program. A total of four contact attempts were made. Results A response rate of 77.2% was achieved. Of the respondents, 93% agreed or strongly agreed that the program was beneficial to their current position, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the program enhanced their teaching skills. The most valuable aspect of the program reported was the one-on-one mentoring from faculty. Conclusions Overall participants perceived the TLC program to be beneficial to their involvement in teaching and in obtaining teaching positions after completion of the program.
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Objective: To describe pharmacy residents' interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods: An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents' job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results: Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion: Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions.
Article
Introduction: An elective academic learning experience was designed for a pharmacy practice resident who was also enrolled in a teaching certificate program. The resident's responsibilities focused on the three domains of a full-time faculty position. Description: As part of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center PGY-1 residency program, a six-week learning experience in academia was incorporated based on the interests and goals of a pharmacy practice resident. The learning experience, first offered in Spring 2010, was modified for a 2011-2012 resident to expand and refine the skills of academia. There were a variety of experiences, including didactic teaching, small group facilitation, service requirements through committees, and scholarship activities for publication. Conclusion: This learning experience benefited a pharmacy practice resident through additional skills and knowledge of the three domains of teaching, service, and scholarship while preparing for an academic position.
Article
Purpose Recommendations for the development and support of teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) experiences within postgraduate pharmacy training programs are discussed. Summary Recent attention has turned toward meeting teaching- and learning-related educational outcomes through a programmatic process during the first or second year of postgraduate education. These programs are usually coordinated by schools and colleges of pharmacy and often referred to as “teaching certificate programs,” though no national standards or regulation of these programs currently exists. In an effort to describe the landscape of these programs and to develop a framework for their basic design and content, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Pharmacy Practice Section’s Task Force on Student Engagement and Involvement, with input from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, reviewed evidence from the literature and conference proceedings and considered author experience and expertise over a two-year period. The members of the task force created and reached consensus on a policy statement and 12 recommendations to guide the development of best practices of TLC programs. The recommendations address topics such as the value of TLC programs, program content, teaching and learning experiences, feedback for participants, the development of a teaching portfolio, the provision of adequate resources for TLC programs, programmatic assessment and improvement, program transparency, and accreditation. Conclusion TLC programs provide postgraduate participants with valuable knowledge and skills in teaching applicable to the practitioner and academician. Postgraduate programs should be transparent to candidates and seek to ensure the best experiences for participants through systematic program implementation and assessments.
Article
Introduction Didactic teaching experiences are frequently a component of post-graduate year one (PGY1) pharmacy residencies. However, limited published data focus on descriptions and evaluations of such teaching rotations. Objective This study aimed to describe and evaluate a teaching rotation for pharmacy residents at a school of pharmacy. Methods Pharmacy practice residents (N = 22) completed a teaching rotation at the University of Wisconsin–Madison School of Pharmacy. The rotation consisted of orientation prior to the start of the teaching rotation, a minimum of 60 teaching hours in the Pharmacotherapy Lab, and additional hours spent in teaching preparation and grading. Residents were invited to complete pre- and post-rotation surveys evaluating the rotation and attitudes regarding teaching. Un-paired data were analyzed. Results Response rates were 54% and 59% for the initial and final surveys, respectively. Respondent confidence in several teaching-related areas increased (p < 0.05 in all 17 categories), but it remained lower compared to current faculty (p < 0.05 in ten of 17 categories). Of the respondents, 69.2% indicated that their career goals changed to include more teaching opportunities as a result of the rotation. Conclusion A required teaching rotation was described and evaluated. Residents reported satisfaction with the rotation along with increased interest and confidence in teaching after completion of the rotation. Identified areas for improvement included scheduling methods, amount and consistency of feedback, and types of teaching experiences available. Contribution to pharmacy education This paper describes a resident teaching rotation that has been effectively incorporated into the Pharmacotherapy Lab within the Doctor of Pharmacy didactic curriculum.
Article
PurposeTo describe four years of experiences of a joint school of pharmacy and school of education pharmacy residency teaching certificate program (PRTCP) for affiliated residency programs and evaluate the impact on teaching abilities and confidence.Methods Descriptive data was collected based on observations of the authors for four residency classes from 2007 to 2011. The PRTCP provided formalized training in teaching through multiple requirements including: pedagogy seminars, didactic experiences, small group facilitation, experiential education, teaching philosophy statement development, and teaching portfolio development. The program included residents from small affiliated residency programs (three or fewer residents per program) based at nonacademic institutions along with new faculty and residency preceptors. After four years, graduates were surveyed one time through SurveyMonkey™ for demographic data and to assess self-perceived teaching abilities and confidence.ResultsOf the 25 previous residents, 17 completed the survey. Prior to the PRTCP, respondents had a median score of three (out of five) in teaching skill and ability, compared to a median score of four after completing the requirements. Likewise, respondents had a median score of two in confidence as a teacher, compared to a median score of four after completing the requirements. When asked if the PRTCP had been beneficial professionally, 94% of participants responded as “agree” or “strongly agree.” The majority noted precepting as the most common teaching experience in practice, followed by small group facilitation, classroom lectures, and in-services.ConclusionsA joint school of pharmacy and school of education PRTCP program has increased resident-perceived teaching abilities and confidence.
Article
The role of a clinical faculty member includes responsibilities within teaching, service, and scholarship. Faculty member time is often divided between a college or school of pharmacy and a clinical practice site. A career in academic pharmacy can provide a very rewarding and challenging mix of intellectual stimulation, variety, autonomy, and flexibility. Graduating pharmacists currently have unprecedented employment opportunities from which to choose, like many other pharmacy industries, academic pharmacy is facing a manpower shortage. Although traditional didactic curricula and introductory and advanced practice experiences expose students to a number of different career options, often academic pharmacy is underrepresented in this conventional educational path. Likewise, during residency or fellowship training, the primary emphasis of most programs is in the development of clinical and/or research skills. However, it is becoming more common for schools and colleges of pharmacy to offer elective courses or experiences for students interested in teaching, and similarly for postgraduate training programs to offer formal or informal teaching programs. It is wise for student pharmacists, residents, and fellows with interest in teaching to use available resources to seek out opportunities for exposure to and experience in academic pharmacy throughout pharmacy school and postgraduate training.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify teaching skills commonly taught during the postgraduate pharmacy teaching skills development programs, to describe trainees' perceived teaching proficiency, and the extent to which the learned teaching skills are applied in trainees' current positions. An online survey was developed for pharmacists who completed postgraduate teaching skills development programs. The survey included demographic and program queries as well as questions on 23 teaching skills. Participants self-assessed their proficiency in and application of their learned teaching skills. The online survey resulted in 122 qualified responses. After training, the perceived proficiency in nearly all 23 teaching skills was high; however, the scores for application of teaching skills were significantly lower. A majority (91.7%) of survey respondents were engaged in experiential education. There is wide variability among the postgraduate pharmacy teaching skills development programs. Though the trainees perceived their proficiency in teaching skills to be high, the acquired teaching skills were underused.
Article
While many pharmacy graduates consider a career in academia, relatively few actually seek an academic position. Various methods, including formal teaching certificate programs, are being used to increase graduates’ awareness of faculty positions.¹,–⁵ In our area of South Florida, a number of graduates have shown an interest in teaching, but there are no local certificate programs. Thus, an elective was created at Nova Southeastern University’s College of Pharmacy to offer teaching opportunities to postgraduates (pharmacy residents and fellows) while exposing students to the type of active learning environment found during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and postgraduate training. We conducted a survey to assess opinions about this elective course and to determine students’ willingness to pursue postgraduate training and postgraduates’ willingness to participate in future pharmacy education. The elective was a two-credit course offered in the final semester of classroom courses in our doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Cases developed by postgraduates were posted weekly on an electronic course management system (WebCT). Students uploaded their completed therapeutic plans and took quizzes incorporating required readings before live case discussion. Postgraduates facilitated student-led class discussions and provided written feedback to the students within one week.
Article
Abstract In 2009, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed its first National Resident Advisory Committee and charged it with making recommendations on how residency programs should foster the development of their trainees as effective educators. Currently, many residency programs offer training in educational methods in the form of teaching certificate programs or additional rotations focused on teaching. However, these programs may not be formalized, and they vary in structure and quality. Moreover, many residency programs lack the resources to provide additional training in educational methods. Given the demand for pharmacists as educators, there is a need to train residents to teach. Therefore, the committee evaluated the literature and generated several strategies to aid in the development of pharmacy residents as educators. The committee recommends that programs should consider adopting principles and methods currently employed by successful teaching certificate programs, using distance-learning technology, increasing training for faculty and preceptors in educational principles and methods, standardizing programs, and developing self-learning and/or self-assessment tools to train residents. As the need for pharmacists to serve as effective educators continues to grow, it will be important for institutions, programs, and professional organizations to invest time and resources in training pharmacy residents and defining a minimal set of criteria to ensure the quality of training.
Article
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy. A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy. Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001). Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
Article
The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) defines a preceptor as a “full-time, part-time, or volunteer faculty or practitioner (usually a pharmacist) who serves as practitioner-educator and oversees students in pharmacy practice experiences within the curriculum.”[1][1] An
Article
ASHP’s residency accreditation standards require a teaching component within resident training programs. These teaching experiences can be extremely valuable to residents interested in positions within teaching institutions. The opportunities for teaching vary among programs, and the creation of a
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Article
A practice-based learning experience designed to expose postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and 2 (PGY2) residents to and prepare them for a career as clinical faculty is described. A practice-based learning experience was designed to give PGY1 and PGY2 residents exposure to the responsibilities of a clinical faculty member, integrating clinical practice, preceptor duties, and other academia-related responsibilities. The learning experience is a four-week, elective rotation for PGY1 and PGY2 residents. The rotation is designed to correspond to a four-week advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) rotation, allowing the resident to work continuously with the same one or two APPE students for the entire rotation. The resident is required to design and implement a rotation for the students and provide clinical services while integrating students into daily tasks, facilitating topic and patient discussions, evaluating assignments, providing constructive feedback, and assigning a final rotation grade. The resident also attends all academic and committee meetings and teaching obligations with his or her residency director, if applicable. The resident is mentored by the residency director throughout all phases of the rotation and is evaluated using goals and objectives tailored to this experience. The development of a formal, structured rotation to give postgraduate residents experience as a preceptor provided an opportunity for residents to further explore their interests in academia and allowed them to serve as a primary preceptor while being guided and evaluated by a mentor.
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Article
To identify the variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice among the following groups: final professional-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, pharmacy residents, pharmacy faculty members within the first 5 years of academic employment, and clinical pharmacy practitioners. A cross-sectional design Web-based survey instrument was developed using the online tool SurveyMonkey. The survey link was distributed via e-mail and postcards, and data were collected anonymously. Quantitative analyses were used to describe the 2,494 survey respondents and compare their responses to 25 variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice. Logistic regression models were used to predict the motivators/deterrents associated with an academic pharmacy career choice for each participant group. Across all participant groups, the potential need to generate one's salary was the primary deterrent and autonomy, flexibility, and the ability to shape the future of the profession were the primary motivators. Final-year pharmacy students who considered a career in academic pharmacy were significantly deterred by grant writing. The overall sample of participants who considered an academic pharmacy career was more likely to be motivated by the academic environment and opportunities to teach, conduct professional writing and reviews, and participate in course design and/or assessment. This study demonstrates specific areas to consider for improved recruitment and retention of pharmacy faculty. For example, providing experiences related to pharmacy academia, such as allowing student participation in teaching and research, may stimulate those individuals' interest in pursuing an academic pharmacy career.
Article
The medical education literature was reviewed in four categories: (1) general studies of house officer teaching, (2) perceptions of the house officer's teaching role, (3) assessing and improving resident teaching skills, and (4) the teaching role of surgery residents. An agenda for research and development related to surgery resident teaching skills was proposed based on four research questions: (1) What types of teaching skills are most appropriate for surgery residents? (2) How do faculty and student expectations of resident teaching influence surgery resident teaching? (3) What type of intervention is most successful in improving surgery resident teaching skills? (4) What are other outcomes of improved surgery resident teaching besides resident and learner satisfaction? This important teaching role should be more formally and widely acknowledged by surgery faculty, and appropriate teaching skill improvement activities should be provided for all surgery house officers.
Article
A resident-managed program to improve teaching skills and examine residents' perceptions of teaching was conducted for internal medicine residents at Maine Medical Center. A modification of the Fewett (1982) teaching model was applied as an adjunct to an ongoing resident teaching program. Twenty-six of 29 residents voluntarily participated in a series of workshops over a 6 month period. A low attrition rate and high level of acceptance of the format were observed. Teaching programs are manageable by a senior resident and can be of potential benefit.
Article
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program was developed to allow selected physician clinicians to acquire certain skills which are not part of the usual physician's repertoire. Begun in 1969 with support from the Carnegie Corporation and the Commonwealth Fund, funding has been provided since 1973 by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. By June 1981, 309 physicians had completed their training as clinical scholars, and a majority were pursuing careers in academic medicine. This paper recounts the factors and forces which led to the initiation and development of the program, its successes and failures, the problems faced, the achievements of clinical scholar alumni, and the program's current status.
To provide second- and third-year pediatric residents with practical teaching skills for precepting third-year medical students in the outpatient clinic. Educational intervention with 3-month follow-up of participants. University teaching hospital. Second- and third-year pediatric residents. A curriculum for a half-day workshop to provide residents with 6 key clinical teaching skills. Residents participated in the workshop and then were observed by trained faculty as they precepted third-year medical students in the pediatric clinic. Direct observation of resident-student precepting encounters, noting the presence or absence of their use of clinical teaching skills taught in the workshop. Twenty-one of 23 pediatric residents participated in the workshop. Observation of 56 resident teaching encounters before and after the workshop showed that the residents improved their clinical teaching skills. Residents valued the workshop, and many suggested it should also be considered for faculty development. Residents can be taught clinical teaching skills in a half-day workshop. These skills also are applicable in various clinical venues. With the increasing interest in using community-based primary care physicians for student and resident education, this curriculum is well suited for training practicing clinicians to teach in their own practice sites.
Article
An important educational objective of academic surgical programs is to train surgical teachers. Whether formal instruction of surgery residents in general principles of teaching has a role in the achievement of this objective is unproven. We tested whether the teaching ability of surgery residents could be improved by two different interventions: (A) a lecture on communication effectiveness plus home study of their own videotaped lectures and (B) a critical review of their own videotaped lectures with a teaching consultant. Each resident taught four sessions. There was no intervention between sessions 1 and 2; intervention A occurred between sessions 2 and 3; and intervention B, between sessions 3 and 4. Each of the four videotaped sessions was graded for communication effectiveness using a standardized scoring form. There were no significant differences between scores from lectures 1 and 2 (no intervention) or lectures 2 and 3 (intervention A). Intervention B (individualized feedback) resulted in significant improvement in all scores from session 4 compared with sessions 1 and 2: content 3.40 versus 2.98 (p = 0.01), language 3.43 versus 3.22 (p = 0.03), delivery 3.25 versus 2.87 (p = 0.002), and overall 3.43 versus 2.88 (p = 0.002). Surgical resident teaching ability can be improved by communication effectiveness teaching. Individualized feedback is more effective than a lecture combined with self-study.
Article
To determine the effect that a six-hour course on resident teaching and leadership skills had on residents' teaching evaluations. The authors analyzed six years of teaching evaluations of second- and third-year internal medicine residents at the University of Washington: three years before and three years after a resident teaching skills course was introduced in 1992. Interns and students rated their resident-teachers using a nine-question standardized clinical teaching assessment form (CTAF). Evaluations at baseline (the three years before the course) were compared with evaluations for the three years after the intervention. The authors analyzed 3,946 evaluations of 235 second-year and 211 third-year residents. Despite already high baseline evaluations, mean ratings of the CTAF showed continuous and statistically significant improvement in each year after the introduction of the course (p < .001). There was no significant difference between evaluations from students and those from interns. A six-hour teaching skills course significantly improved residents' teacher ratings. Residents are important teachers of interns and medical students and serve as their primary ward supervisors; therefore, sessions on teaching skills should be part of required curricula for all residency programs.
Article
To evaluate obstetrics and gynecology residents' teaching performance, perception of the importance of teaching and satisfaction with their evaluations after the institution of an oral or written medical student feedback and award system. Residents at a single, university-based obstetrics and gynecology program were assigned to receive either oral, written or no medical student feedback on their teaching skills in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Students rated resident performance in seven teaching categories. Residents' scores per six-week block were evaluated for one year. Questionnaires addressing resident attitudes toward feedback were collected at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. All residents then received written feedback and public awards for high scores for an additional year. After 12 months of feedback there were trends toward improvement in several of the teaching categories and overall evaluations. None of the controls, 29% of residents receiving oral feedback and 50% of residents receiving written feedback rated teaching as more important than before. None of the controls, 57% of those receiving oral feedback (P = NS) and 88% of those receiving written feedback (P = .009), for a total of 73% of residents receiving any feedback (P = .001), thought that the amount of feedback was adequate at 12 months. Follow-up of 15 residents after one year of written feedback with an award for high evaluations showed that 60% improved their overall scores. The mean overall group score improved. A feedback and award system can lead to improved resident teaching performance as well as enhanced perception of residents' role as teachers and greater resident satisfaction.
American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP accreditation for residency in pharmacy practice (with an emphasis on pharmaceutical care)
American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP accreditation for residency in pharmacy practice (with an emphasis on pharmaceutical care). Am J Hosp Pharm. 1992; 49:146-53.
Development of an academic resident teaching rotation. Presented at the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists 1999 National Residency Preceptors Conference
  • F Romanelli
  • K M Smith
  • B F Brandt
Romanelli F, Smith KM, Brandt BF. Development of an academic resident teaching rotation. Presented at the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists 1999 National Residency Preceptors Conference. San Diego, CA; 1999 Aug 22.