C2-ceramide inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through down-regulating the activation of Akt
The effect of C(2)-ceramide, a membrane-permeable ceramide analogue, on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was studied. The non-toxic concentration of C(2)-ceramide inhibited LPS-induced NO production. It was due to the attenuated expression of the inducible type of NO synthase (iNOS). C(2)-ceramide did not influence the phosphorylation of a series of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in response to LPS. On the other hand, C(2)-ceramide down-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, followed by the impairment of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Moreover, the Akt dominant-negative mutant inhibited LPS-induced NO production. C(2)-ceramide was suggested to inhibit LPS-induced NO production through down-regulating the activation of Akt.
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