Article

The Effect of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training on Abdominal Fat in Obese Middle-aged Women

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined aerobic and resistance training on abdominal fat. Our participants in the study consisted of thirty obese women. They were separated into three groups: a control group (n=10), an aerobic training group (n=10) and a combined training group (n=10). The aerobic training group was composed of 60-70% HRmax (intensity), 60 minutes a day (duration) for 6 days a week (frequency). The combined training group was separated into resistance training (3 days a week, Mon, Wed, Fri) and the aerobic training (3 days a week, Tue, Thu, Sat). The levels for abdominal fat volume were measured by determining the subcutaneous fat volume (SFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), and VFV/SFV by CT (computed tomography). The VO(2max) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in both groups. The subcutaneous fat and visceral fat levels were decreased in the combined training group more than in the aerobics training group. Also, the lean body mass (LBM) was significantly increased only in the combined training group. In addition, the total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C were significantly (p<.05) decreased and the HDL-C was significantly (p<.05) increased in both groups. In conclusion, our results observed that combined training decreased abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat more than aerobic training only.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Os dados ainda demonstram que o excesso de peso supera em oito vezes o défi cit de peso entre as mulheres. Para a saúde, o excesso de peso e a obesidade são fatores preocupantes para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares [2] Embora existam várias causas para a ocorrência da obesidade, como fatores constitucionais físicos e genéticos, o fator dietético relacionado ao excesso de ingesta de calorias associado à redução do seu gasto, pela redução da prática de exercícios físicos, tem se revelado uma das maiores causas da obesidade [3][4][5]. Devido a esta problemática, alguns estudos associam ao seu treinamento um aconselhamento nutricional, obtendo resultados satisfatórios, tais como melhora do perfi l lipídico e da composição corporal [6]. ...
... Em um trabalho realizado com mulheres obesas, Park et al. [3] observaram melhoras signifi cativas no percentual de gordura (%G), no perfi l lipídico e no consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO 2máx ) após 24 semanas de treinamento aeróbico associado ao de resistência. Um tipo de atividade física que engloba, ao mesmo tempo, treinamento aeróbico e de resistência, é a hidroginástica [8]. ...
... O presente estudo pôde observar que, embora a amostra se caracterize por mulheres com obesidade moderada (pelo %G), todas as participantes são ativas, apresentando: uma potência aeróbica (VO 2máx ) regular e valores normais no lipidograma (LDL, HDL, TG, VLDL). Estes achados corroboram com os dados encontrados no estudo de Park et al. [3], o qual investigou o efeito da combinação do treinamento aeróbico com o resistido na gordura abdominal de 30 mulheres obesas. Os níveis de volume de gordura abdominal foram mensurados pela determinação do volume de gordura subcutânea (VGS) e do volume de gordura visceral (VGV), por tomografi a computadorizada. ...
Article
O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da continuidade do treinamento de hidrocinesioterapia sobre o perfil lipídico, a composição corporal e o consumo de oxigênio (VO2máx) de mulheres ativas, pós-menopausa. Para este estudo longitudinal, a amostra foi composta de 13 mulheres praticantes de hidrocinesioterapia (idade = 54 ± 7 anos). As variáveis foram comparadas em um intervalo de 18 meses: índice de massa corporal (IMC), percentual de gordura (%G), coeficiente cintura-quadril (CQ), VO2máx, perfil lipídico e glicose. Os testes t dependente e de Wilcoxon não apresentaram diferença significativa (p < 0,05). Na correlação de Spearman, foi observada correlação significativa entre: IMC e %G (r = 0,657; p = 0,0001); IMC e CQ (r = 0,587; p = 0,002); IMC e VO2máx (r = -0,497; p = 0,010); %G e CQ (r = 0,450; p = 0,021); %G e VO2máx (r = -0,417; p = 0,034); CQ e VO2máx (r = -0,448; p = 0,022); CQ e HDL (r = -0,417; p = 0,034); glicose e IMC (r = 0,427; p = 0,029); glicose e %G (r = 0,445; p = 0,023) e CT e LDL (r = 0,705; p = 0,0001). O presente estudo observou na amostra analisada, que mulheres ativas, pós-menopausa, apesar da obesidade moderada (pelo %G), apresentaram, ao longo do tempo, uma estabilidade da composição corporal, do perfil lipídico, da glicose e do VO2máx, tendo revelado estes valores dentro dos parâmetros de normalidade.Palavras-chave: VO2máx, perfil lipídico, composição corporal, hidrocinesioterapia.
... After removal of duplicates and elimination of papers based on the eligibility criteria, 65 studies were included in this review (Fig. 1). Of those studies, 32 included a total of 45 experimental groups assigned to a lowcalorie diet (CR: totaling 218 men, 691 women, and 136 mixed) [20, 21, 24, 25, 29-31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42-44, 47, 49, 51, 57, 58, 60, 64-66, 68, 72, 74, 76, 77, 80-83] ( Table 1), 27 included a total of 38 experimental groups assigned to a combination of calorie restriction plus exercise (CR+EX: totaling 63 men, 992 women, and 373 mixed) [28, 32, 34, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46, 50-57, 60, 62, 64, 67, 70-72, 76, 81-83] (Table 2), and 18 included a total of 24 experimental groups assigned to increasing energy expenditure by exercise (~90 min) while maintaining energy intake (EX: totaling 167 men, 298 women, and 213 mixed) [22,23,26,27,37,40,45,48,59,61,63,69,72,75,[78][79][80]84] (Table 3). ...
... The most common interventions for the EX was aerobic exercise such as running, cycling, and walking (n = 17) [22,23,26,37,40,45,48,59,61,63,73,[79][80][81][82][83][84], resistance [45,61], and interval exercise (n = 2) [69,73]. Regarding the time of the aerobic exercise session, many studies used 45-60 min at a moderate intensity (e.g. ...
... The most common interventions for the EX was aerobic exercise such as running, cycling, and walking (n = 17) [22,23,26,37,40,45,48,59,61,63,73,[79][80][81][82][83][84], resistance [45,61], and interval exercise (n = 2) [69,73]. Regarding the time of the aerobic exercise session, many studies used 45-60 min at a moderate intensity (e.g. ...
Article
Exercise and low-calorie diets are common approaches taken to produce an energy deficit for weight loss in obesity. Changes in visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat associated with weight loss are important questions but have not yet been concluded. We investigated the relationship between changes in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas obtained by abdominal imaging with the change in total body fat. The relevant databases were searched through January 2021 according to the PRISMA guidelines. Sixty-five studies were included. We found that the change in total body fat was associated with changes in both VAT and abdominal SAT areas, but the relationship between total body fat and the abdominal SAT area appeared stronger. Baseline values of VAT and abdominal SAT area were similar in the three treatment groups (calorie restriction, calorie restriction plus exercise, and exercise alone). The reduction in abdominal SAT area for a loss of 1 kg of total body fat was about 10 cm2, which was similar among all the treatments. The change in VAT area (−26.3 cm2) was a similar level as the change in abdominal SAT area (−31.5 cm2) in the exercise, whereas in the calorie restriction with and without exercise, the change in VAT area (−33.6 and −51.6 cm2, respectively) was approximately half of the reduction of SAT area (−65.1 and −87.2 cm2, respectively). Absolute changes in VAT and abdominal SAT areas might differ between interventions for the exercise and calorie restriction with and without exercise.
... In contrast, several studies reported significant differences between the effect of www.nature.com/scientificreports/ both types of training on body composition 22,25,27,[37][38][39] . Church et al. 37 compared the effect of resistance training, aerobic training and combined aerobic and resistance training (all interventions had approximately equal time requirements) and found that the combination of endurance and strength training improved FM significantly more than endurance training alone in type 2 diabetic subjects. ...
... Moreover, Rossi et al. 25 found that similar volume endurance and combined training decreased core fat and increased FFM, but only combined training potentiated a reduction in the percentage of body fat in obese postmenopausal women. Park et al. 39 investigated the effect of similar duration and frequency endurance and combined training and observed that combination exercises were more effective in decreasing subcutaneous fat www.nature.com/scientificreports/ visceral fat than endurance exercise, with lean body mass significantly increased only in the combined training group. ...
... Similarly, Laaksonen et al. 61 showed a statistically significant decrease in ApoB concentrations and a simultaneous increase in ApoA1 levels after 12-16 weeks of aerobic training. Park et al. 39 also observed a statistically significant decrease in ApoB concentrations and an increase in ApoA1 concentrations after 24 weeks of endurance and mixed training. Our study, however, showed no effects of endurance or endurance-strength training on ApoA1 or ApoB levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies comparing the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on cardiometabolic markers provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the study aimed to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on body composition and cardiometabolic parameters in abdominally obese women. In this randomised trial, 101 subjects were included and divided into endurance (n = 52) and endurance-strength (n = 49) training. During the 12-week intervention, participants performed supervised one-hour training three times a week. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), markers of glucose and lipid homeostasis, and myoglobin levels were measured before and after the intervention. In total, 85 subjects completed the trial. Both interventions decreased fat mass and visceral adipose tissue and increased free fat mass, appendicular lean mass index and lean mass index. Neither endurance training nor endurance-strength training affected glucose and lipid metabolism. However, only endurance training significantly decreased paraoxonase and myoglobin levels. Both training programmes significantly decreased BP, with a more reduction of diastolic BP noted in the endurance group. In conclusion, both training programmes had a favourable effect on body composition but did not improve glucose and lipid homeostasis. Besides, endurance training decreased paraoxonase activity and myoglobin levels and was more effective in reducing BP. The study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) within the number: DRKS00019832 (retrospective registration), date of registration: 26/02/2020.
... In the eight papers, the participants were only women (Fogelholm et al., 2000;Macura & Cirkovic, 2014;Meredith-Jones et al., 2009;Mladenov, 2014;Okura et al., 2005;Park et. al., 2003;Phillips et al., 2012;Skrypnik et al., 2015), while in remaining one paper, the participant were only men (Lee et al., 2012). In most papers, the training program lasted 12 weeks (Alberga et al., 2013;Farris et al., 2011;Lee et al., 2012;Mendelson et al., 2015;Meredith-Jones et al., 2009;Mladenov, 2014;Phillips et al., 2012;Saif & Alsena ...
... Аs far as physical activities are concerned, аerobic training program was the most used training program in this systematic review, 10 of 20 papers. There were obese children in four studies (Lee et al., 2012;Mendelson et al., 2015;Van det Heijden et al., 2010;Yu et al., 2005) an adults in six (Dobrosielski et al., 2015;Macura & Cirkovic, 2014;Mladenov, 2014;Okura et al., 2005;Park et al., 2003;Saif & Alsenany, 2015). In most of already mentioned papers, BMI was decreased the most (Dobrosielski et al., 2015;Mladenov, 2014;Okura et al., 2005;Saif & ...
... However, it is not the most effective type. Aerobic training in combination with endurance training proved to be the most effective type of training (Farris et al., 2011;Park et al., 2003;Meredith-Jones et al., 2009). It's a training method that lasts from 20 to 60 minutes, with low-intensity exercises and a heart rate zone of 50 to 75%. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is a systematic review of the available literature with the effects of physical activity (aerobic training, strength endurance training, etc.) on the obesity of the population of different ages. For collection of previous research on the impact of physical activity on motor fitness, the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, SCIndeks, PEDro, J-GATE, SCIndes, DOAJ and Google Scholar. The works in the period from 2000 to 2019 were searched. The following keywords were used in the database search: exercise, physical activity, children, adult, aerobic training, resistance training, walking. This systematic review was conducted in agreement with the PRISMA guidelines. The results of the analyzed works indicated that only 20 works met the set selection criteria. In the analyzed works were 845 respondents. In the most researches, the training program lasted 12 weeks, while the shortest program lasted only 5 weeks. Combining endurance training with aerobic training has been shown as the most effective method in the prevention and treatment of obesity.
... It is well known that obesity has an unbeneficial effect on physical capacity [48] and that regular training favorably affects these parameters [49]. Indeed, our results also showed that both training programs were similarly effective in the improvement of physical capacity. ...
... In both groups, we noted significant increases in VO2peak, TTE, WRmax, and WRVT, with no significant differences observed between groups for the investigated parameters [29]. However, several previous studies noted that the type of training might have a significant impact on the effect of exercise on physical capacity [49][50][51]. Schjerve et al. [50] found that the physical capacity parameters increased significantly in the high-intensity endurance training group when compared with the strength group. Hendrickson et al. [51] reported that VO2peak increased in the endurance-strength group and the endurance group but not in the strength group or the control group. ...
... In another study, a significant increase in VO2peak and VO2peak/kg were found both in the endurance and the combined training group but not in the strength group. However, the VO2peak/lean body mass index increased in only the combined training group [49]. By contrast, Jorge et al. [52] reported that endurance training but not resistance and combined training increased the VO2peak. ...
Article
Full-text available
The optimal type of exercise that simultaneously decreases body weight and preserves bone health in people with obesity is unknown. This parallel randomized trial aimed to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in abdominally obese postmenopausal women. A total of 101 women were recruited and randomly assigned to endurance or endurance-strength training groups. Participants trained for 60 min per day, three times per week for 12 weeks. The endurance exercises were performed at an intensity of 50–75% of the maximum heart rate, whereas the strength exercises were at 50–60% of the one-repetition maximum. Pre- and post-intervention BMD and BMC of the total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck and physical capacity were measured. There were no differences among the densitometric parameters in the endurance group, but a significant increase in whole-body BMD in the endurance-strength group was found. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the groups in the changes in the lumbar spine BMC. Furthermore, both training programs significantly improved physical capacity with no differences between groups. Endurance training was more effective in maintaining BMC at the lumbar spine. However, both groups did not differ in effect on BMD. Further studies with a long-term follow-up should be considered to confirm these findings. The study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register within the number DRKS00019832, and the date of registration was 26 February 2020 (retrospective registration).
... However, the SCT group presented significant reductions in waist circumference. These results showed that only the SCT group decreased their abdominal visceral fat [35,36], which is one component of metabolic syndrome [37]. Reduction of body fat without losing weight indicates a gain in muscle mass at the expense of fat mass loss Interval training and cardiac electro measures 15 [38]. ...
... In another 6-month study, aerobics alone was compared to a combined aerobic and resistance training. Both regimes significantly decreased abdominal visceral fat, but combined aerobic and resistance training was more effective [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Exercise is a valuable intervention modality for patients post-myocardial infarction (MI). Aerobic and resistance training are both commonly used separately in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the effect of aerobic interval exercise combined with alternating sets of resistance training (super-circuit training, SCT) on cardiac electrophysiologic and anthropometric measures had not been thoroughly investigated. Aim The primary objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of moderate-intensity continuous-aerobic training (CAT) vs. SCT on cardiac electrical measures (resting electrocardiographic, ECG; a nd heart rate variability, HRV) in patients’ post-MI presenting reduced left ventricular function. Second, to examine its effect on anthropometric measures. Material and methods Twenty-nine men post-MI with reduced left ventricular function were assigned randomly to either 12 weeks of CAT (n = 15) or SCT (n = 14). CAT group performed moderate-intensity activity. SCT group performed high-intensity exercise, alternating between resistance and aerobic training. Differences between CAT and SCT groups were done using independent t-tests, paired t-tests and effect size (ES). Results Participants in both groups improved their HRV measures (increase in HFnu; p < 0.05; ES > 0.51) and ECG (reduction in QT-dispersion; p < 0.05; ES > 0.51). Only the SCT group had significant improvements in waist circumference (p < 0.05). Conclusion Exercise improves cardiac electrical measures post-MI. However, in comparison to CAT, SCT may yield greater anthropometric changes. In order to have improvements in cardiac electrical stability, clinicians working with post-MI patients may use both CAT and SCT. However, SCT might result in greater improvements.
... All studies included previously inactive or sedentary controls (no exercise, n=1592). CET (n=1424), 32,34,35,40,42,44,45,47,[49][50][51][52][54][55][56][58][59][60][61]64,65,67,69,70,72,75,[77][78][79][80][81]85,88,[90][91][92][93]95,98,103,105,[107][108][109][110] INT (n=340), 44,83,85,[98][99][100][101][102]107,108 RT (n=668), 33,40,46,48,50,51,54,57,58,64,65,69,71,73,74,76,[82][83][84][85]87,[94][95][96][97]103,106,110 CT (n=198), 37,39,43,51,53,62,64,65,86,88,93,103,104,110 and HYB (n=109) 19 ...
... All studies included previously inactive or sedentary controls (no exercise, n=1592). CET (n=1424), 32,34,35,40,42,44,45,47,[49][50][51][52][54][55][56][58][59][60][61]64,65,67,69,70,72,75,[77][78][79][80][81]85,88,[90][91][92][93]95,98,103,105,[107][108][109][110] INT (n=340), 44,83,85,[98][99][100][101][102]107,108 RT (n=668), 33,40,46,48,50,51,54,57,58,64,65,69,71,73,74,76,[82][83][84][85]87,[94][95][96][97]103,106,110 CT (n=198), 37,39,43,51,53,62,64,65,86,88,93,103,104,110 and HYB (n=109) 19 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although regular exercise is recommended for preventing and treating overweight/obesity, the most effective exercise type for improving cardiometabolic health in individuals with overweight/obesity remains largely undecided. This network meta-analysis aimed to evaluate and rank the comparative efficacy of 5 exercise modalities on cardiometabolic health measures in individuals with overweight/obesity. Methods: A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception up to September 2020. The review focused on randomized controlled trials involving exercise interventions consisting of continuous endurance training, interval training, resistance training, combined aerobic and resistance training (combined training), and hybrid-type training. Exercise interventions aimed to improve somatometric variables, body composition, lipid metabolism, glucose control, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate eligible studies. A random-effects network meta-analysis was performed within a frequentist framework. The intervention ranking was carried out using a Bayesian model where mean and SD were equal to the respective frequentist estimates. Results: A total of 4331 participants (59% female; mean age: 38.7±12.3 years) from 81 studies were included. Combined training was the most effective modality and hybrid-type training the second most effective in improving cardiometabolic health-related outcomes in these populations suggesting a higher efficacy for multicomponent exercise interventions compared to single-component modalities, that is, continuous endurance training, interval training, and resistance training. A subgroup analysis revealed that the effects from different exercise types were mediated by gender. Conclusions: These findings corroborate the latest guidelines on exercise for individuals with overweight/obesity highlighting the importance of a multicomponent exercise approach to improve cardiometabolic health. Physicians and healthcare professionals should consider prescribing multicomponent exercise interventions to adults with overweight/obesity to maximize clinical outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42020202647.
... Numerosos autores plantean que existen mayores beneficios con un entrenamiento mixto (combinación de trabajo de fuerza y resistencia), marcando mejoras en cuanto a los niveles cardiorrespiratorios, en fuerza muscular y en la composición corporal (Park et al., 2003;Häkkinen et al., 2002;Knuttgen, 2007). Park et al., (2003) al combinar un entrenamiento de resistencia aeróbica (60-70% FC máxima), y otro mixto (resistencia y fuerza) en mujeres obesas a lo largo de seis sesiones semanales. ...
... Numerosos autores plantean que existen mayores beneficios con un entrenamiento mixto (combinación de trabajo de fuerza y resistencia), marcando mejoras en cuanto a los niveles cardiorrespiratorios, en fuerza muscular y en la composición corporal (Park et al., 2003;Häkkinen et al., 2002;Knuttgen, 2007). Park et al., (2003) al combinar un entrenamiento de resistencia aeróbica (60-70% FC máxima), y otro mixto (resistencia y fuerza) en mujeres obesas a lo largo de seis sesiones semanales. Comprobaron que el porcentaje de grasa corporal disminuyó en mayor medida en el grupo de entrenamiento mixto, y que las mejoras cardiorrespiratorias fueron similares en ambos grupos. ...
Article
Full-text available
El presente trabajo forma parte de un estudio en el que se pretendió conocer el tratamiento del deporte dentro de área de educación física en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la Provincia de Huelva. En este artículo nos centramos en los aspectos que los docentes tienen en cuenta a la hora de elegir los contenidos deportivos. Para ello se analizó un total de 63 profesores a los que se les suministró un cuestionario. Los datos fueron analizados usando el paquete estadístico SPSS (13.0). Entre los principales resultados encontramos que el deporte es el contenido que mayor presencia tiene en nuestras clases, siendo los deportes colectivos los más desarrollados. En cuanto a los principales motivos de elección encontramos que las instalaciones y los materiales son determinantes. Otro aspecto que también se tiene en cuenta es que los contenidos sean motivadores y novedosos, el interés y la demanda de los alumnos, y el propio conocimiento y dominio del profesor sobre los diferentes deportes.Palabra clave: deporte escolar, programación, educación secundaria.Abstract: This article forms part of a study in which treatment was sought in order to know the area of sport in physical education in compulsory secondary education in the province of Huelva. In this article we focus on aspects that teachers have in mind when choosing the sports content. We examine a total of 63 teachers who were given a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS (13.0). The main findings are that the sport is content that has greater presence in our classrooms, being team sports the most developed. As for the main reasons for choosing facilities and find that materials are crucial. Another aspect is also taken into account is that content is motivating and innovative, interest and student demand, and self-knowledge and command of the teacher about the different sports.Key words: school sport, program, secondary education.
... Resistance training combined with aerobic exercise has been shown to be effective for reducing reactive oxygen species and increasing antioxidant enzymes [5], as well as reducing total cholesterol levels in obese women more than aerobic exercise alone [6]. Regular exercise also plays an important role in increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing the release of pro-inflammatory agents by adipocytes by reducing visceral and total fat [4]. ...
... Mann et al. [31] reviewed the effects of different types of exercise training on cholesterol levels and concluded that resistance training may complement the effects of aerobic training, although there is limited literature comparing the three types of exercises (aerobic, resistance and combined exercises). Likewise, Park et al. [6], showed that combined exercise may reduce total cholesterol in obese women more than in aerobic exercise alone. Therefore, the reduction of total cholesterol found in both groups in our study is in agreement with previous clinical trials and indicates that combined physical exercise may be an alternative for reducing this risk factor in postmenopausal women. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15) or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17) groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance) over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post) between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001) in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL) as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.
... In addition, all subjects were asked not to make any changes to their daily diet and not to engage in any dietary practices that would result in weight loss. A similar procedure was applied in studies by Mikkola et al. [21], Park et al. [22], and Sillanpaa et al. [23]. The participants did not know about the main purpose of the study. ...
... This was confirmed in the behavior of the WHR coefficient (Table 1). A similar dependence was observed by Park et al. in their studies [22]. No changes in these parameters were recorded within in CG group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Systematic physical activity can permanently prevent disadvantageous developments in the human body. This is very important especially for women, for whom the maintenance of a lean body in good shape is sometimes a primary consideration. However, in most cases, this activity is taken randomly and does not produce the desired effects such as reducing body fat. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in female body composition induced by 12 weeks of swimming training compared to sedentary controls. Methods: Training sessions occurred three times per week (60 min/session). Height, body mass, and waist/hip circumference and waist/hips ratio (WHR) were measured. Body cell mass (BCM), total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW), fat mass (FM), lean mass (FFM), and muscle mass (MM) were measured using bioelectrical impedance (pre/post). Results: Training elicited decreases in hip circumference and increase in WHR. No changes were recorded in BCM, TBW, ECW, ICW, FM, FFM, and MM. Controls experienced decreases in values of BCM, ICW, and MM and increases in ECW. Conclusion: The applied swimming training did not significantly affect the body composition parameters. Inactivity also triggered a tendency toward unhealthy movement of water from the intracellular to extracellular space.
... Triglycerides (TG) 5 . Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 6 . Free fatty acid 7 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance and endurance concurrent training combined with ingested of L-Carnitine supplementation on hormonal changes, lipid profile, and body composition in obese men. Materials & Methods: Twenty four young obese men (age: 23.6±2.4 years and BMI: 32.4±1.6 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly divided into two groups of 12 people taking the supplement and placebo. Both groups performed the same concurrent resistance and endurance training program (3 times a week for 8 weeks). The supplement group consumed daily 3g of Lcarnitine and the placebo group ingested the same amount of maltodextrin. Blood samples were collected before and 36h after completion of the training course in the fasting state. The paired sample t-test was used to determine differences within a group, and differences between groups were analyzed using independent t-test. Results: In both supplement and placebo groups a significant decrease were seen in body weight, fat mass, body fat percentage, cholesterol, TG and LDL-c after 8 weeks of concurrent training. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in HDL-c (p≤0.05). After more, a significant increase in cortisol (in both groups) and testosterone (only in the supplement group) were observed (p≤0.05). However, in all the variables mentioned, there were significant differences between groups in favor of the group receiving carnitine at the post-test. In other words, the rate of improvement was significantly greater in the supplement group compared to the placebo group (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Although the implementation of a combination of resistance and endurance training for 8 weeks improves body composition, lipid profile and hormonal changes in obese subjects, but the rate of progress was significantly improved with supplementation of L-carnitine. Keywords: Resistance training, Endurance training, Fat mass, Obesity, L-Carnitine
... Reduced symptomatology is seen for conditions such as sleep apnea (85)(86)(87)(88), hypertension (89)(90)(91)(92)(93), type 2 diabetes mellitus (94,95), and inflammation (92,(96)(97)(98). Reduction in these comorbid conditions is important as these conditions may contribute to cognitive dysfunction often seen in obesity (99)(100)(101). ...
Article
Cognitive functioning may be preserved or improved through exercise. Both acute and regular exercise have positive effects on cognition, particularly on measures of attention, executive functioning, and memory. Improving fitness may be especially beneficial to cognitive function in older adults and persons with chronic medical conditions. Future studies should identify the mechanisms for these benefits and seek to determine the clinical utility of routinely recommending exercise to promote better neurological outcomes.
... In this study, the average age of Aerobic Other studies that are similar to this study found that recent combined trainings (aerobic training and strength training) caused a decrease in fat levels around abdominal area and combine trainings were more effective than food intake limitations (Park et al., 2003), and using combined aerobic and strength exercise was the most effective training program in obesity training (Hill et al., 1987;Keles, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of combined aerobic and strength training in circuit training on body fat ratio. The universe of this study was selected as 32 male participants who continue their training and do fitness for health. Participants were divided into 2 groups: aerobic group (16 people) and combined group (16 people). This study was applied for 8 weeks, 3 days per week, and 1 hour per day. Participants were informed about how the tests will be conducted. An aerobic capacity test, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-hip ratio were among the applied tests and measurements. Data were analysed with SPSS 21 package program. Average and standard deviation of obtained data were calculated. Results showed that results of aerobic and combined trainings were similarly, and both aerobic and combined training positively affected body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and aerobic capacity values. Additionally, it can be stated that aerobic exercises directly affected waist-hip ratio compared to combined exercises, and combined training was more efficient for waist-hip ratio.
... Moreover, a non-significant decrease in TG and LDL-C to HDL-C ratio was also observed in the older cases (14). Similar results were reported in study of Park et al. on obese middle-aged women (15). Although it has been suggested that combination of aerobic/resistance exercise significantly increases PPAR-α expression after six months, in our study, this effect on the gene expression was achieved after only eight weeks (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. This study examined the effects of cardiac rehabilitation exercise on lipid profile and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) gene in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, after screening, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=12) and a control group (n=12). After the surgery and discharge from hospital, the experimental group performed rehabilitation exercise for two months, while the control group did not perform any exercise after discharge from the hospital and the initial phase of rehabilitation. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the last training session to evaluate biochemical variables and PPAR-α gene expression of lymphocytes. PPAR-α expression level was assessed by qRT-PCR. Statistical analysis was done in the SPSS software (version 20) using repeated measures. Results: In the follow-up after the two-month cardiac rehabilitation exercise, the PPAR-α gene was significantly overexpressed and plasma HDL levels increased significantly in the training group compared with the control group (P0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that the protocols carried out in the study could be utilized for improving HDL levels and cardiovascular function in CABG patients. keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation, Gene Expression, PPAR-α.
... In contrast, Park et al. [37] reported even greater decreases in body mass (4.7 kg) after a 6-month moderate aerobic exercise program. This discrepancy could be explained by the greater frequency of the program which was performed 6 days a week. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes which occurred after a supervised aerobic exercise program in the blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass in overweight individuals. Sixty-one individuals (65.6 ± 6.5 years, 31.16 ± 4.76 kg/m²) performed an exercise program consisting of 1 h sessions of aerobic exercises, three times/week for 6 months. Resting systolic and diastolic BP, cardiorespiratory fitness [6-min walk test (6MWT)] and body mass were measured three times; at baseline (T0), after 3 months (T1) and after 6 months (T2). Results showed significant (p < 0.05) changes in systolic BP, diastolic BP and the 6MWT at T2. Small and statistically no significant changes were observed in body mass. Greater significant changes were observed in BP measures and the 6MWT at T1 compared to measurements at T2. A significant relationship between changes in resting systolic BP and diastolic BP (r = 0.47) was found but not between changes in other variables. It could be concluded that a 6-month exercise program based on aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors regardless of body mass loss. These findings highlight the importance of lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity rather than focusing on body mass loss alone.
... Furthermore, VO2max in the aerobic group was significantly enhanced and the strength of the three groups showed a significant increase (17). Another study was conducted on the effect of concurrent training program on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and aerobic power changes on 30 obese women whose results showed a significant reduction in fat and increased fat mass in the concurrent exercise group (18). On the other hand, the results of some studies indicate that the body composition of subjects is not affected by concurrent training. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obesity and overweight in childhood and adolescence is one of the challenges of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eight weeks of concurrent training program on body composition indices (fat%, fat mass, free fat mass, weight, and BMI) in overweight and obese female students. Methods: Thirty obese or overweight students of the city of Khoy in the northwest of Iran (age: 14.0 ± 69.0 yrs, weight: 35.8 ± 88.6 kg, and height: 161.0 ± 62.4 cm) voluntarily participated in the study and randomly assigned into the training (n=15) and the control groups (n=15). After an initial test, training group conducted eight weeks of exercise, including three days per week of training protocol that consisted of a series of the aerobic and strength exercises based on the progressing rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Results: According to the data, there were significant within and between groups differences in body composition after 8 weeks of exercise (fat%, fat mass, weight, and BMI) (P<0.05), but no significant within and between group differences in free fat mass (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the eight weeks of concurrent training program has beneficial effects on some body composition indices in obese and overweight female students.
... The hand search of the references of all relevant studies identified one relevant study (Arslan, 2011). After removal of duplicates and exclusion of studies based on predetermined criteria, the final sample included 9 RCTs (Araújo et al., 2015;Arslan, 2011;Jasiński et al., 2015;Kantyka, Herman, Roczniok, & Kuba, 2015;Kin-Isler & Kosar, 2006;Melam et al., 2016;Nagle et al., 2007;Novaes et al., 2014;Park et al., 2003) and 5 uncontrolled clinical trials (Duzova et al., 2018;Hallage et al., 2010;Pilch et al., 2017;Ruiz-Montero, Castillo-Rodriguez, Mikalacki, Nebojsa, & Korovljev, 2014;Said, Lamya, Olfa, & Hamda, 2017), the overview of which is shown in Table 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aerobics (AE) is an attractive type of aerobic exercise and can be considered as an appropriate intervention strategy for weight loss. However, results of clinical trials are not consistent due to high variability in relation to the type of AE and duration of intervention. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of AE on weight and fat mass loss in adult women. Methods: Of the total number of 243 studies, the final analysis included seven clinical trials with a pooled sample size of 242 females. Results: Although the results confirmed a significant overall effect on weight loss (-1.97 kg, 95% confidence interval [-3.72, -0.23], p = .03), an effect on fat mass loss was not confirmed (-2.62%, 95% confidence interval [-5.53, 0.29], p = .08). It was further observed that traditional AE and longer interventions have a greater effect on reducing body weight and fat mass compared with aqua AE and interventions shorter than 10 weeks. Conclusions: In conclusion, AE seems to be an effective intervention for weight loss in women, but the type of AE and the duration of the intervention should be considered.
... 184,185 Similarly, resistance or weight-bearing exercise alone or in combination with aerobic exercise improves health outcomes in high-risk groups. [186][187][188][189] There is significant evidence to support exercise alone, independent of weight loss; 160,190 but the intensity, type and frequency of exercise remains unclear; hence, this clinical question was prioritised during guideline development. ...
... In the present study, a significant decrease was seen in the variables of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL in both groups, while no significant difference was observed between the two groups. These findings were consistent with the study by Park et al., who showed exercise could lead to a significant change in all lipid indicators [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective The correlation between the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a controversial one. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori treatment on liver function tests and lipid profiles and to compare its effects with exercise therapy and diet alone. Method This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. One hundred patients with NAFLD having a positive test for urea breath testing were randomly assigned into one of the intervention and comparison groups. The diet and physical activity program were given to two groups of patients for 8 weeks, three sessions per week. In addition to the above therapy, the patients in the intervention group also received HP treatment for 2weeks. The data corresponding to anthropometric and clinical features before and after the intervention were collected in both groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results After the treatment interventions, the variables of weight, BMI, blood glucose, triglyceride, AST, ALT, total cholesterol, and LDL-C were significantly decreased in both groups ( p < .05). In the between-group comparisons, only ALT was significantly lower in the intervention group (HP) ( p < .05). Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori could significantly improve the ALT index, but it had no additional effect on changes in metabolic indicators. Trial registration Registration number: IRCT2015042020951N2 Name of trial registry: The study of treatment of Helicobacter pylori in improvement of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease The date of registration: 2015-05-12 Where the full trial protocol can be accessed: https://fa.irct.ir/trial/18489
... It should be noted that no significant differences between groups before and after completion of the training programs were observed. The results of the study presented herein confirm the findings of other authors [19], in that the combination of strength training and endurance training may be more effective than endurance training alone, in terms of reduction of visceral fat while maintaining/increasing muscle mass. New findings indicate that combined training may also result in a significant improvement in metabolic indicators, inter alia, lipid metabolism of people who exercise [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Some investigations have demonstrated that a combined endurance–strength training is the most effective in the treatment of obesity. The aim of the research was to access how different trainings influence: endothelial function, lipid metabolism, and risk of atherosclerosis in women with obesity. In a randomized trial, 39 obese women aged 28–62 completed endurance (n = 22, 60-80% HRmax) or combined training (n = 17, 20 minutes of strength exercises, 50–60% 1RM and 25 minutes of endurance training, 60-80% HRmax). Before and after the intervention vascular endothelial function (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP)as well as visceral adiposity index (VAI), total-body skeletal muscle mass and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were determined. After the trainings, in both groups total cholesterol and total-body skeletal muscle mass increased (p < 0.05). In the group undergoing combined training, lower (p < 0.05) VAI, AIP, CRP and LDL-C were noted. In the group undergoing endurance training TBARS concentration decreased (p < 0.01), while the HDL-C (p < 0.01) concentration as well as eNOS (p < 0.05) activity increased. No significant differences between groups were found, either before or after the programs. Both training programs led to the improvement of lipid metabolism, but only endurance training alone favorably changed indicators of endothelial functions in women with obesity.
... On the other hand, randomized controlled clinical trials used aerobic and resistance exercise and reported limited beneficial results, mainly in elderly [20] and middle-aged people [21] . Beside, Lee, [22] suggested a combined folk dance and resistance training protocol for 24 weeks found no significant effect on lipid profile. ...
... Obesity is related to the occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases. An accurate diagnosis of obesity is important for health maintenance [18]. Physical activity alone is not a useful method for reducing obesity [5]. ...
... In a study of 30 women and two types of training, aerobics or aerobics combined with peripheral training, there was a significant reduction in body fat in both groups. However, the women who undertook aerobic exercise with peripheral training experienced a greater difference compared to the aerobic-only group [27]. a study by Stachoń et al. showed that female students who undertook the highest physical activity (four times a week) had the least-thick skin-fat folds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical activity is an excellent form of prevention of modern diseases. The most popular form of physical activity chosen by women is group fitness activities. Women are most likely to focus on exercises for the lower parts of the body (thighs, buttocks, abdomen). In recent years, dance classes (e.g. Zumba) or exercises on mini trampolines have become very popular. Regular fitness training contributes to positive changes in the proportions and body composition. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess the proportions and body composition of a woman via a 3-month group fitness training program. Case report: The study involved a woman aged 26, participating in fitness classes three times a week for a period of three months. The woman participated in the following training cycle: twice a week (Monday and Wednesday) in the Jumping Frog interval training on a trampoline; twice a week (Monday and Friday) in ZUMBA® classes; and once a week (Wednesday) in ABT classes (abdomen, buttocks, thighs). Her height and weight, waist and hips circumference, and the thickness of three skinfolds (subscapular, triceps, abdominal) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated and body composition analysis (% of body fat, lean body mass) was performed. Two measurements were made: the first at the beginning of the training cycle, the second on completion. After three months of training, there were a decrease in body weight (2.2 kg), BMI (0.77 kg/m2), waist circumference (4 cm), hip circumference (2 cm), WHR (0.03), subscapular, abdominal and triceps skinfold (1 mm, 3 mm, 3 mm), body fat (2.6%) and perimeters, and an increase in lean body mass (1 kg). Conclusions: This study shows a positive effect of fitness training on body proportions and body composition.
... [15] Reductions in visceral body fat were also documented in studies published by Park, who examined the effect of the same type of exercise on the studied parameters. [16,17] It is already known that maintaining an adequate amount of fat mass (FM) compared to fat free mass (FFM) is important with respect to the correct profile of the menstrual cycle. [18,19] Adequate content of body fat helps maintain energy balance due to effective synthesis of leptin, which is a protein that ensures communication between energy resources in the form of fat and the appetite centres in the hypothalamus, which ensures the efficient appetite regulation [20]. ...
... 81,82 Similarly, resistance or weight-bearing exercise either alone or in combination with aerobic exercise improves health outcomes in groups. [83][84][85][86] In general populations, physical activity and structured exercise deliver metabolic, cardiovascular and psychosocial benefits, whether alone or combined with diet changes. [87][88][89] Sedentary behaviours link to all-cause mortality and adverse health impacts, 90,91 whilst aerobic and resistance exercise reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. ...
Article
Lifestyle is fundamental in chronic disease prevention and management, and it has been recommended as a first‐line treatment in the Australian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) guideline 2011. The first international evidence‐based guideline on PCOS was developed in 2018, which expanded the scope and evidence in the Australian guideline. This paper summarizes the lifestyle recommendations and evidence summaries from the guideline. International multidisciplinary guideline development groups delivered the International Evidence‐based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 2018. The process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II and The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Extensive communication and meetings addressed six prioritized clinical questions through five reviews. Evidence‐based recommendations were formulated before consensus voting within the panel. Evidence shows the benefits of multicomponent lifestyle intervention, efficacy of exercise and weight gain prevention with no specific diet recommended. Lifestyle management is the first‐line management in the intervention hierarchy in PCOS. Multicomponent lifestyle intervention including diet, exercise and behavioural strategies is central to PCOS management with a focus on weight and healthy lifestyle behaviours. The translation programme optimizes reach and dissemination for health professionals and consumers.
... 30,35 Physical activity with both aerobic and resistance training is also necessary for weight maintenance. 31,36,37 Adults should do at least 150 to 300 minutes a week of moderateintensity, or 75 to 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity (or an equivalent combination), as well as full-body muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days a week. 31,[38][39][40] Higher doses of exercises are recommended for patients with obesity due to the metabolic and cardiopulmonary benefits, and the attenuation of lean mass often lost with concomitant caloric reduction. ...
Article
Importance and objective: Obesity is a chronic disease of epidemic proportions that continues to affect millions of Americans each year. Postmenopausal women are particularly affected by obesity and have higher rates of severe obesity when compared with their male counterparts. The prevalence of obesity in this population is linked to increased morbidity and mortality and promotes the development and progression of numerous obesity-related health conditions. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical assessment, and treatment of postmenopausal women with obesity. Methods: We have reviewed relevant and up-to-date literature in the MEDLINE database to represent the current understanding of obesity and its effects in this patient population. Articles published between the years 2000 and 2020 were selected for review to represent the most up-to-date evidence on the topic. Search terms used in the PubMed search included women, obesity, menopause, aging, mid-age women, metabolism, weight gain, treatment of obesity, weight loss, bariatric surgery, weight loss medications, diet, physical activity, and behavior modification. Discussion and conclusion: Obesity is a complex, chronic, relapsing disease that requires comprehensive assessment and treatment. Obesity is linked to hormonal, lifestyle, and environmental changes that occur during the menopausal transition, and it increases the risk for cardiometabolic disease. The utilization of appropriate clinical evaluation methods to identify obesity in postmenopausal women, and the implementation of effective lifestyle, pharmacotherapeutic, and surgical interventions, have the propensity to reduce the deleterious effects of obesity in this population. Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A770.
... Short-term training in less than 12 weeks has no effect on decreasing body mass [32], but some research found significant results even in a shorter period. Park's study showed that physical parameter results of combined training conducted for an 8-week long training protocol positively affected body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and maxVO2 values in women [33]. However, Schumann did not find significant changes in body fat and blood lipids even after a 24 weeks' intervention (2-3× per week) on physically active men, but found increasing total lean mass [21], which also corresponds with the study of Lee [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study evaluates the effects of a 4-week programs of combined resistance and aerobic training, and volleyball training on physical fitness in young sedentary adults. Twenty-eight males (age 20.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass 87.2 ± 28.5 kg; height 173 ± 8.1 cm; BMI 28.9 ± 8.4 kg/m 2) were divided into two groups. While experimental group 1 (COM) underwent a fitness program consisting of a combination of strength and aerobic exercises, experimental group 2 (VOL) performed intermittent exercises in volleyball (four times per week for 50 min). The results showed that both training groups significantly improved in all fitness tests except the beep test, while only the COM group achieved a significant change in the number of repetitions (p = 0.041). Between-group analyzes revealed a greater change achieved by the COM group in the length of standing long jump compared to VOLstanding long jump lengths than VOL (12.3% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.011). There were no other between-group significant differences in 20m Multistage Fitness Test (8.1% and 4.4%,), sit-ups (20.9% and 21.0%), flexibility (24.5% and 23.3%) and shuttle run 5 × 10 m (11.95 and 9.52%) or in anthropometric parameters (BMI, Fat %, Muscle Mass %, Visceral Fat %). These findings indicate that combined resistance and aerobic training is more effective in the improvement ofare more effective in improving the explosive power of lower limbs and aerobic endurance than playing an intermittent-type sport such as volleyball. This program can be effectively applied to university students with a predominantly sedentary lifestyle.
... There was no statistically significant change in the lean body mass (LBM) after the exercise program. That is in accordance with the results of some studies that demonstrated no effects of aerobic exercise to LBM in overweight persons (Park et al 2003), sedentary women (Antonio et al 2000), and children 11-13 years old (Dashti 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The effects of aerobic exercise on bone metabolism are still unclear. Thus, the main goal of this study was to explore if there was an effect of the short-term aerobic exercise program on the bone remodeling process and if there were sex differences in the effect of the training program on bone metabolism. Methods Twenty-one participants (men and women) aged 20–23 performed an 8-week aerobic exercise program three times per week in 1-h sessions with increases in the exercise load every 2 weeks. Bone density, bone mineral content and concentration of markers of bone metabolism: osteocalcin, C-terminal procollagen type I peptide, pyridinoline, parathyroid hormone, osteoprotegerin, and the receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand by ELISA were measured at the start and at the end of the study, while changes in body composition were assessed by a bioelectric impedance analysis method 6 times during the study. Results The aerobic exercise program increased the concentration of osteocalcin (11.34 vs 14.24 ng/ml), pyridinoline (67.51 vs 73.99 nmol/l), and the receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (95.122 vs 158.15 pg/ml). A statistically significant increase in bone density at neck mean (1.122 vs 1.176 g/cm³) and in bone mineral content at dual femur (33.485 vs 33.700 g) was found in women, while there was no statistically significant change at any site in men. Conclusion 8 weeks of the aerobic exercise program with increment in intensity increased some of bone remodeling biomarkers and showed different effects for men and women.
... Majority of our research goal was focused on estimating the amount of fat lost due to HIIT exercises than identifying the right pattern of exercise. Many authors have devised exercise strategies based on aerobic and anaerobic exercises Park et al., 2003;Johnson, Sachinwalla, Walton, Smith, Armstrong, Thompson, George, 2009). Some authors used different exercises forms to combat obesity (Strasser, Schobersberger, 2011;Schoenfeld, 2011). ...
Article
Physical activity has multiple health bene􏰀its and is a critical component in managing overweight and obesity. However, one of the main barriers to achieving regular physical activity in overweight today is lack of time. High- Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has bridged both these issues systemati- cally. Twenty-four men and women (age 18-60 years) volunteered to partici- pate in 6 weeks of modi􏰀ied HIIT exercises program where whole-body func- tional training exercises was provided. Their body weight, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and skinfold fat were measured at the beginning and the end of the six weeks duration. Statistical signi􏰀icance was found between the variables at p<0.05 The results showed that after modi􏰀ied HIIT exercise inter- ventions, there is a considerable decrease in the level of adiposity up to 77.8%. Obesity and overweight have become complex pandemic disorders wherein physical inactivity and lack of time to exercise plays a signi􏰀icant role leading to various complications. A decrease in adiposity through structured exer- cises protocols will enhance a better lifestyle and thereby increases the overall metabolism of the body. Newer interventions such as HIIT exercises serve as the perfect pathway to address the time factor and enhancement of physical activity as well.
... Overweight and obesity in young man are related to lifestyle, which includes lack of physical activity and eating an excessive amount of calories (Park et al., 2003). Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise is effective to prevent and treat overweight and obesity (Wei et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the effect of body weight training combined with a low carbohydrate diet and running combined with a low carbohydrate diet on reducing body fat percentage in overweight and obese young man. The research used pretest posttest group design experimental method. The sample consisted of 30 young man divided into two groups that had been strictly selected. Their body fat percentage was measured before and after the research program. The result was analyzed through paired sample t-test at a significance level of α 0.05 and the average difference test (independent sample t-test posttest) to get a better result. This study shows that body weight training combined with a low carbohydrate diet and running combined with a low carbohydrate diet have a significant effect on decreasing body fat percentage, but running combined with a low carbohydrate diet is better at reducing body fat percentage compared with body weight training combined with a low carbohydrate diet. Overweight and obese young man can apply body weight training combined with a low carbohydrate diet or run combined with a low carbohydrate diet to reduce body fat percentage, but to get the results of a reduction in body fat percentage running and low carbohydrate diets is more recommended.
... [8,9] Elderly people suffer from obesity and diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, colon cancer, breast cancer, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, depression, and other chronic diseases due to lack of physical activity in daily life and poor nutrition. [10,11] Health promotion is needed for the whole population, but the elderly are often overlooked as health audiences. Since the family base is a place where health behaviors are usually learned, developed, maintained, and changed, targeting the family system (instead of the individual) is an option to improve the health of individuals, families, and communities. ...
Article
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of family-centered care interventions is to enhance the abilities of family members in certain areas that overcome the barriers to health and well-being, The purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of education based on family-centered empowerment model on health-promoting behaviors and some serum metabolic indicators in elderly women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this stratified randomized controlled trial, 60 elderly women aged 60 years and older referring to elderly-friendly health centers in Tabriz-East Azerbaijan were divided randomly into intervention and control groups in 2019. Intervention group received a family-centered healthy lifestyle intervention once a week for 10 sessions and the control group received the routine care. The mean score of health-promoting behaviors using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II questionnaire, glycemia and serum lipid profile, liver and renal function, 25-hydroxy Vitamin D, and calcium serum levels were assessed before the intervention, 2 and 6 months after the intervention through SPSS/version 23 using independent t-test, ANCOVA, and repeated measure analysis. RESULTS: The ANCOVA test showed a significant increase in total lifestyle score in the intervention compared to the control group, 2 (adjusted mean difference [aMD]: 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.6–21.8) and 6 months (aMD: 17.2; 95% CI: 7.7–26.7) after education. The score of the nutrition and health responsibility domains significantly increased two (P < 0.05) and 6 months (P < 0.001) after the intervention in the intervention group compared to control. In both groups, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea, and creatinine showed a significant decrease, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calcium levels showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A healthy lifestyle education based on family-centered empowerment model increased the total lifestyle score. So, it is recommended as an effective educational approach to improve the health of elderly.
... Majority of our research goal was focused on estimating the amount of fat lost due to HIIT exercises than identifying the right pattern of exercise. Many authors have devised exercise strategies based on aerobic and anaerobic exercises Park et al., 2003;Johnson, Sachinwalla, Walton, Smith, Armstrong, Thompson, George, 2009). Some authors used different exercises forms to combat obesity (Strasser, Schobersberger, 2011;Schoenfeld, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise has multiple health benefits and is a critical component in managing overweight and obesity. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) involves brief high-intensity anaerobic exercise followed by rest or very low intensity exercise. 24 men and women (age 18–60 years) volunteered to participate in a 6 weeks of modified HIIT exercises program where whole body functional training exercises was provided. Their body weight, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and skin fold fat were measured at the beginning and at the end of the 6 weeks duration . Statistical significance was found between the variables at p < 0.05. The results showed that a Modified HIIT exercise Program based on Body weight training results in considerable decrease in level of sub-cutaneous adiposity up to 77.8%. Obesity and overweight have become complex pandemic disorders where in physical inactivity and lack of time to exercise plays a major role leading to various complications. Reduction in adiposity through structured exercises protocols will improve body composition and Cardio-metabolic health . Novel interventions such as modified HIIT serve as the perfect pathway to address the time factor and enhancement of physical activity as well.
... The full texts of 78 studies were reviewed and 62 of those were excluded due to a lack of pre-and post-exercise intervention outcome measures and/or not being a randomized controlled trial. Finally, a total of 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. The basic characteristics of the selected studies including the first author's name, design of the study, number of participants, levels of BMI, sex, content of exercise interventions, and major findings are presented in Table 1. ...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Exercise interventions for overweight and obese individuals help reduce accumulated visceral fat, which is an indicator of cardiometabolic risk, but the effectiveness of these interventions is controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese individuals in order to reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and accumulated visceral fat, and increase lean body mass. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with control and experimental groups were included. The degrees of effectiveness of the exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight, BMI, and accumulated visceral fat, and increasing lean body mass. (3) Results: Sixteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions reduced weight (d = −0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI), −0.84–−0.31; p < 0.001; k = 9)), BMI (d = −0.50 (95% CI, −0.78–−0.21; p < 0.001; k = 7)), and accumulated visceral fat (d = −1.08 (95% CI, −1.60–−0.57; p < 0.001; k = 5)), but did not significantly increase lean body mass (d = 0.26 (95% CI, −0.11–0.63; p = 0.17; k = 6)). The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was of moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 min per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on weight, BMI, and accumulated visceral fat. Further studies considering different modalities, intensities, durations, and measurements of fatness need to be conducted.
... No final, foram incluídos 12 ensaios clínicos randomizados (15 relatos) que avaliaram a eficácia de modalidades exercícios físicos em indivíduos portadores de sobrepeso ou obesidade (Figura O) e seus dados se encontram relatados a seguir240,264,267,269,273,274,[276][277][278][279][280][281][282][283][284] .Figura O.Fluxograma de seleção dos estudos.C. Descrição dos estudos e resultadosA descrição sumária dos estudos incluídos encontra-se no Tabela P. A caracterização dos participantes de cada estudo pode ser vista na Tabela Q. Resultados encontram-se nas Tabelas R a V. Nas Figuras P e Q, podem ser vistas as meta-análises realizadas para redução de peso corporal de acordo com a modalidade de exercício físico. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sobrepeso e Obesidade em Adultos Portaria SCTIE nº 53 - 11/11/2020
... Majority of our research goal was focused on estimating the amount of fat lost due to HIIT exercises than identifying the right pattern of exercise. Many authors have devised exercise strategies based on aerobic and anaerobic exercises Park et al., 2003;Johnson, Sachinwalla, Walton, Smith, Armstrong, Thompson, George, 2009). Some authors used different exercises forms to combat obesity (Strasser, Schobersberger, 2011;Schoenfeld, 2011). ...
Article
Exercise has multiple health benefits and is a critical component in managing overweight and obesity. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) involves brief high-intensity anaerobic exercise followed by rest or very low intensity exercise. 24 men and women (age 18–60 years) volunteered to participate in a 6 weeks of modified HIIT exercises program where whole body functional training exercises was provided. Their body weight, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and skin fold fat were measured at the beginning and at the end of the 6 weeks duration . Statistical significance was found between the variables at p < 0.05. The results showed that a Modified HIIT exercise Program based on Body weight training results in considerable decrease in level of sub-cutaneous adiposity up to 77.8%. Obesity and overweight have become complex pandemic disorders where in physical inactivity and lack of time to exercise plays a major role leading to various complications. Reduction in adiposity through structured exercises protocols will improve body composition and Cardio-metabolic health . Novel interventions such as modified HIIT serve as the perfect pathway to address the time factor and enhancement of physical activity as well.
... Climbing stairs, rope skipping, and jumping are also cardiovascular exercises. The basic purpose of cardiovascular exercise is to improve the level of performance of students Park, S. K., Park J. H., Kwon Y. C., Kim H. S., Yoon M. S., & Park H.T. (2003). Cardio workouts or aerobic programs can improve body composition, reduce cholesterol level, and increase fat utilization in normal and obese persons Blaak, E. l. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research was designed to evaluate the effect of cardiovascular exercises on body mass index (BMI) and vital capacity (VC) among student aged between 21-27 years (M � SD 22.3� 3.05). The experimental research study was applied to 54 University students of Sargodha. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 24.0. P-value ? 0.05 was considered significant. The result showed that the average BMI of the control group and experimental groups was 20.73�3.02 vs 21.51�3.21. The effectiveness of cardiovascular exercise on Vital capacity on Pre and post-test of the experimental group was -56.91272 � 22.03192 with a pvalue of 0.000, which was showed there was a highly significant improvement in vital capacity of students and compare with the control group. It was concluded that body masses index and vital capacity is significantly improved in university students of the experimental group as a result of 10 weeks of the cardiovascular exercise training program. Conclude that there is a significant difference between the effects of cardiovascular exercise and daily routine sports activities on BMI.
... This diurnal variation exists within individuals, but the optimum time-of-day between individuals is not consistent (Knaier et al., 2019), and likely differs based on chronotype (Maraki et al., 2005;Roenneberg & Merrow, 2016;Schroder & Esser, 2013). Group-mean cardiorespiratory fitness improved significantly and these improvements were similar to those previously reported (Park et al., 2003). While no between-group differences were observed in cardiovascular fitness, there were large inter-individual variances, but notably, the inter-individual differences in cardiorespiratory fitness did not correlate with differences in body fat change. ...
Article
Objective To determine the effect of diurnal exercise timing on appetite, energy intake and body composition in individuals with overweight or obesity. Methods Forty sedentary, individuals with overweight or obesity (17 males, 23 females; age: 51 ± 13 years; BMI: 30.9 ± 4.2 kg/m²) were randomly allocated to complete a 12-week supervised multi-modal exercise training program performed either in the morning (amEX) or evening (pmEX). Outcome measures included appetite in response to a standardised test meal, daily energy intake (EI), body weight and body composition. Measures of dietary behaviour were assessed at baseline and post-intervention, along with habitual physical activity, sleep quality and sleep quantity. Significance was set at p ≤ .05 and Hedge's g effect sizes were calculated. Results Regardless of timing, exercise training increased perceived fullness (AUC; g = 0.82–1.67; both p < .01), decreased daily EI (g = 0.73–0.93; both p < .01) and body-fat (g = 0.29–0.32; both p <. 01). The timing of exercise did not change the daily EI or body-fat response to training (all p ≥ .27), however, perceived fullness increased in the amEX group (p ≤ .01). Disinhibition (g = 0.35–1.95; p ≤ .01) and Hunger (g = 0.05–0.4; p = .02) behaviours decreased following exercise training, with Disinhibition demonstrating greater improvements in the pmEX group (p = .01). Objective and subjective sleep quantity increased with training (all p ≤ .01), but sleep quality was not reported to change. Conclusions Multi-modal exercise training improved body composition and some appetite outcomes, although changes were inconsistent and largely independent of exercise-timing. In the absence of dietary manipulation, the effect of diurnal exercise timing on appetite and body composition appear trivial compared to the overall benefits of exercise participation.
... Some of the studies which compared combined training with aerobic training showed that the effects of combined training on body composition were similar or superior to aerobic training. However, the amount of exercise performed in combined training group is generally higher than in aerobic ones [77,[80][81][82][83][84]. This confounds the comparison between training modalities, which impairs our ability to understand which kind of exercise mode elicits better adaptations. ...
Chapter
The global pandemics of obesity and sedentarism are associated with poor quality of life and increased risks for development of inflammatory chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Physical activity is considered as an antidote to counteract the development of chronic sterile inflammatory diseases. Thus, we review the most promising exercise training protocols for promoting weight loss, improving glucose homeostasis, and reducing inflammation. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training, high-intensity aerobic training, and combined (aerobic + resistance) training. Our aim with this chapter is to provide evidence and guidance for choosing the most appropriate protocols of exercise training according to the goals of the patient.
Article
Purpose The study examined the effects of a 12-week high intensity circuit training (HICT) on abdominal fat, physical fitness, blood lipids, and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese women. Methods Thirty obese women, aged 32-48 yrs, were recruited and randomly assigned to either HICT group (TR; n = 15) or control group (CON; n = 15). Subjects in the TR group participated in HICT of which resistance exercise and aerobic exercise were performed with a duration of 40 min/session and 3 sessions/wk for 12 weeks, whereas subjects in the CON group were asked to maintain their normal life patterns. Dependent variables included abdominal fat area, body composition, physical fitness, blood lipids profiles, and insulin resistance index. Analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare the outcomes between two groups. Results Main findings of the present study were as follows: 1) compared to the CON group, the TR group had significant reductions in overall (i.e., body mass index and percent body fat) and abdominal obesity (i.e., waist circumference, total abdominal fat area, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral fat area-subcutaneous fat area ratio), 2) compared to the CON group, the TR group had significant improvements in health-related physical fitness (i.e., muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscle power, flexibility, balance, and cardiorespiratory endurance), and 3) compared to the CON group, the TR group had significant improvements in fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance. Conclusions The current findings of the study suggested that HICT would be an effective exercise intervention to improve metabolic complications associated with obesity and poor physical fitness in obese middle-aged women.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on serum leptin levels in obese/overweight women. Methods: A total number of 45 obese/overweight women (body mass index ≥ 25-30 kg/m2) were selected from patients who referred to the Iranian Health Clinic (Isfahan, Iran). Serum leptin levels of patients were evaluated before eating breakfast. Their body fat percentage was also measured. Participants were randomized into 3 groups of moderate aerobic exercise [45-50% maximum heart-rate reserve (HRRMAX)], intense aerobic exercise (70-75% HRRMAX), control group (without training). Training included three 60-minute aerobic exercise sessions a week and lasted for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, the variables were reassessed. Pre- and post-test data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test. Findings: Our results showed that moderate and intense aerobic exercise had significant effects on body weight (P < 0.001), body fat percentage (P < 0.03), body mass index (P < 0.001), and serum leptin levels (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This research suggests that aerobic exercise training with higher intensity can better reduce serum leptin levels and body fat percentage. Keywords: Leptin, Fat percent, Aerobic exercise, Obesity
Article
Purpose: To investigate the effects of a supervised combined resistance and aerobic training programme on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, insulin resistance and quality of life (QoL) in survivors of childhood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with total body irradiation (TBI). Participants: HSCT/TBI survivors (n = 20; 8 females). Mean (range) for age at study and time since HSCT/TBI was 16.7 (10.9-24.5) and 8.4 (2.3-16.0) years, respectively. Methods: After a 6-month run-in, participants undertook supervised 45- to 60-minute resistance and aerobic training twice weekly for 6 months, with a 6-month follow-up. The following assessments were made at 0, 6 (start of exercise programme), 12 (end of exercise programme) and 18 months: Body composition via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill-based peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) test), QoL questionnaires (36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument (MMQL). Results: Results expressed as mean (standard deviation) or geometric mean (range). There were significant improvements in VO2 peak (35.7 (8.9) vs 41.7 (16.1) mL/min/kg, P = 0.05), fasted plasma insulin (16.56 (1.48-72.8) vs 12.62 (1.04-54.97) mIU/L, P = 0.03) and HOMA-IR (3.65 (0.30-17.26) vs 2.72 (0.22-12.89), P = 0.02) after the exercise intervention. There were also significant improvements in the SF-36 QoL general health domain (69.7 (14.3) vs 72.7 (16.0), P = 0.001) and the MMQL school domain (69.1 (25.2) vs (79.3 (21.6), P = 0.03) during the exercise intervention. No significant changes were observed in percentage body fat, fat mass or lean mass. Conclusion: The supervised 6-month combined resistance and aerobic exercise programme significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin resistance and QoL in childhood HSCT/TBI survivors, with no change in body composition, suggesting a metabolic training effect on muscle. These data support a role for targeted physical rehabilitation services in this group at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Article
Increasing the amount of physical activity is an important strategy for weight loss. This systematic review summarizes recent findings on the effects of physical training on anthropometric characteristics, physical performances and physiological capacities in individuals with overweight and obesity. A systematic literature search strategy was conducted from inception until June 2019 using four electronic databases that identified 2,708 records. After screening for titles, abstracts and full texts, 116 studies were included in our final analysis. Both aerobic (e.g., endurance training) and anaero-bic training (e.g., high-intensity training, resistance training) improved body composition and physical fitness indicators in adults, adolescents and children with obesity (effect size: 0.08 < d < 2.67, trivial to very large). This systematic review suggests that both low-and high-intensity training significantly reduced body weight and fat mass while increasing fat-free mass in individuals with obesity (effect size: 0.04 <d <3.2, trivial to very large). A significant increase in VO 2max also occurs in individuals with obesity in response to aerobic training or high-intensity interval training (effect size: 0.13 < d < 6.24, trivial to very large). Further studies are needed to define the optimal combination of training intensity and duration needed to produce the most effica-cious results in individuals with obesity.
Article
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are deleterious fat deposits in the human body and can be effectively reduced by exercise intervention. Despite well-established exercise prescriptions are available, the effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT requires verification. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the most effective exercise dosage (modality, intensity, duration, and amount) for decreasing VAT. Nine databases (EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Airiti Library, and PerioPath) were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that objectively assessed VAT. The arms of included studies covered with different exercise modalities and dosage. Relevant databases were searched through February 2020. Of the 34 studies (n = 1962) included in systematic review, 32 (n = 1900) were pooled for pairwise or network meta-analysis. The results indicated that high-intensity interval training (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.60 to −0.18) and aerobic exercise (SMD –0.26, 95% CI –0.38 to −0.13) of at least moderate intensity were beneficial for reducing VAT. By contrast, resistance exercise, aerobic exercise combined with resistance exercise, and sprint interval training had no significant effects. No difference in VAT reduction was observed between exercising more or less than 150 min per week. Meta-regression revealed that the effect of VAT reduction was not significantly influenced by an increase in the duration of or amount of exercise in an exercise program. The effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT was three times per week for 12 to 16 weeks, while duration per session for aerobic exercise was 30–60 min, and either less than 30 min or 30–60 min of high-intensity interval training accomplished sufficient energy expenditure to impact VAT. These results can inform exercise prescriptions given to the general population for improving health by reducing VAT.
Chapter
In the USA, the obesity epidemic continues to grow as the majority of people have a body mass index (BMI) that classifies them as having overweight or obesity. Factors that include excess calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle, weight-promoting medications, psychological stress, cultural influences, food, and healthcare policies can all contribute to obesity. People with excess body weight are at increased risk for poor health outcomes that are driven by comorbidities like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. Obesity and its associated diseases are responsible for increased healthcare utilization and costs. Effective prevention and management of obesity is of the utmost importance to optimize quality of life, productivity, and healthcare expenditures. Despite this need, few people with obesity are formally given this diagnosis and even less receive counseling on weight loss or lifestyle modification. Anti-obesity medications and bariatric surgery are effective tools for weight loss and comorbidity management but are underutilized. This chapter reviews the burden of obesity, the cardiovascular and health complications, and treatment options, which include diet, physical activity, anti-obesity medications, and bariatric surgeries and their respective metabolic benefits.
Preprint
Background: Overweight and obese adults seek effective exercise interventions to reduce accumulated fat, but the effectiveness of these interventions vary across studies. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese adults based on measurement of accumulated fat distributions. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a control and experimental group were included. Degrees of effectiveness of exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight and subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic fat accumulation. (3) Results: A total of twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions showed beneficial effects in reducing weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat. The effectiveness of exercise interventions on ectopic fat accumulation could not be assessed due to the limited number of studies measuring ectopic fat. Additionally, effectiveness of exercise interventions that depended on measurements of accumulated fat varied. The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 minutes per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on reducing weight and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat.
Article
Full-text available
Increasing the amount of physical activity is an important strategy for weight loss. This systematic review summarizes recent findings on the effects of physical training on anthropometric characteristics, physical performances and physiological capacities in individuals with overweight and obesity. A systematic literature search strategy was conducted from inception until June 2019 using four electronic databases that identified 2,708 records. After screening for titles, abstracts and full texts, 116 studies were included in our final analysis. Both aerobic (e.g., endurance training) and anaerobic training (e.g., high‐intensity training, resistance training) improved body composition and physical fitness indicators in adults, adolescents and children with obesity (effect size: 0.08 < d < 2.67, trivial to very large). This systematic review suggests that both low‐ and high‐intensity training significantly reduced body weight and fat mass while increasing fat‐free mass in individuals with obesity (effect size: 0.04 <d <3.2, trivial to very large). A significant increase in VO2max also occurs in individuals with obesity in response to aerobic training or high‐intensity interval training (effect size: 0.13 < d < 6.24, trivial to very large). Further studies are needed to define the optimal combination of training intensity and duration needed to produce the most efficacious results in individuals with obesity.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT) program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT) on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10) and Control (n=10). Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM). Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22). Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) levels (P=0.021), Triglycerides (0.010), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042), significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003), WHR (P=0.004) and body fat present (0.019) significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level. Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition
Article
Full-text available
To assess the individual and combined effects of weight loss and weight training on body weight and body composition, 40 obese women were randomly assigned to one of four groups for an 8 wk weight-loss study. These groups were control (C); diet without exercise (DO); diet plus weight training (DPE); and weight training without diet (EO). Body weight decreased for DO (-4.47 kg) and DPE (-3.89 kg) compared with C (-0.38 kg) and EO (0.45 kg). Lean body weight (LBW) increased for EO (1.07 kg) compared with DO (-0.91 kg) and C (-0.31 kg) and for DPE (0.43 kg) compared with DO. Upper-arm muscle areas (determined by radiograph) increased for DPE (11.2 cm2) and EO (10.4 cm2) compared with C (2.7 cm2) and DO (2.1 cm2). It was concluded that weight training results in comparable gains in muscle area and strength for DPE and EO. Adding weight training exercise to a caloric restriction program results in maintenance of LBW compared with DO.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the effects of an intense physical training program on abdominal fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM and to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplements influence these effects. Twenty-four patients (ages 45 +/- 2 [mean +/- SE] years, BMI 30.2 +/- 0.9 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.9 +/- 0.3%) were randomly assigned to four groups: training plus BCAA supplement (n = 6), training plus placebo (n = 6), sedentary plus BCAA supplement (n = 6), and sedentary plus placebo (n = 6). Physical training consisted of a supervised 45-min cycling exercise at 75% of their oxygen uptake peak (VO2 peak) two times per week and an intermittent exercise one time per week for 2 months. Patients who exercised increased their VO2 peak by 41% and their insulin sensitivity by 46%. Physical training significantly decreased abdominal fat evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (umbilicus), with a greater loss of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (48%) in comparison with the loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue (18%), but did not significantly affect body weight. The change in visceral abdominal fat was associated with the improvement in insulin sensitivity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). BCAA supplementation had no effect on abdominal fat and glucose metabolism. Physical training resulted in an improvement in insulin sensitivity with concomitant loss of VAT and should be included in the treatment program for patients with NIDDM.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of a 6-month randomized program of endurance training (n = 14), resistance training (n = 17), or control conditions (n = 20) on insulin sensitivity in nonobese, younger women (18-35 yr). To examine the possible mechanism(s) related to alterations in insulin sensitivity, we measured body composition, regional adiposity, and skeletal muscle characteristics with computed tomography. We observed no changes in total body fat, sc abdominal adipose tissue, or visceral adipose tissue with endurance or resistance training. Insulin sensitivity, however, increased with endurance training (pre, 421 +/- 107; post, 490 +/- 133 mg/min; P < 0.05) and resistance training (pre, 382 +/- 87; post, 417 +/- 89 mg/min; P = 0.06). When the glucose disposal rate was expressed per kg fat-free mass (FFM), the improved insulin sensitivity persisted in endurance-trained (pre, 10.5 +/- 2.7; post, 12.1 +/- 3.3 mg/min x kg FFM; P < 0.05), but not in resistance-trained (pre, 9.7 +/- 1.9; post, 10.2 +/- 1.8 mg/min x kg FFM; P = NS) women. Muscle attenuation ratios increased (P < 0.05) in both endurance- and resistance-trained individuals, but this was not related to changes in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the change in insulin sensitivity was not related to the increased maximum aerobic capacity in endurance-trained women (r = 0.24; P = NS). We suggest that both endurance and resistance training improve glucose disposal, although by different mechanisms, in young women. An increase in the amount of FFM from resistance training contributes to increased glucose disposal probably from a mass effect, without altering the intrinsic capacity of the muscle to respond to insulin. On the other hand, endurance training enhances glucose disposal independent of changes in FFM or maximum aerobic capacity, suggestive of an intrinsic change in the muscle to metabolize glucose. We conclude that enhanced glucose uptake after physical training in young women occurs with and without changes in FFM and body composition.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the potential importance of favorable changes in the lipid profile produced by aerobic exercise, training-induced lipid profile changes in atherosclerosis-prone type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) have not heretofore been adequately addressed. We assessed the effect of a 12- to 16-wk aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory fitness and the lipid profile in young men with type 1 DM. Generally active men aged 20-40 yr with type 1 DM (N = 56) were randomized into training (N = 28) and control (untrained, N = 28) groups after baseline measurements. Training consisted of 30-60 min moderate-intensity running 3-5 times a week for 12-16 wk. For the 42 men finishing the study, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) increased significantly only in the trained group. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B decreased and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/apo A-I ratio increased in the trained group. HDL and apo A-I increased in both groups. The exercise program brought about improvements in the HDL/LDL and apo A-I/apo B ratios and apo B and triglyceride levels when comparing the relative (%) changes in the trained versus control group. In the trained group, men with HDL/LDL ratios below the group median at baseline showed even more favorable changes in their lipid profile than those with higher initial HDL/LDL ratios. Body mass index, percent body fat and hemoglobin A1c did not change during the training period in either group. Endurance training improved the lipid profile in already physically active type 1 diabetic men, independently of effects on body composition or glycemic control. The most favorable changes were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL ratios, likely the group with the greatest benefit to be gained by such changes.
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are associated with health maintenance in older women, but the few studies that have examined the relationship between exercise and plasma lipoprotein levels in this elderly population have been equivocal. In addition, there are no studies that examine the plasma lipoprotein response of two different types of exercise in a group of active but nonexercising women. Thus, the effects of exercise training on plasma lipoprotein levels in elderly women remain unclear. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of endurance and resistance exercise on plasma lipoprotein levels in elderly women who were active but nonexercising prior to the study. A total of 45 healthy, active women, aged 70-87 years, were randomly assigned to either an aerobic training (AT, 76 +/- 5 years, n = 15), resistance training (RT, 73 +/- 3 years, n = 15), or control (C, 74 +/- 5 years, n = 15) group. The AT group walked 3 days a week at 70% heart rate reserve. The duration on day 1 was 20 minutes, and it was increased by 5 minutes each day until subjects were walking for 50 minutes (week 3). The exercise training session for the RT group consisted of one to three sets of eight repetitions of eight different exercises at an eight repetition maximum; the C group maintained normal activity. Weight and diet were unchanged across groups. The exercise interventions lasted 10 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects at week 0 and week 11. Training resulted in a significant decrease in 1-mile walk times and heart rate at completion of the walk for the AT group and a significant increase in eight repetition maximum of all RT exercises. Both AT and RT groups experienced increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides at week 11 compared with week 0. There were no positive changes in control lipoproteins. Both triglycerides and the total cholesterol to HDL ratio increased significantly while total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol remained unchanged. The RT group also had significantly lower LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol compared with controls at week 11. Both RT and endurance training resulted in favorable changes to plasma lipoprotein levels for elderly women in only 10 weeks. The fact that this occurred without concurrent changes in weight or diet is an indication that high-intensity exercise alone can be used to modify lipoproteins in populations of healthy elderly women.
Article
Obese women (140–180% of ideal body weight) were studied on a metabolic ward during 1 wk of maintenance feeding, followed by 5 wk of 800 kcal/d (liquid formula diet). Five subjects participated in a supervised program of daily aerobic exercise and three subjects remained sedentary. Total weight loss was not different between exercising and nonexercising subjects but significantly more of the weight loss came from fat and less from fat-free mass in the exercising subjects. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) declined similarly in both groups (approximately 20%), even though exercising subjects were in greater negative energy balance due to the added energy cost of exercise. In summary, results from this controlled inpatient study indicate that exercise is beneficial when coupled with food restriction because it favors loss of body fat and preserves fat-free mass.
Article
Thirty-one obese, premenopausal women aged 35.4 +/- 5.1 (SD) years exercised for 90 minutes at approximately 55% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) four to five times a week for a period of 6 months. The training program induced a significant increase in VO2max (P < .001) and significant improvements in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as reflected by decreased plasma insulin (INS) concentrations measured in the fasting state and after glucose (GLU) ingestion (INS area, P < .001), by reduced plasma cholesterol (C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (P < .001), and by increased ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/LDL-C and HDL2-C/HDL3-C (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively). Changes in body fat mass were positively associated with changes in the INS area/GLU area ratio (r = .49, P < .05) and with changes in very-low-density lipoprotein triglycerides ([VLDL-TG] r = .49, P < .05). Furthermore, changes in the INS area were positively associated with changes in VLDL-TG (r = .51, P < .05). Although no significant mean change in body composition was observed, important individual variation was noted. Twenty women showed a reduction in body fat mass (mean reduction, 2.63 +/- 2.2 kg), whereas 11 women showed an increase in adipose mass (mean increase, 2.79 +/- 2.36 kg). Comparable increases in VO2max were observed between the two groups. The group that showed a decrease in body fat mass with exercise also had significant improvements in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A comparison of physical capacity, (measured by vital capacity, muscular strength and physical work capacity) in twin boys and controls failed to indicate significant differences. Intrapair correlations showed the MZ twins to be much more similar than the DZ twins in all the capacity measures. The correlations were lower, however, for both MZ and DZ twins for physical work capacity than for the other two capacity variables. When amount of physical exercise during leisure time is kept under control, the DZ twins tend to be more similar for physical work capacity or muscular strength, and the correlations tend to be of the same magnitude for MZ twins. Physical work capacity therefore appears, in this study, to be a more environmentally influenced variable than either vital capacity or muscular strength.
Article
Numerous studies have shown that a high accumulation of abdominal fat is associated with metabolic complications and with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. The present study examined the effects of changes in body fatness and in the level of abdominal fat on metabolic variables in a sample of 13 obese premenopausal women, aged 38.8 +/- 5.3 (SD) yr. Women exercised for 90 min at approximately 55% of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) four to five times a week for a period of 14 mo. The training program induced a significant increase in VO2 max and a mean reduction in body fat mass of 4.6 kg (P less than 0.01), with no change in fat-free mass. Measurement of adipose tissue areas by computed tomography indicated a greater loss of abdominal fat compared with midthigh adipose tissue (P less than 0.05). The training program also produced significant reductions in the insulinogenic index measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and in plasma cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol, and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels (P less than 0.05). Training also significantly increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-apo A-I and HDL2-Chol levels and decreased plasma HDL3-Chol concentration (P less than 0.05). Whereas no change in postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity was noted, a significant decrease in postheparin plasma hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was observed after training (P less than 0.005). Metabolic responses were not correlated with changes in VO2 max but were significantly correlated with the reduction in body fat mass and/or with the loss of deep abdominal fat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Twenty-nine pairs of monozygotic twins and 19 pairs of dizygotic twins, all male, ages 18-31 yr, performed a graded uninterrupted exercise test on the bicycle ergometer to exhaustion. By use of path analysis, the genetic variance of measured peak O2 uptake was estimated at 77% (P less than 0.001), at 71% (P less than 0.001) after adjustment for weight and skinfold thickness, and at 66% (P less than 0.001) after additional adjustment for weekly hours of sports participation. O2 uptake at a heart rate of 150 beats/min, a submaximal estimate of exercise capacity, showed less genetic variance, i.e., 61% (P less than 0.001) before and 50% (P less than 0.001) after weight adjustment and only 16% (NS) after correction for life-style factors. Similarly, the heritability of peak O2 uptake, when estimated from submaximal data, was 68% (P less than 0.001), 40% (P = 0.05), and 26% (NS), respectively. Mechanical efficiency had no significant genetic component. O2 uptake at the respiratory exchange ratio of 0.95 and the slope of the curvilinear relationship between CO2 output and O2 uptake, used to assess the anaerobic energy generation during progressive exercise, showed significant (P less than 0.001) genetic variance before (72 and 74%) and after adjustment for weight (67 and 69%) and sports participation (63 and 57%). The heritability of peak aerobic power remained significant (58%; P less than 0.001) after adjustment for these expressions of anaerobic energy generation. In conclusion, the genetic variance of measured peak O2 uptake is significant and persists after adjustment for anthropometric characteristics, life-style factors, anaerobic energy generation, and mechanical efficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Food intake and physical exercise affect two components of energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF). Classic studies of overfeeding and underfeeding clearly showed that caloric deficit and surfeit conditions alter RMR. Recent work on short-term overfeeding of monozygotic twins provides new evidence that genetic factors influence individual sensitivity to changes in RMR and TEF when caloric excess is present. Exercise affects energy expenditure during nonactive times; acute bouts of vigorous exercise may result in increased RMR, and this effect appears most pronounced in the first 12 h after exercise. Acute exercise may potentiate the thermic effects of food when they are taken together, and high levels of exercise training may increase RMR. Thus, physical exercise appears to play an important role in the regulation of energy balance by way of its direct energy cost and its influence on RMR and TEF.
Article
Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.
Article
Obese men and women with the same body fat mass, as well as obese women in another study, were divided into groups with male or female type of body fat distribution, but again with similar body fat mass. The participants were examined with measurements of body composition, including muscle fiber distribution, as well as circulatory and metabolic variables before and after physical training under controlled conditions. Obese men had higher lean body mass, blood pressure, blood glucose and plasma insulin, C-peptide, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations than age- and body fat-matched obese women. Obese women with male type of adipose tissue distribution showed the same differences (except cholesterol) in comparisons with women with female type of adipose tissue distribution. The women with male type obesity were also more insulin resistant in glucose clamp measurements, and had male type of muscle fiber distribution. Physical training in the group of obese men resulted in a decrease of body fat, a further increase of lean body mass, an increase of fast twitch, aerobic type, muscle fibres as well as lower plasma insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lower blood pressure. Obese women with male type distribution of adipose tissue responded to physical training essentially like men. The insulin sensitivity was improved to the same level as in obese women with female type of adipose tissue distribution. In contrast, the latter women showed an increase of body fat and no metabolic improvements after training. These results show that obese women with male type of body fat distribution also have male characteristics of muscle mass, morphology and function. It is suggested that the obesity complications associated with this condition are improved by physical training because of an adaptation to a negative energy balance, in combination with an improvement of insulin sensitivity of the muscle mass. In contrast, the failure of obese women with female type of adipose tissue distribution to adapt to a negative energy balance during physical training is probably explaining their failure to decrease body fat and to improve metabolism during physical training.
Article
Obese women (140-180% of ideal body weight) were studied on a metabolic ward during 1 wk of maintenance feeding, followed by 5 wk of 800 kcal/d (liquid formula diet). Five subjects participated in a supervised program of daily aerobic exercise and three subjects remained sedentary. Total weight loss was not different between exercising and nonexercising subjects but significantly more of the weight loss came from fat and less from fat-free mass in the exercising subjects. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) declined similarly in both groups (approximately 20%), even though exercising subjects were in greater negative energy balance due to the added energy cost of exercise. In summary, results from this controlled inpatient study indicate that exercise is beneficial when coupled with food restriction because it favors loss of body fat and preserves fat-free mass.
Article
A method for estimating the cholesterol content of the serum low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf- 0.20)is presented. The method involves measure- ments of fasting plasma total cholesterol, tri- glyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, none of which requires the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Cornparison of this suggested procedure with the more direct procedure, in which the ultracentrifuge is used, yielded correlation coefficients of .94 to .99, de- pending on the patient population compared. Additional Keyph rases hyperlipoproteinemia classifi- cation #{149} determination of plasma total cholesterol, tri- glyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol #{149} beta lipo proteins
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on the body composition of obese subjects during severe caloric restriction. Forty obese subjects (33 women, 7 men; 41 +/- 7.7 years; 106 +/- 26kg; body fat > 25% men, > 30% women) on a commercially prepared OPTIFAST 420kcal/day supplemented fast were randomized into groups that exercised at target heart rates corresponding to 40% and 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) at the start of the program. Training volume was similar for both groups at approximately 300kcal per session three times per week for 12 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and lean weight were similar for both exercise intensity groups at week one. Overall, body weight decreased by 15.3 +/- 6.7 kg (p < or = .05), and body fat decreased by 14.9 +/- 5.0 kg (p < or = .05) for the 40 subjects, whereas lean weight remained unchanged. No significant differences in body weight, body fat, or lean weight were observed between the two groups. The results of the current study indicated that while on a supplemented 420-kcal/day fast, exercise at 40% and 60% of the HRR affected body composition similarly when total training volume was held constant at 900kcal/week. Lean weight remained unchanged and accompanied a 14.9 +/- 5.0-kg decrease in body fat, which may have resulted when the volume of exercise (ie, 900kcals/wk) was factored into the exercise prescriptions. These results suggest that exercising at 60% of the HRR offers no advantages for body composition changes over those obtained from exercising at 40% of HRR when the total volume of exercise training is controlled.
Article
Several reports have suggested that the reduction of intra-abdominal visceral fat after physical exercise is more prominent than that of subcutaneous fat. We compared some parameters in mesenteric and subcutaneous fats between sedentary and exercised rats (treadmill running; 10-20 m/min, 60 min/day, 7 days). Tissue weight and cell volume were decreased in mesenteric fat by the exercise. The exercise reduced activity and mRNA levels of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS; 67 and 26% of those of the sedentary group, respectively), mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL; 49% of those of the sedentary group), and GLUT-4 (38% of those of the sedentary group) in the mesenteric fat. In contrast, all of these parameters did not change significantly in the subcutaneous fat. Gastrocnemius muscle was heavier in exercised rats. ACS activity was elevated in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exercised rats (137% of those of sedentary group), although mRNA levels of ACS, LPL, and GLUT-4 did not change in the muscle by the exercise. These observations suggest that mesenteric fat may contribute to switching of distribution of plasma energy flux, including lipid and glucose, from fat tissue to muscle in physical exercise.
Article
To better understand the relationship between leptin and the anthropometric and physiological variables associated with diabetes, we measured this protein in an isolated Canadian aboriginal population with very high rates of NIDDM. There were 728 individuals aged 10-79 years who participated in a population-based survey to determine the prevalence of NIDDM and its associated risk factors. Fasting blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and leptin were collected; a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was administered and a second blood sample drawn after 120 min. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were determined, and percent body fat was estimated using biological impedance analysis. Fitness level was assessed in a subsample of individuals using a validated submaximal step test. The relationship between serum leptin and the other variables was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Serum leptin concentration was strongly correlated with adiposity, and levels were substantially higher in female subjects in all age-groups. For male subjects, percent body fat, fasting insulin level, and waist circumference were significant independent predictors of log serum leptin concentration in a multiple linear regression model (R2 = 0.582). For female subjects, these variables plus glucose tolerance status were included in the final model (R2 = 0.633). Fitness level, when included with the main effects of the above models, was a significant predictor for male subjects only. In an isolated aboriginal community with high rates of diabetes, we found significant independent relationships between leptin and percent body fat and between leptin and fasting insulin. As documented in other populations, the higher leptin concentration among female subjects may reflect differential leptin production from different adipose tissue beds, or leptin resistance. Independent relationships also existed among leptin and glucose tolerance status in female subjects and fitness level in male subjects.
Article
Children with high levels of total body fat mass (TFM) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have elevated levels of certain risk factors for coronary artery disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We tested the hypothesis that controlled physical training, without dietary intervention, would have a favorable impact on VAT and percent body fat (%BF) in obese children. A volunteer sample of 74 obese children, 7-11 yr of age, accepted random assignment to physical training or control groups. Before and after 4 months of intervention, measurements were obtained for VAT, TFM, %BF, daily physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness. The intervention involved 4 months of controlled physical training 5 d x wk(-1), 40 min per session, at a mean heart rate (HR) of 157 beats x min(-1). The estimated energy expenditure (EE) per training session was 925+/-201 kJ. Compared with the control group, the physical training group declined significantly in %BF (delta = -2.2%) (P < 0.01), TFM (delta = -3.1%) (P < 0.01), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (delta = - 16.1%) (P < 0.05), and increased significantly in fat-free mass (delta = +6.1%) (P < 0.05) and moderate-to-very hard physical activity (delta = +14.1%) (P < 0.05). The increase in VAT was significantly less in the physical training group (delta = +0.5%) as compared with that in the control group (delta = +8.1%) (P < 0.05). This study showed that during physical training obese children: 1) were capable of participating in a substantial amount of high intensity physical training over a 4-month period: 2) accumulated significantly less VAT as compared with nonexercising controls; and 3) experienced other beneficial changes in total and regional body composition.
Article
To identify the effects of GnRH agonist therapy on body composition (lean and fat mass components) and body fat distribution. Fifteen women with uterine leiomyomas were given a GnRH agonist (leuprorelin acetate, 3.75 mg) monthly for 4 months. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI, weight/height) were recorded. Regional and total body composition, trunk-leg fat ratio, bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total body were assessed by whole-body scanning with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after treatment. Uterine volume was measured by transabdominal ultrasonography. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) lean mass of total body, trunk, and leg decreased significantly (36.3 +/- 4.9 to 35.4 +/- 4.4 kg, P <.01; 18.8 +/- 2.8 to 18.1 +/- 2.8 kg, P <.05; and 11.4 +/- 1.8 to 11.1 +/- 1.6 kg, P <.05; respectively), whereas body fat mass, percentage of body fat, and trunk fat mass increased significantly (20.8 +/- 4.8 to 21.8 +/- 4.6 kg, P <.01; 34.9 +/- 5.9 to 36.5 +/- 5.2%, P <.01; and 8.6 +/- 3.0 to 9.3 +/- 3.0 kg, P <.01; respectively). Trunk-leg fat ratio increased significantly (1.03 +/- 0.32 to 1.12 +/- 0.33, P <.05). Weight, BMI, arm tissue composition (lean and fat mass components), and leg fat mass did not change during 4 months of GnRH agonist therapy. Bone mineral density and uterine volume decreased significantly. Hypogonadism by GnRH agonist therapy induces lean mass loss, increased adiposity overall, and upper body fat accumulation.
The effect of muscular resistance and aerobic training on abdominal fat
  • S K Park
Park SK (2001) The effect of muscular resistance and aerobic training on abdominal fat. Kor Soc Spo Med 19: 275-291
Note on nomencalture
  • P Bjorntorp
  • C Bouchard
  • W Callaway
  • A Kissebah
  • J G Kral
  • U Smith
Bjorntorp P, Bouchard C, Callaway W, Kissebah A, Kral JG, Smith U (1988) Note on nomencalture. Acta Med Scand 723 (suppl): 237