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A comparison of the Total Antioxidant Capacity of some human body fluids

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The Total Antioxidant Capacity of several human fluids was compared and the following sequence of TAC values was found: urine > saliva > blood plasma > milk approximately amniotic fluid > sweat. Lower TAC values were found for the saliva of smokers than for that of non-smokers. Drinking of a cup of instant coffee increased the hydrogen peroxide content of urine but did not decrease the TAC of urine.

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... Numerous studies have shown changes in activity of salivary antioxidants system in smokers and in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comparing to control group, but there are some differences between them. [11][12][13][14][15][16] In previous study salivary superoxide dismutase activity in smokers was compared with non-smokers, and results showed that the mean value of superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in the smoking group, while no detectable activity level was found in nonsmokers. 14 This study was performed to investigate the effect of smoking on salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAoC). ...
... The result of the present study is in line with that of Ziborro and Bartosz. 13 Hammo Mahmoud et al 2 measured plasma level of TAoC in smokers' antecubital venous blood using a similar test to that of the present study and showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant status in smokers. ...
... Fruits and vegetables have a considerable amount of antioxidants and the dietary habits of the studied population may affect the results as a confounding factor. Although, many researchers have evaluated antioxidants activity without evaluating the nutritional habits, 13,14 this could be recommended for future studies. In the present study, all of the participants were selected from a single dental clinic, and it might be safe to say that they were from the same socio-economic class with probably same nutritional habits. ...
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Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity.
... Therefore, the maternal supply of antioxidant vitamins during lactation may provide a defense mechanism to reduce oxidative stress [19]. The TAS is a parameter characterizing the sum of the activities of all antioxidants present in human BM [20,21]. ...
... TAS reXects the presence of antioxidant vitamins, enzymatic radical scavenger systems, unknown antioxidant compounds and various antioxidants interactions. TAS may be a marker of the antioxidant status of the body, and may reXect the level of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress imposed on the organism [20]. ...
... The median antioxidant concentration of the women BM ranged from 0.497 (at 7 days of lactation) to 0.375 mmol/L (at week 16 of lactation), as can be seen in Table 1, which is in agreement with results previously reported [20]. This level was signiWcantly lower than the median antioxidant [3]. ...
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The content of many nutrients in breast milk are dependent on the nutritional status of the lactating woman. This is particularly true for fat and water-soluble vitamins, some of which have antioxidant properties. The aim of the study entertained herein was to evaluate the changes in total antioxidant status of human milk during the Wrst 4 months of lactation, and to correlate such changes with the contents in speciWc antioxidant oligoelements (Cu, Zn, Mn and Se). Milk samples were collected from (31) lactating women recruited at the Service of Obstetrics of the Hospital de São João in Porto, after 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after birth. The total antioxidant status (TAS) of human milk was measured by the Randox ® commercial kit and trace metals by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The results found for TAS and oligoelements under study show a decrease in the concentration of these parameters from 7 days to 4 months of breast-feeding and signiWcant corre-lations (p < 0.05) were found between TAS and Cu, Zn and Se (not Mn). The decreases of Cu, Zn and Se were also cor-related, but not proportional between them, suggesting diverse excretion mechanisms for all. Between primipara and multipara women, a signiWcant diVerence was found only for Cu and Zn concentrations at 7 days of lactation, but not for the other metals or TAS. With respect to the mother's age, no correlation was found, either for trace metal concentrations or TAS.
... Hence, while the estimation of selected antioxidants provides limited information about the response to oxidative stress, determination of the 'total antioxidant capacity' (TAC) might allow a better appraisal of the synergistic cooperation of the endogenous (in plasma and body fluids) and exogenous antioxidant systems (Goldfarb, 1999). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a parameter characterizing the sum of the activities of the antioxidants present in the material studied (Ziobro & Bartosz, 2003). TAC has been mostly assessed in blood plasma and serum. ...
... Other body fluids are less frequently analyzed for TAC. Further, it is stated that the estimation of TAC level of body fluids other than blood plasma, especially of those available non-invasively may provide additional information regarding the antioxidant status of the body (Ziobro & Bartosz, 2003). Among the different body fluids, urine is suitably used for the estimation of TAC (Kirschbaum, 2001; Koracevic, Koracevic, Djordevic, Andrejevic & Cosic, 2001; Tubaro, Ghiselli, Rapuzzi, Maiorino & Ursini, 1998). ...
... Among the different body fluids, urine is suitably used for the estimation of TAC (Kirschbaum, 2001; Koracevic, Koracevic, Djordevic, Andrejevic & Cosic, 2001; Tubaro, Ghiselli, Rapuzzi, Maiorino & Ursini, 1998). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of human urine is found to be higher than blood plasma (Kirschbaum, 2001; Lissi, Salim-Hanna, Pascual & del Castillo, 1995; Ziobro & Bartosz, 2003). This is due the presence of greater quantities of uric acid in urine than in plasma. ...
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Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise contributes to oxidative stress by generation of free radicals. The human body is well equipped with both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system. Soccer predominantly involves aerobic exercise with repeated bouts of anaerobic activities. The response of the different antioxidants to exercise might be sports-specific and hence the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) provides a better appraisal of the different antioxidant mechanisms of the body. TAC is the sum of the activities of antioxidants present in the material studied. The objective of the present study was to assess the urinary TAC (uTAC) in professional soccer players in different phases of the playing season and to compare the uTAC between professional, amateur and recreational soccer players. 21 professional, 20 amateur and 18 recreational players participated in the study. Results showed that the uTAC in the professional soccer players during pre-season (phase -1), early in-season (phase -2) and during the start of the end-season (phase -3) was (mean ± SD) 3.13 ± 0.09, 2.73 ± 0.37 and 2.99 ± 0.41 mmol·L-1 respectively. The uTAC of the amateur and the recreational players during the start of end-season phase was 2.89 ± 0.44 and 1.77 ± 0.66 mmol·L-1 respectively. Repeated Measures ANOVA revealed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the uTAC between phase-1 and phase-2 while no significant difference was detected between the other phases in the professional soccer players. One-way ANOVA revealed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the uTAC of the recreational players and the amateur and professional players while there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the uTAC between amateur and professional players. In conclusion, the present study found that the uTAC in professional soccer players changes through the course of the competitive season especially at the start of the early in-season period. Further, this study also found that the uTAC in both amateur and professional was higher than in the recreational soccer players. Further research is required to determine the response of the specific antioxidants to soccer training and performance during the different phases of the season and at different levels of participation.
... 43,44 Moreover, the antioxidant levels in human urine are reported to be higher than in blood plasma. 43,45,46 This is due to the presence of greater quantity of uric acid in urine than in plasma. Uric acid is the major contributor of TAC in blood plasma 46 and also dominates total antioxidants of urine as it is present in higher concentrations in urine than in plasma. ...
... 43,45,46 This is due to the presence of greater quantity of uric acid in urine than in plasma. Uric acid is the major contributor of TAC in blood plasma 46 and also dominates total antioxidants of urine as it is present in higher concentrations in urine than in plasma. 43,45 The present study shows a significant decrease in the level of total antioxidants in the urine of the autistic children, whereas the level of total peroxides showed a significant increase which naturally indicates the increased OSI in autistic children thereby reflecting the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of autism. ...
Article
Oxidative stress caused by increased production of free radicals and impaired functions of antioxidants remains as the major factor associated with the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric diseases. The objective of the present study was to analyze the oxidative stress markers in urine sample since the collection of blood from these children is highly meticulous and also to evaluate whether these urinary markers can be correlated with the severity of autism. The subjects of the study were 45 autistic children with different grades of severity (low functioning autism (LFA), medium functioning autism (MFA), and high functioning autism (HFA) according to Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), n=15 children in each group and 50 healthy children (age and sex matched). The boys and girls ratio involved in this study was 4:1, and they were of age 4-12 years. We determined the urinary levels of oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, lipid hydroperoxides, 4-hydroxy nonenal, protein carbonyls, sulfhydryl groups, total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide content, oxidative stress index, and also UA/Cr ratio in autistic children. The study observed a significant elevation in the level of oxidative stress markers in autistic children when compared with normal children. The level of antioxidants excreted in urine was found to be significantly low in autistic children. These findings when correlated with the degrees of severity, oxidative stress markers showed positive correlation with increasing order of severity (LFA>MFA>HFA), whereas antioxidants showed negative correlation. The study reveals that the urinary levels of oxidative stress markers can be considered as the measure of oxidative stress index in autistic children. The significant correlation between the severity of autism with urinary lipid peroxidation products also support the use of oxidative stress markers and antioxidants as biomarkers of autism.
... Human saliva has a total antioxidant capacity higher than blood plasma. [21] In addition, saliva contains polypeptides including immunoglobulin and enzymes such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and histamine. These polypeptides play a crucial role in defense mechanisms against free radicals (oxidative stress) and thereby against oral cancer occurrence. ...
... [30] Numerous studies have shown changes in the activity of salivary antioxidants system in smokers and in patients with SCC compared with control group, but there are some differences between them. [21,[31][32][33] ...
Article
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Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is of malignant tumors, which causes cancerous complications. DNA damage, mainly because of products of oxidative stress like reactive oxygen species, is a frequent mutagenic that triggers carcinoma. Smoking increases the probability of cancer incidence. Saliva is the first biological medium to interact with external compounds, especially smoking substances. The present study overviews the salivary level of some remarkable compounds in relation with smoking and squamous cell carcinoma. To collect data, English literature was searched in databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. The keywords used for search were as follows: ‘Carcinoma, Squamous Cell’, ‘Smoking’, ‘Saliva’, and ‘Biomarkers‘. The inclusion criteria were the presence of salivary chemical factors in relation with oral cancer and influence by smoking. Out of 239 found articles, only 56 were selected. Our results demonstrated the potential role of salivary biochemistry to predict and/or treat complications with cancer in both smoker and non-smoker individuals. Changes in concentrations of salivary chemicals including antioxidants, total antioxidant, glutathione and uric acid, epithelial growth factor, cytokine biomarkers, superoxide dismutase activity, and transcriptome were related to squamous cell carcinoma and could be used as potential biomarkers for cancer prognosis; moreover, enhancement of antioxidant level might be a potential treatment.
... Age has also been inversely related with TAS/TAC concentrations (Benot et al., 1999;Ziobro and Bartosz, 2003). A positive significant relationship has been reported between TAC and age in men but a lack of correlation between TAC and age has also been reported in women (Demirbag et al., 2005). ...
... Those differences in TAS/TAC agerelated results may be due to the differences in age between samples. In the study of Benot et al. (1999) their age's samples ranged from 2 to 89 while in the paper of Ziobro and Bartosz (2003) the age of the sample ranged from 18 to 60. In our study, the age's sample ranged from 18 to 53. ...
Article
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Background: A dysregulation of the oxidant-antioxidant system has been described in several medical conditions. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is one measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Circadianity is a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC circadian rhythm in healthy subjects. Objective: Assessing if healthy subjects present day/night serum TAC changes. Methods: Blood of48 men and 49 women were drawn at 12:00 and 00:00 hours in summer. Serum TAC was measured by the ABTS radical cation technique. TAC results are expressed as mmol of trolox/L (mean ± SD). Results: Men had higher serum TAC concentrations at midday than midnight (0.88±0.18 vs. 0.75±0.19, p<0.001). Women did not have a day/night difference in TAC concentrations
... 14 After a single or 2-week drinking of green or black coffee, the urine TAC level did not change. 16,17 The purpose of this work is to describe a noninvasive method of determining the antioxidant status of the body by the total antioxidant activity of urine using potentiometric coulometry on the example of "Litar," an implantation material -a nanosized composite which is approved for use in medical practice. ...
... 3,4 The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a parameter characterizing the sum of the activities of all antioxidants present in human breastmilk. 5 The TAC of breastmilk seems to be affected by the maternal antioxidant status, which in turn could influence the antioxidant status of breastfed infants. 6 Milk with a higher TAC value will reflect greater oxidative stability and a potentially greater protection for the breastfed infant from exposure to oxidative agents. ...
Article
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Background and objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the effects of synbiotic (probiotic plus prebiotic) supplementation on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of human breastmilk. Subjects and methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=40) or a placebo (n=40) for 30 days. Information on dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-hour recall method for 3 days before and after supplementation. The TAC was measured by using a Randox (Crumlin, County Antrim, United Kingdom) assay, and the MDA level of breastmilk as thiobarbitaric acid complexes was measured by the fluorometry method. Data analysis was carried out using Nutritionist IV (Axxya Systems, Stafford, TX) and SPSS (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Results: The TAC of breastmilk increased significantly from 0.312±0.16 to 0.481±0.2 mmol/L in the supplemented group (p<0.039), whereas it decreased from 0.317±0.18 to 0.255±0.13 mmol/L in the placebo group (p>0.13). Although the MDA level decreased slightly from 1.62±0.69 to 1.6±0.95 μmol/L in the supplemented group, it increased significantly in the placebo group from 1.71±0.86 to 2.16±0.277 μmol/L after the experimental period (p<0.001). Also, maternal vitamin A, E, and C, zinc, and selenium intake did not change significantly in both groups during the study period. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between weight for age Z-score of infants and TAC and MDA levels in breastmilk. Conclusions: Based on these results, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on the TAC and MDA levels in breastmilk; however, these findings require confirmation from future trials.
... Total antioxidant capacity has been carefully measured in body fluids, plasma, saliva and urine, in both physiological and pathological conditions (Battino et al., 2002;Ziobro and Bartosz, 2003;Cornelli et al., 2010). In particular, in the oral cavity, saliva constitutes the first line of defence against oxidative stress, mechanistically involved in periodontal disease, precancerous lesions and oral cancer (Giebułtowicz et al., 2011). ...
Article
The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in health volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(·)(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.
... 30 Sin embargo, varios autores han reportado la existencia de una correlación negativa entre la edad y la CAT plasmática. [31][32][33][34] Por el contrario, nosotros encontramos que los sujetos más jóvenes mostraron los niveles promedio más bajos para la CAT, tanto en el grupo de los pacientes como en el de los controles. En otro sentido, el paciente con mayor CAT en suero porta un alelo SCA2 con 36 unidades de CAG, enfermó a los 50 años de edad y han transcurrido tan solo cuatro años desde que manifestara los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad; es decir, tuvo un alelo SCA2 pequeño -muy cercano al límite inferior de 34 unidades de CAG, encontrado en la muestra estudiada-, es uno de los casos extremos en cuanto a la edad de inicio y uno de los que menos tiempo lleva padeciendo la enfermedad. ...
Article
Introducción: La ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 2 (SCA2) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa, que sigue un patrón de herencia autosómico dominante. Se debe a la expansión de una secuencia repetitiva de CAG del gen SCA2 (12q24.1), que codifica para una proteína poliglutamínica de función aún desconocida. Recientemente han sido encontradas evidencias sobre la existencia de un desbalance oxidativo en esta afección. Objetivos: Determinar si existe alguna alteración de la capacidad antioxidante total (CAT) en pacientes con ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 2, y evaluar si este parámetro depende del género o la edad, y si existe asociación entre la capacidad antioxidante total y variables que caracterizan clínica y molecularmente a los pacientes enfermos. Sujetos y Métodos: Realizamos un estudio de casos y controles en pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y molecular de SCA2 (n = 38), y sujetos controles (n = 42). La capacidad antioxidante total fue determinada a través del ensayo potencial reductor férrico (PRF). Resultados: Encontramos que los pacientes tienen una CAT en suero significativamente menor que la de los sujetos controles (p < 0.001). No encontramos asociación entre la CAT y el género o la edad en pacientes y controles, ni entre la CAT y la edad de inicio o la duración de la enfermedad en los pacientes enfermos. Obtuvimos una correlación con un nivel de significación marginal entre la CAT y el número de repeticiones de CAG (r = -0.33; p = 0.06). Conclusión: Este estudio da fundamento a la hipótesis de la existencia de estrés oxidativo en la SCA2, y sugiere implicaciones terapéuticas para esta enfermedad.
... Moreover, as the TAS of these milk samples were described in a previous paper (Matos et al., 2009), correlation with those data was also performed. The TAS is a lumped parameter describing the sum of the activities of all antioxidant species present in human milk (Miller et al., 1993;Ziobro & Bartosz, 2003). This antioxidant system involves not only a variety of (bio)molecules, but also some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn and Se) (Matos et al., 2009). ...
Article
Abstract The aims of this paper were to evaluate changes in specific oligoelements in human milk during the first four months of lactation and to correlate such changes with total antioxidant status (TAS) and other parameters, such as the mother's age, primipara versus multipara, and supplement intake. Milk samples were collected from 31 lactating women following 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after birth. Trace levels of 13 elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained for the oligoelements exhibited a decrease in concentration from 7 days to 4 months of breast-feeding, with exceptions. Correlations were found between TAS and Co, V, Rb and Tl. Between primipara and multipara, differences were found for Ni and Rb. Regarding the mother's age, correlation was found for Rb and Ba (increased for mothers older than 30 years). Increased amounts of Rb, Mo and Tl at any lactation period appeared in women who took supplements.
... Our results are in accordance with those of Koracevic et al., (2001) who have also reported a higher value of the serum antioxidant activity as compared to the salivary antioxidant activity in human subjects. However, Ziobro and Bartosz (2003) have reported that the levels of AOA are higher in saliva as compared to those of serum in human subjects. The reason for these contradictory results is not clear and may, in part be attributed to the measurement techniques. ...
... In this manuscript, we have chosen three biomarkers reflecting the ability of the amniotic fluid to buffer the effect of oxidative stress (TAC), its antioxidant status (FRAP) and the intensity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), a measure of oxidative stress induced damages. Amniotic fluid TAC concentrations have been previously evaluated in amniotic fluid from uncomplicated pregnancies of smoking and non-smoking women, and pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects [29][30][31][32]. However, FRAP and TBARS have not been previously analyzed in the amniotic fluid. ...
Article
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To determine umbilical cord blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and markers of oxidative stress in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and their associations with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or histological chorioamnionitis (HCA), funisitis and selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity. One hundred and sixty-five women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from the umbilical cord vein after the delivery of the newborn. The umbilical cord blood concentrations of TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs were measured. The presence of MIAC, HCA and funisitis did not show differences in the umbilical cord blood TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs concentrations. Positive correlations were found between the gestational age at sampling and umbilical cord blood TAC and AGEs concentrations (TAC: rho = 0.26; p = 0.001; AGEs: rho = 0.35; p < 0.0001). There was no association between umbilical cord blood TAC, FRAP, TBARS and AGEs concentrations and selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity. Oxidative stress is associated with PPROM, as indicated by the presence of markers tested in the umbilical cord blood; however, the evaluated oxidative stress markers are not influenced by the presence of MIAC and/or HCA, and funisitis or subsequent development of selected aspects of short-term neonatal morbidity.
... In this manuscript, we have chosen three biomarkers reflecting the ability of the amniotic fluid to buffer the effect of oxidative stress (TAC), its antioxidant status (FRAP) and the intensity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), a measure of oxidative stress induced damages. Amniotic fluid TAC concentrations have been previously evaluated in amniotic fluid from uncomplicated pregnancies of smoking and non-smoking women, and pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects [29][30][31][32]. However, FRAP and TBARS have not been previously analyzed in the amniotic fluid. ...
... There are many reports showing that antioxidative capacity in blood plasma, other body fluids 48,53,56 and various tissues 57 may be used as a biomarker for diagnostics 46,58 . However, the procedure to quantify TAC consistently has not yet been standardized. ...
Article
Aerobic metabolism requires a complex antioxidative system to balance reactive oxygen species (ROS). When in excess, ROS disrupt cellular activities and molecular structures. Owing to the variety of ROS, there are different antioxidative activities that require various tests for their detection. The so-called 'total antioxidative capacity' inhibition assay presented in this paper can be used to quantify the overall activity of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (AOs) in biological samples. The assay is based on enhanced horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence. It can be fine-tuned so that the biological samples meet the requirements of the light detector. A detailed protocol describing all relevant parameters is provided. The procedure is quick, inexpensive and reproducible. The assay can be used with diverse biological materials such as plant extracts and blood plasma. Hence, it is applicable to fields as diverse as crop breeding, medical diagnostics or food sciences. The time needed for the assay depends on the number of samples and their AO content. The protocol takes one working day to complete when five samples with five replicates are measured sequentially.
... The patients of ADHD were selected for this study according to the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria were diagnosis of ADHD according to the criteria laid down in DSM IV-TR, 9 age below 16 years and availability of a reliable informant. The exclusion criteria were the presence of any uncontrolled co-existing medical illness and severe mental retardation. ...
Article
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Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently encountered clinical condition in children. Based on DSM IV-TR criteria it can be sub-classified into three distinct types namely hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive and combined. Materials and Methods: In the present study, salivary antioxidant activity (AOA) in children with ADHD was compared with age-matched normal control subjects, both as a whole and also with regard to the three subtypes. Additionally, the effect of therapy on the altered AOA levels was investigated following short term (<3 months) and long term (1-3 years) treatments. AOA and catalase activities in the saliva were estimated employing previously reported biochemical procedures. Results: While AOA is decreased in ADHD patients as compared to normal subjects, statistically significant decrease is seen only in the combined and the hyperactive-impulsive subtypes. Restoration of AOA and catalase activities is seen only after sustained therapy and not in the short term. Conclusion: It is concluded that ADHD is associated with decrease in AOA and this should possibly also be addressed for limiting the long term outcomes of this condition.
... Total antioxidant capacity has been carefully measured in body fluids, plasma, saliva and urine, in both physiological and pathological conditions (Battino et al., 2002;Ziobro and Bartosz, 2003;Cornelli et al., 2010). In particular, in the oral cavity, saliva constitutes the first line of defence against oxidative stress, mechanistically involved in periodontal disease, precancerous lesions and oral cancer (Giebułtowicz et al., 2011). ...
... Red wine bolus consumption did not change salivary TAC [127] but increased urinary TAC in elderly women [147]. After a single or 2 weeks of consumption of green or black coffee urinary TAC did not change [138,168]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia.
... The complete list of active antioxidant components in human milk is not known, but breast milk contains enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant constituents, like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, vitamin E, vitamin C, and β-carotene, may protect newborns against reactive oxygen species at early stages of life (Scheibmeir et al., 2005;L'Abbe and Friel, 2000). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a parameter characterizing the sum of the activities of all antioxidants present in human breast milk (Ziobro and Bartosz, 2003). Milk with a higher TAC value will reflect greater oxidative stability and a potentially greater protection for the breast-fed infant from exposure to oxidative agents (Tijerina-Sáenz et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
Human milk is a complex species-specific biological fluid adapted to perfectly satisfy the nutritional and immunological needs of the neonate. The effects of maternal diet on the composition of breast milk are still of interest. There has been increasing interest in the supplements intake, specially probiotics in the pregnancy and lactation periods. In this chapter, the effect of maternal probiotic or synbiotic supplements intake on maternal nutritional status and human milk microbial, immune and antioxidant composition will be studied. A few studies have been done on the effect of probiotics or synbiotics supplementation in lactating mothers on maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition, and infants’ growth, and the results were controversial. So, large-scale studies using different species of probiotic bacteria and longer duration of supplementation are necessary to make concise conclusions.
... Total antioxidant capacity has been carefully measured in body fluids, plasma, saliva and urine, in both physiological and pathological conditions (Battino et al., 2002;Ziobro and Bartosz, 2003;Cornelli et al., 2010). In particular, in the oral cavity, saliva constitutes the first line of defence against oxidative stress, mechanistically involved in periodontal disease, precancerous lesions and oral cancer (Giebułtowicz et al., 2011). ...
... Most studies of the impact of age on antioxidants have focused on plasma levels and it has been proposed, in separate studies, that increasing age is associated with a reduction, or an elevation, in serum antioxidant levels. 27,28 These contradictory findings are anyway of questionable relevance to this study because, although follicular antioxidants are derived to some degree from blood, levels in follicular fluid do not concur with those in plasma in some cases; for example, ascorbic acid is concentrated in follicular fluid. 29,30 Chromosomal and DNA damage are more common in oocytes from older women, 31,32 and may result in increased ROS synthesis. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine whether the relationship between antioxidant capacity of follicular fluid and early reproductive outcomes is influenced by the cause of infertility, polycystic ovarian morphology, age and smoking. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study performed in an assisted conception unit and a teaching hospital. The study cohort was 34 women undergoing IVF treatment. Interventions included total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measured using ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay in 303 follicular fluid samples. The main outcome measures were follicular fluid TAC, percentage TAC loss after 72 h and early reproductive outcomes. Follicular TAC was elevated in women with infertility of 'unexplained' (UE) or tubal factor (TF) aetiology, relative to those with male factor (MF) infertility, when reproductive outcomes were positive but not when they were negative. In the TF and UE groups, low TAC was associated with ovum fertilization incompetence, whereas TAC was comparable irrespective of embryo viability. Unexplained infertility was associated with significantly elevated follicular TAC. Among women with polycystic ovaries, fertilization incompetence was associated with elevated TAC; the opposite was true in women with normal ovaries. Follicular fluid 72-h TAC consumption > 20% was associated with poorer reproductive performance. The follicular fluid pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance required for conception in women undergoing IVF is related to the aetiology of infertility, age, the presence of polycystic ovary morphology and smoking.
... Body fluids in organisms such as urine, blood, and seminal plasma have different levels of the TAC, and this capacity could be affected by some factors like diet, age, and health status [39]. The plasma levels of TAC present information about the condition of related tissues. ...
Article
The advantages of gender-related characteristics are used in aquaculture practice to improve production. For instance, all-female stock is preferable than mixed or all-male stock in salmonid culture. The most effective way to obtain all-female populations is the using of sex-reversed (SR) females, genotypically female but phenotypically male, by masculinizing androgen hormones as breeders in artificial insemination. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein concentration, catalase (CAT) activity, lipid peroxidation level (MDA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of seminal plasma of SR females and normal (N) males during the spawning season. Seminal plasma TAC values of N males and SR females were determined as 0.015±0.004 and 0.116±0.033 mM of TE respectively in the middle of the spawning season. Some regions related to aromatic rings in seminal plasma FTIR spectra of SR females differed from N males were indicated to the higher TAC values. At the middle of the spawning season, protein concentrations were determined as 569.5±139.4 mg/dL in SR females, 66.3±22.7 mg/dL in N male. LPO levels in seminal plasma of N males varied from 46.33±12.05 x10-3 to 270.02±70.64 x10-3 nmol/mg protein, while from 13.87±4.98 x10-3 to 48.49±17.31 x10-3 nmol/mg protein in SR females throughout the spawning. CAT activities of seminal plasma in N males ranged from 0.38±0.26 to 0.47±0.32 kU/mg protein, while those values in SR females varied between 0.21±0.10 and 0.43±0.15 kU/mg protein. Moreover, there were the pairwise significant correlations among all variables except between CAT and TAC (P > 0.05). Remarkable correlations were found between LPO-protein (r=-0.922, P < 0.05, n=190), LPO-TAC (r=-0.859, P < 0.05, n=98), and TAC-protein (r=+0.879, P < 0.05, n=98). Similar to seminal plasma of N males, TAC values, protein concentrations and CAT activities in seminal plasma of SR females have shown decline while LPO levels increased towards to the end of the spawning seasons. Seminal plasma of SR females characterized by higher protein concentrations and TAC values and lower LPO levels than that from N males.
... Gencer et al. observed a decrease in TAC level in the blood plasma of COPD patients [46]. Some earlier studies on smoke-exposed individuals demonstrated a reduction of the serum total antioxidant capacity compared to the controls [22,47]. Increased lipid peroxidation may lead to altered activity of antioxidant enzymes. ...
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Introduction Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is involved in the metabolism of endogenous lipids and xenobiotics, such as esters of carboxylic or phosphoric acids. Butyrylcholinesterase activity is associated with both inflammation and oxidative stress. Changes in the activity of this enzyme have been observed in various diseases such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and others. Material and methods The study involved 30 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 18 healthy subjects. The COPD patients were divided according to the severity of the disease by applying the classification of COPD based on GOLD standards for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) ratio. The control group comprised blood samples collected from healthy subjects without concomitant diseases related to the respiratory system. Butyrylcholinesterase activity, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the blood plasma. Results A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activity of BChE, associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the total antioxidant capacity, was observed in blood plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions The study shows for the first time that activity of BChE in the blood plasma of patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is considerably reduced compared with healthy subjects. These changes were accompanied by a decrease of TAC and an increase of lipid peroxidation, which suggests that they may be related to the oxidative stress induced by COPD disease.
... Koracevic et al invented the TAC test in 2001; [6] and it was instantly endorsed by Young [7] as the test measuring status of antioxidants' competence in blood or body fluids, which (a) works as systemic defense mechanism, (b) counters the action of cellular ROS or other oxidants, and (c) protects the expected oxidative damage to cellular bio-molecules. TAC in blood or other body fluids remains in equilibrium with sheathing exudates of cell/ tissue [8] and works like a chest-of-currency ready to be spent for inactivation of ROS and protection of cells or tissue from damage and malfunction. Speculatively, TAC levels in humans can display status of ACV to protect them from OS, pro-inflammatory changes, and inapt tissue homeostasis, and risk of diseases & disorders invisible clinically. ...
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The prevalence of lifestyle diseases or the Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are on the rise colossally as well as globally. The key contributors are understood to be the pollutants and contaminants present in local ambient environment that trigger the onset of cellular oxidative stress i.e. imbalance in levels of oxidants and antioxidants at cell level, and the pro-inflammatory changes. Reports in literature indicate a possibility of association between risk of increase in lifestyle-disease-incidences and the acquisition of clinical vulnerability (ACV) in subjects chronically exposed to pollutants. Occurrence of oxidative stress is known to be the first and foremost change for the onset of NCDs. Therefore a periodic assessment of imbalance in levels of oxidants and antioxidants is plausible that can be performed by determining levels of cellular oxidative damage and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in blood or body fluids. Elucidation of subnormal TAC can provide an opportunity for protection from ACV or getting predisposed to diseases and disorders through evidence based timely supplementation of antioxidants. In this review, we hypothesize, and appraise, the utility and significance of TAC measurements as a public health tool for monitoring ACV. Its measurement at different levels of NCD prevention shall result in efficient implementation of global action program for control of NCDs burden. Points in approval are ease, reliability, specificity, reproducibility, and the inexpensiveness of the method. We also contend that further research could lead to development of a proper cocktail of antioxidants to be used as adjuvant therapeutic measures to delay or reverse existing NCDs and their impact in individuals. We propose TAC as an early indicator that can be used to detect and control ACV and related NCDs.
... It plays an important role in the physiologic digestion of starches. 5,6 Original research ...
Article
Introduction: One of the common practices observed in many parts of the world is smoking, of which tobacco forms an important constituent which is burned and inhaled. Smoking is known to have potential effect on body's immune system, antioxidants level, and salivary cotinine levels. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoke on salivary anti-oxidant levels and cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods: The present study included assessment of salivary parameters of smokers and nonsmokers. A total of 400 subjects were analyzed, of which 200 were active smokers and 200 were nonsmokers. Unstimulated salivary samples were taken and assessment of a-amylase levels was done using biochemical kit and spectrophotometer. Assessment of salivary catalase (CAT) activity was done using Luck method. For the determination of cotinine levels, Bioassay Technology Laboratory kit was used using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. After the assessment of levels of all the salivary parameters, all the data were recorded, compiled, and analyzed. Results: a-Amylase in smokers and nonsmokers group was found to be 206.25 and 169.85 U/mL respectively. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the salivary a-amylase levels among the two study groups. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the salivary CAT levels among the smokers and nonsmokers group. We observed statistically significant results while comparing mean cotinine levels among smokers group and nonsmokers group. Conclusion: Alteration in cotinine levels occurs in smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Clinical significance: Smoking can cause harmful effect on the oral mucous membrane by altering salivary defense components.
... TAC includes the overall pattern of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic endogenous antioxidant compounds able to scavenge ROS and RNS. 4,5 In recent years, several assays for measuring TAC in biological fluids have found commercial application. 6−9 They evaluate the ability of antioxidant molecules to (i) quench or reduce radical substrates (indirect methods), (ii) reduce metal ions (methods based on inhibited autoxidation), and (iii) competitively block fluorogenic or chromogenic radical probes (methods based on the competitive probe reaction). ...
Article
Redox imbalance and oxidative stress-related biomarkers are raising increasing consensus in the scientific community for their significant role in a wide range of human disorders. In this framework, the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), namely the overall pattern of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds within the body, represents an important bioanalytical parameter. To date, however, antioxidant assays require costly instrumentations, laboratory setups and reagents, and they are invasive. Yet, their accuracy typically suffers from strong sensitivity to interfering matrices and inability to detect the complete pattern of physiological antioxidant molecules, due to the use of reaction schemes and probes/substrates that are not sensitive to the diverse range of relevant target species. Here, we exploit the enzyme-mimetic properties of platinum nanoparticles combined to hydroxyl radical probes produced at the particle surface, to develop an effective detection scheme that is sensitive to both Single Electron Transfer (SET) and Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) reactions, thus covering all the physiologically relevant antioxidant species. Importantly, the nanozyme-enabled method allows fast (5 min), accurate, and non-invasive evaluation of the body TAC, through saliva, via simple naked-eye or smartphone-based inspection.
... La capacité antioxydante de la salive diminue avec l'âge [78,79], et pourrait être à l'origine de changements structuraux au niveau des glandes salivaires entraînant une diminution du flux salivaire [80]. Le sport d'endurance conduit à une diminution du stress oxydant [81] liée à une augmentation de l'abondance de protéines salivaires impliquées dans la régulation du redox salivaire [82]. ...
Article
Résumé La salive est un fluide complexe contenant des électrolytes, des molécules organiques, des microorganismes, des débris alimentaires et cellulaires, mais aussi des protéines de différentes natures qui lui permettent d’assurer de nombreuses fonctions. La salive a entre autres un rôle dans le contrôle et la modulation des dommages résultant de mécanismes oxydants en bouche. Cet article introduit les principaux composés salivaires impliqués dans le stress oxydant et ceux impliqués dans la neutralisation de ces espèces oxydantes, le maintien du potentiel redox et la réparation des dommages issus de l’oxydation des biomolécules en bouche. Il propose un état des lieux des connaissances sur l’effet de l’alimentation sur le potentiel antioxydant de la salive. Cet article traite également de l’émergence de recherches portant sur le rôle de la capacité antioxydante salivaire dans la perception des aliments, résultant de son impact sur les réactions chimiques et biochimiques se produisant en bouche et impliquant les molécules de la flaveur.
... The antioxidant capacity of saliva decreases with age (89,90). Moreover, structural changes are also observed with a decrease in salivary flow (91). ...
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The mouth is the gateway for entrance of food and microorganisms into the organism. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, which is thus the first fluid that food and microorganisms will face after their entrance. As a result, saliva plays different functions, including lubrication, predigestion, protection, detoxification, and even transport of taste compounds to chemoreceptors located in the taste buds. To ensure its function of protection, saliva contains reactive harmful compounds such as reactive oxygen species that are controlled and neutralized by the antioxidant activity of saliva. Several antioxidant molecules control the production of molecules such as reactive oxygen compounds, neutralize them and/or repair the damage they have caused. Therefore, a balance between reactive oxidant species and antioxidant compounds exists. At the same time, food can also contain antioxidant compounds, which can participate in the equilibrium of this balance. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of different food components on the antioxidant capacity of saliva that correspond to the ability of saliva to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Contradictory results have sometimes been obtained. Moreover, some antioxidant compounds are also cofactors of enzymatic reactions that affect flavor compounds. Recent studies have considered the salivary antioxidant capacity to explain the release of flavor compounds ex vivo or in vivo. This article aims to review the effect of food on the antioxidant capacity of saliva and the impact of salivary antioxidant capacity on flavor perception after a brief presentation of the different molecules involved.
... The role of glutathione in physiological and pathological states and its impact on the redox and detoxification process of xenobiotics and carcinogen is described in the literature [12]. Similarly, there are several papers on the antioxidant properties of selected body fluids [13,14]. However, to our knowledge, there are no comparative studies on the antioxidant properties of both biological samples and glutathione as well as the change in these properties as a result of exposure to various stress factors. ...
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The imbalance between the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and their sequestration promotes the formation of so-called oxidative stress conditions which are considered crucial in the aging process and development of many human diseases. Glutathione plays an essential role in the antioxidative barricade against ROS. Its role in the detoxification process of xenobiotics and carcinogen is also known. However, there are no comparative studies on the antioxidant properties of both biological samples and glutathione as well as the change in these properties as a result of exposure to various stress factors. This paper fills this gap comparing the antioxidant activity of serum and plasma samples of the known glutathione content with the activity of glutathione itself assessed by the different methods. In addition, it reveals a significant role of environmental xenobiotics in oxidative stress and differentiates the stress induced by different groups of drugs, among which the greatest one has been demonstrated for antiarrhythmic drugs and cytostatics. More importantly, it proves that human plasma is more resistant to stress factors and N-acetylcysteine clearly promotes the extension of antioxidant properties of both the plasma and serum samples. The latter conclusion is consistent with the implied preventive and/or supportive action of this drug against SARS-CoV-2.
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In all living cells, levels of reactive oxygen species are kept in check by antioxidative activities. Superoxide radicals are dismutated by superoxide dismutases, by other enzymes and by nonenzymatic compounds. This protocol describes the quantification of superoxide scavenging activities (SOSA). It is based on the inhibition of chemiluminescence emitted by coelenterazine when oxidized by superoxide. SOSA is a summary parameter comprising all high-molecular-weight superoxide scavengers in a biological sample. Enzymes and nonenzymatic scavengers can also be distinguished. The SOSA assay is quick, reproducible and applicable to fields as diverse as medical diagnostics, food sciences, or agriculture. The protocol presented here requires about 2 working days to complete.
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The total antioxidant level is an important biomarker to determine redox imbalance in human body which can cause many diseases and threaten human health. Though the detection of antioxidants in vivo is gaining wide attention, most of the developed methods have only one detection mode and can only detect single type of antioxidant, leading to inaccurate test results. Here, we developed [email protected](III)-ART NPs as a dual-modal probe for water soluble total antioxidants detection in saliva. The detection mechanism was based on two reactions, including a cascading reaction of antioxidants activating the production of free radicals for fluorescence components generated, and a coordination reaction of antioxidants capturing Cu²⁺ from the MOFs nodes for carboxyl group protonated. Based on this, the UV-Vis absorbance intensity and fluorescence intensity of the probes would be simultaneously changed after the incubation with antioxidants. Thus, the probe can detect antioxidants through both UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometers. The dual-modal detection method can achieve rapid detection within 10 minutes with only 200 μL of samples used. Water soluble total antioxidants in saliva with component proportion fluctuated within a certain range can be well detected. And the obtained results were accurate with high recovery. This dual-modal probe provided an accurate, rapid and noninvasive method to detect water soluble total antioxidants in human body.
Article
Background. Bone fractures can be the processes that generate the creation of the reactive oxygen species. One of the enzyme which is responsible for defense against ROS is glutathione peroxidase. Objectives. Estimation of the influence of the maxillofacial fractures on the activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood serum. Additionally, the influence of the bony fractures and prognathism treatment by applied dental splints or surgical procedures on the activity of glutathione peroxidase in serum was estimated. Material and Methods. The investigated group comprised 26 patients in the age of 17 to 52 years old treated with dental splints for 6 weeks. Six patients were treated for mandibular prognathism, 20 for complications of facialfractures. All mandibular prognathism patients were subject to surgical procedures; 6 patients with fractures were additionally subject to surgical procedure. Blood samples were taken from all patients four times to assess the activity of glutathione peroxidase. First samples were taken before the splints were applied, second within a week of splint application, third after 3-5 weeks of splint application and fourth after the splints were removed. Control group comprised 6 patients (3 women and 3 men) aged 17 to 31 years with mandibular prognathism with blood samples were taken before dental splints application and before surgical procedures. Results. In the group with fractures the differences in the glutathione peroxidase activity during treatment in comparison with time before treatment was observed. Surgical procedure causes increased glutathione peroxidase activity. In the group of patients without surgical procedure glutathione peroxidase activity during treatment decreases in comparison with time before dental splints application. Conclusions. Trauma (maxillofacial fracture) causes the change of the glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood serum. Both the surgical procedure and use of dental splints fostered the mobilization of defense mechanismsagainst ROS. The observed changes in the activity of the glutathione peroxidase in blood serum are transitional and related to the treatment process.
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Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently encountered clinical condition in children. Based on DSM IV-TR criteria it can be sub-classified into three distinct types namely hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive and combined. Materials and Methods: In the present study, salivary antioxidant activ-ity (AOA) in children with ADHD was compared with age-matched normal control subjects, both as a whole and also with regard to the three subtypes. Additionally, the effect of therapy on the altered AOA levels was investigated following short term (<3 months) and long term (1–3 years) treatments. AOA and catalase activi-ties in the saliva were estimated employing previously reported biochemical procedures. Results: While AOA is decreased in ADHD patients as compared to normal subjects, statistically significant decrease is seen only in the combined and the hyperactive-impulsive subtypes. Restoration of AOA and catalase activities is seen only after sustained therapy and not in the short term. Conclusion: It is concluded that ADHD is associated with decrease in AOA and this should possibly also be addressed for limiting the long term outcomes of this condition. KEYWORDS: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oxidation-reduction, free radicals, catalase, antioxi-dants INTRODUCTION Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-behavioural disorders in children characterized by hyperactivity, impulsive-ness and inattention beyond the norm for a child's age. The children with ADHD have pronounced impair-ments and can experience long term adverse effects on academic performance, vocational success and social-emotional development. The impact of ADHD on society is enormous in terms of stress to families, financial cost, disruption in schooling and potential for development of criminality and substance abuse.
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Introduction: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardio-vascular diseases. However, much less is understood about the redox status of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The present study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the redox status of patients with ACS prior to and following therapy as compared to age-matched healthy individuals by monitoring the antioxidant potential of serum and saliva as biomarkers of oxidative stress and evaluating their likely correlation with the clinical status of the patients. Methods: A total of 33 patients (29-78 year old, male) with the diagnosis of ACS and age-matched 16 healthy male (control) were included in the study. The diagnosis of ACS was based on the clinical presentation, ECG and serum cardiac biomarkers. These patients were grouped as acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation subtype (STEMI, n=24) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction subtype (NSTEMI, n=9). Serum and salivary antioxidant activity (AOA) were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Antioxidant defense, as reflected by lower total AOA in saliva and serum, was found to be significantly attenuated in patients with ACS as compared to control subjects, indicating an increased oxidative stress. The decrease in AOA was more conspicuous in patients with STEMI as compared to non-NSTEMI suggesting more oxidative stress in the former is associated with the severity of the disease, including tissue necrosis in STEMI patients. Drug treatment to ACS patients for a short-term period (4-6 days) elicited no significant improvement in their AOA. However, ACS patients receiving long-term drug treatment (4-5 weeks) exhibited a significant increase in AOA as well as an improvement in the clinical status. Conclusion: This preliminary study supports the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ACS and the use of salivary and serum AOA as a potential marker of the redox status and disease severity.
Article
Background: Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide with an increasing global incidence. Compromised antioxidant defense system plays a role in occurrence of cancer. This study evaluated the salivary antioxidant level of oral cancer patients compared to a control group. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients presenting to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, as the case and 20 healthy controls that matched the case group in terms of age, sex and race. Total salivary antioxidant level was measured in both groups. Results: The salivary antioxidant level of patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (P=0.029). Conclusion: Salivary antioxidant level of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than healthy individuals. Saliva increases the anti-oxidant level as a compensatory action, thus, by administration of antioxidants we may help saliva in the fight against free radicals that are considered as predisposing factors for cancer. © 2014, Iranian Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Society. All rights reserved.
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Background: Serum, saliva, and GCF have intrinsic antioxidant system that counterbalances the free radical injuries and protects the oral tissues. Saliva can be collected noninvasively. Thus, saliva offers an alternative system to serum as a biological fluid and can be easily analysed for antioxidant status in disease conditions. Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory condition affecting the oral health. Methodology: The study included 90 patients. The periodontal status of the patients was assessed using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Patients were divided into three groups as Group 1 CPITN score <11, Group 2 CPITN score 11-14, Group 3 CPITN score >14. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and analysed spectrophotometrically for total salivary antioxidant status (TAOS). Aims and objectives: To assess salivary TAOS with the severity of periodontal disease. Results: Statistical analysis of this study showed that there was a significant decrease in TAOS of saliva in severe periodontitis patients. A non-significant decrease in TAOS of saliva was noticed in moderate periodontitis patients compared with healthy individuals. Conclusion: The inference of this study is that severe periodontitis is related with aging and is associated with an insult to TAOS of saliva. This diminished salivary antioxidant capacity could result in elevated oxidative damage to the periodontal and other oral tissues. Hence, supplementation of antioxidants along with the periodontal therapy in severe periodontitis patients and elderly individuals is essential.
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We evaluated the concentrations of glutathione and uric acid, low molecular weight antioxidants, in saliva of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in order to identify differences with normal subjects and to obtain information about biochemical alterations of human saliva during carcinogenesis. We compared 50 HNSCC patients, divided in 2 subsets on the basis of tumor site, with a control group of 77 subjects, without a previous diagnosis of HNSCC, matched for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking status. At tests for equality of means by Welch and Brown-Forsythe, differences between groups resulted probable for salivary levels of glutathione (p = .004 and p < .001 respectively) but not for salivary levels of uric acid (p = .228 and p = .122 respectively). Comparing groups by Tamhane test, the patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer had significantly higher salivary levels of glutathione than both controls and patients with laryngeal cancer. Salivary glutathione levels may be an index of oxidative stress at the level of the upper airways and in particular of oral cavity and pharynx. Therefore, high salivary glutathione may be an epidemiological marker to identify subjects with an increased risk of developing HNSCC, to submit to strict follow-up and chemoprevention. Metabolic alterations of saliva could be both an epidemiological marker and a target for chemoprevention of oral and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis.
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A simple, rapid and inexpensive method for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by cells in culture is described. The assay is based on the horseradish peroxidase of a (HRPO)-mediated oxidation of phenol red by H2O2 which results in the formation of a compound demonstrating increased absorbance at 610 nm. A linear relationship between absorbance at 610 nm and concentration of H2O2 was found in the 1–60 μM (1–60 nmoles/ml) range. Due to the non-toxic character of phenol red and HRPO, the assay permits measurement of H2O2 production and release by macrophages for time intervals of 5–60 min under regular tissue culture conditions. Using this assay, the ability of a number of agents to induce H2O2 release by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages was demonstrated. These agents were: phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), opsonized zymosan, concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and A23187.
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Publisher Summary Several methods have been developed to assess the total antioxidant capacities of various biological samples, particularly complex matrices such as plasma, serum, wine, fruits, vegetables, and animal tissues. This chapter presents a method called “oxygen radical absorbance capacity” (ORAC) assay based largely on the work reported by Glazer's laboratory, which depends on the unique properties of phycoerythrin (PE). The ORAC assay is the only method that takes reactive species (RS) reaction to completion and uses an “area under the curve” (AUC) technique for quantitation, thus combining both inhibition time and inhibition percentage of the RS action by antioxidants into a single quantity. The chapter discusses the general principles of ORAC assay for assessing antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals. By integrating inhibition percentages over the whole inhibition time period, the ORAC assay successfully overcomes all related problems in quantitation of the antioxidant capacity of a biological sample. Either B- or R-phycoerythrin (B-PE or R-PE) can be used in the ORAC assay. The sensitivity of B- or R-PE to hydroxyl radical damage may be different even for the same PE with different lot numbers. The concentrations of Cu 2+ and standard (Tro lox) can be adjusted, when it is necessary. The aforementioned procedures are based on using B- or R-PE that loses more than 90% of its fluorescence within 30 rains. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ORAC assay for assessing antioxidant capacity against transition metals.
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The content of many nutrients in breast milk are dependent on the nutritional status of the lactating woman. This is particularly true for fat and water-soluble vitamins, some of which have antioxidant properties. We have previously reported that the total antioxidant content of the milk of women residing in different regions of the developing world varies significantly. In this report we describe the relationship between the antioxidant status of lactating women and their exclusively breast-fed infants from different ethnic groups in Nigeria and the antioxidant content of breast milk. The total antioxidant content of milk from 47 Nigerian women (32 Fulani, 8 Ibo, 3 Yoruba and 4 other ethnic groups) was determined using the Randox® assay. Maternal and infant serum total antioxidant activity were also measured using the same assay. The milk of the Fulani women contained significantly lower antioxidant capacity than the milk from the other ethnic groups (1.1 mmol/L vs. 3.1 mmol/L, p =
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The effect of antioxidants and biological fluids on the intensity of luminol induced chemiluminescence by radicals derived from the thermolysis of 2,2′-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) has been employed to monitor TRAP and TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT REACTIVITY (TAR) levels. The latter parameter, which considers not only the quantity of oxidants but also their reactivity, is considered a potentially more useful index of the antioxidant status of a biological fluid. The results obtained employing human blood plasma and human urine show that the detected antioxidant capacity of both fluids is mainly related to the uric acid concentration of the samples.
The participation of the primary radicals in the bleaching of aqueous solutions of the carotenoid crocin by ionizing radiation was investigated, employing both X-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis. The pulse-radiolytic data demonstrated a very rapid diffusion-controlled attack by both hydroxyl radicals (.OH) and hydrated electrons (eaq-), while superoxide anions (O2-) did not react at all. The site of the initial reaction of these radicals was not limited to the polyene chromophore. Slower secondary reactions involving crocin alkyl or peroxy radicals contribute mainly to the overall bleaching, in particular during steady-state irradiation.
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Aging and the diseases that typically follow with increasing age, notably atherosclerosis and cancer, are often proposed to be involved in increased oxidative stress. Animal studies, on the other hand, show no clear-cut pattern of age-related changes in enzymatic antioxidant defences. In this study we have demonstrated that total peroxyl radical scavenging antioxidant capacity (TRAP) in human plasma changes with age. We also found that among the antioxidants in human plasma there exists a major fraction of so far unidentified antioxidant(s). A chemiluminescent TRAP assay was used to determine the presence of peroxyl radical scavenging antioxidants in human plasma. The material consisted of 87 healthy volunteers, aged 20-96 years, who used no regular medication, vitamins, or trace elements. In females, total antioxidant capacity increased significantly during the life span. The increase in TRAP was mainly due to unidentified antioxidants. In males, TRAP increased until age 51-74, and then significantly decreased. The decrease observed among males was also due to the sharp decline in the concentration of unidentified antioxidants.
Article
Three assays were compared for the determination of total antioxidant capacity in human serum: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Randox Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (Randox-TEAC) assay, and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. There was a weak but significant linear correlation between serum ORAC and serum FRAP. There was no correlation either between serum ORAC and serum TEAC or between serum FRAP and serum TEAC. The effect of dilution on the serum TEAC value and the use of inhibition percentage at a fixed time, without considering the length of inhibition time in the quantitation of results, adversely affected the Randox-TEAC assay. The FRAP assay is simple and inexpensive but does not measure the SH-group-containing antioxidants. The ORAC assay has high specificity and responds to numerous antioxidants. By utilizing different extraction techniques in the ORAC assay, one can remove serum proteins and also make some gross differentiation between aqueous and lipid-soluble antioxidants. However, the ORAC assay requires approximately 60 min more than the FRAP or Randox-TEAC assay to quantitate results.
Article
A competition kinetics procedure for measuring plasma antioxidant capacity is described. This procedure is based on the "crocin bleaching test" (Bors, W., et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 796:312-319; 1984) modified for analyzing the antioxidant capacity of complex mixtures (Tubaro, F., et al. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:173-179; 1996). The information produced by this test is similar to that of the popular "total radical trapping antioxidant potential" (TRAP) analysis. However, the adopted kinetic approach is, in principle, more precise, taking into account both the concentration of antioxidants and their rate constant for the reaction with peroxy radical, which is overlooked in TRAP tests, as implied by the theory of the approach and confirmed by dynamic modeling. The kinetic analysis has also the advantage of accounting for the average between antioxidant effect (reduction of peroxy radicals) and possible prooxidant effect (oxidation by the radical of the antioxidant of the target supposed to be protected) if any. Thus, the result of this analysis provides a more precise evaluation of the efficiency of antioxidant defense. The intraassay variation resulted in less than 8% and, in young healthy subjects, the plasma antioxidant capacity, expressed as mM equivalents of a reference antioxidant (Trolox C), gave 1.59 +/- 0.28. The validated procedure has been used to show that plasma antioxidant capacity is deeply influenced by the consumption of wine.
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It is often assumed that antioxidant nutrients contribute to the protection afforded by fruits, vegetables, and red wine against diseases of aging. However, the effect of fruit, vegetable and red wine consumption on the overall antioxidant status in human is unclear. In this study we investigated the responses in serum total antioxidant capacity following comsumption of strawberries (240 g), spinach (294 g), red wine (300 ml) or vitamin C (1250 mg) in eight elderly women. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity of serum determined as ORAC, TEAC and FRAP, using the area under the curve, increased significantly by 7-25% during the 4-h period following consumption of red wine, strawberries, vitamin C or spinach. The total antioxidant capacity of urine determined as ORAC increased (P < 0.05) by 9.6, 27.5, and 44.9% for strawberries, spinach, and vitamin C, respectively, during the 24-h period following these treatments. The plasma vitamin C level after the strawberry drink, and the serum urate level after the strawberry and spinach treatments, also increased significantly. However, the increased vitamin C and urate levels could not fully account for the increased total antioxidant capacity in serum following the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine. We conclude that the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine, which are rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, can increase the serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J. Nutr. 2383-2390, 1998
Article
A method for measuring the antioxidant capacity and/or the amount of a specific antioxidant in a sample, which comprises: a) at least two samples (A) and (B) to be assayed in parallel; b) addition of an antioxidant deactivator to sample (A) which selectively deactivates the antioxidant ability of an antioxidant in the sample; c) addition of a redox indicator to both samples (A) and (B), the indicator being capable of indicating the antioxidant capacity of each sample absorbance of electromagnetic radiation; d) measurement of the change in absorbance of electromagnetic radiation of the indicator in each sample at a given time interval, from the time when the redox indicator was added to or mixed with the samples or immediately prior to this addition or mixing until a given time after the redox indicator was added; e) determining the antioxidant capacity of the sample and/or the specific antioxidant in the sample, by relating the change in absorbance of electromagnetic radiation of step (d) to the absorbance value of a standard solution run under the same conditions or to molar absorptivity value. US6177260; US6177260 B1; US6177260B1; US6,177,260; US 6,177,260 B1; 6177260; Application No. 08/893,519
Article
Concentrations of glutathione, uric acid and total antioxidant activity, expressed as Trolox (a water-soluble vitamin E analogue) equivalent, were measured in the saliva of healthy non-smokers and smokers before and just after smoking a single cigarette. There was no statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in uric acid concentrations and total radical-trapping antioxidant capacity, but glutathione concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in smokers. Smoking of a single cigarette induced a significant reduction in glutathione concentration (p < 0.05). Salivary antioxidant power may affect individual sensitivity toward tobacco stress.
Article
Uric acid is the most important non-enzymatic antioxidant present in human saliva. There is a great variability among individuals, both in salivary uric acid content and saliva total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP). The uric acid present in saliva correlates with plasma uric acid, suggesting that the former is imported from plasma. There are not statistical differences between uric acid or TRAP values in saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Also, smoking a cigarette does not modify the levels of antioxidants present in saliva.
Article
Free radicals are likely involved in the aging process and there is a growing body of evidence that free radical damage to cellular function is associated with a number of age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurologic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate in a healthy population the evolution with age of 8-epiPGF2alpha plasma levels, a recently proposed marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation. Moreover we investigated this marker of oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder in the development of which free radicals have been involved. Our results show that in the healthy population studied, despite decreased antioxidant defenses with increasing age as monitored by antioxidant capacity measurement, plasma 8-epiPGF2alpha levels were not correlated with age. Moreover, we have demonstrated that AD patients presented no modification of plasma 8-epiPGF2alpha level and no major alteration of the antioxidant status. In conclusion, the measurement of plasma 8-epiPGF2alpha did not allow us to detect alterations in oxidative stress with aging or in AD.
Article
Several methods have been developed to measure the total antioxidant capacity of a biological sample. The use of peroxyl or hydroxyl radicals as pro-oxidants in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay makes it different and unique from the assays that involve oxidants that are not necessarily pro-oxidants. An improvement in quantitation is achieved in the ORAC assay by taking the reaction between substrate and free radicals to completion and using an area-under-curve technique for quantitation compared to the assays that measure a lag phase. The interpretation of the changes in plasma or serum antioxidant capacity becomes complicated by the different methods used in detecting these changes. The interpretation also depends upon the conditions under which the antioxidant capacity is determined because the measurement reflects outcomes in a dynamic system. An increased antioxidant capacity in plasma or serum may not necessarily be a desirable condition if it reflects a response to increased oxidative stress. Similarly, a decrease in plasma or serum antioxidant capacity may not necessarily be an undesirable condition if the measurement reflects decreased production of reactive species. Because of these complications, no single measurement of antioxidant status is going to be sufficient, but a "battery" of measurements, many of which will be described in Forum articles, will be necessary to adequately assess oxidative stress in biological systems.
Article
Freshly-voided human urine contains significant concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2 appears to arise in whole or in part by superoxide-dependent autoxidation of urinary biomolecules. Since instant coffee also contains high levels of H2O2, we examined the effect of coffee drinking on urinary levels of H2O2. Studies on healthy human volunteers showed that coffee drinking is rapidly and reproducibly followed by increased levels of H2O2 detectable in the urine for up to 2 h after drinking the coffee. The levels of H2O2 detected in urine suggest that exposure of human tissues to H2O2 may be greater than is commonly supposed. It is possible that H2O2 in urine could act as an antibacterial agent, and that H2O2 is involved in the regulation of glomerular function.
Article
Total antioxidant capacity has been determined for several body fluids and provides a convenient means to compare antioxidant defenses among patients with acute or chronic inflammatory illnesses. We have studied urine specimens from a control group and a variety of patients with hypertension and acute and chronic renal diseases using an ABTS antioxidant assay as described for blood. Other urine assays included fluorescence markers for advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and di-tyrosine (di-tyr), protein, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations. Urine antioxidant activity was standardized against ascorbic acid. We found that both the lag time and the area under the curve (AUC) in the ABTS assay were highly correlated with one another and correlated with the protein and uric acid concentrations, except for those specimens collected from patients with acute renal failure (ARF). The lack of correlation in the ARF group was not associated with significant differences in lag time or AUC. Correlations were seen also between antioxidant parameters and fluorescence for AGE and di-tyr. The results indicate that the predominant antioxidants in the urine of patients with acute renal failure differ from those found in the urine of individuals with hypertension and chronic nephropathies. The ABTS assay provides a convenient marker for the antioxidant content of urine.
Article
Contradictory results have been reported in the literature concerning the correlation between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and peroxidation level in serum of diabetic patients. To evaluate this correlation in type 2 diabetic patients by comparing the level of HbA1c with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(OH)) of serum. One hundred and five type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled for the study. After having obtained informed consent, venous blood samples were drawn after overnight fast at the time of routine diabetic check-ups. The blood was collected in plain and EDTA (1 mg/ml) tubes. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was determined by cation-exchange chromatography (HPLC), and spectrophotometric detection (Diamat Analyzer, BioRad). Serum was used for biochemical determinations performed by standard laboratory procedures and for ORAC(OH) analysis. This last parameter was determined measuring the loss of beta-phycoerytrin fluorescence due to oxidation by hydroxyl radicals generated by Cu(2+) and H(2)O(2), in the presence and absence of serum. Seventy-eight control age-matched subjects were obtained from the personnel staff of our Research Department and old healthy subjects, selected on the basis of Senieur Protocol, were relatives of the above mentioned personnel. When the population of diabetic patients was taken as a whole, a decrease of ORAC(OH) has been observed compared to the controls. Moreover, negative correlations were found comparing ORAC(OH) either with HbA1c (r = -0.213; p = 0.029) and with the age of patients (r = -0.27; p = 0.005). To better understand the effect of age, the data were re-examined dividing the diabetics into two populations, i.e. under and over 65 years of age. An age-dependent decrease of ORAC(OH) and an increase in HbA1c levels has been observed comparing these two populations; however, the correlation between the two parameters remained statistically significant only in the oldest group (r = -0.31; p = 0.026). Present data point to an involvement of oxidative stress in the glycation of haemoglobin especially in old diabetic patients, and provide support for the potential use of an antioxidant therapy in these patients, irrespective of their glycaemic control.
Article
Oxidative stress plays important roles in a wide spectrum of pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis. Although several environmental factors are documented to influence redox metabolism, relatively little is known about genetic effects. In the present study, we evaluated genetic contributions to variation in plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), a measure of peroxyl-scavenging capacity, in 1337 members of 40 Mexican American families. TAS levels were significantly lower in women than in men (1.675+/-0.004 versus 1.805+/-0.005 mmol/L, respectively; P<0.001), and there was a significant decline of TAS levels with age in men but not in women (P<0.01 for the interaction). Quantitative genetic analysis indicated the heritability of TAS levels to be 0.509+/-0.052; ie, approximately 51% of the residual variance (after covariate adjustment) in TAS levels was due to the additive effects of genes (P<0.001). We have further observed a significant gene-by-smoking interaction (P<0.05). Additive genetic effects account for 83% of the residual phenotypic variance in TAS levels among smokers, but they account for only 49% in nonsmokers. However, genes contributing to TAS variation are the same in smokers and nonsmokers. Our study for the first time demonstrates that TAS, an indicator of redox homeostasis, is under strong genetic control, especially among smokers. With appropriate tools, such as genome screening, it should be possible to localize genes that regulate redox homeostasis and, ultimately, identify the DNA sequence variants predisposing subjects to oxidative damage.
Article
An improved method of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay has been developed and validated using fluorescein (3',6'-dihydroxyspiro[isobenzofuran-1[3H],9'[9H]-xanthen]-3-one) as the fluorescent probe. Our results demonstrate that fluorescein (FL) is superior to B-phycoerythrin. The oxidized FL products induced by peroxyl radical were identified by LC/MS, and the reaction mechanism was determined to follow a classic hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. In addition, methodological and mechanistic comparison of ORAC(FL) with other widely used methods was discussed. It is concluded that, unlike other popular methods, the improved ORAC(FL) assay provides a direct measure of hydrophilic chain-breaking antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical.
Article
Experiments with volunteers in Singapore have demonstrated that coffee drinking increases urinary hydrogen peroxide levels (Long, Halliwell, Free Rad. Res., 32, 463-467 (2000)). We re-examined the effect of coffee drinking of healthy Japanese subjects on urinary hydrogen peroxide levels. A cup of brewed or canned coffee commercially available in Japan generated 120-420 micro mol hydrogen peroxide in incubation in a neutral medium at 37 degrees C for 6 h. The increased levels were higher than those obtained from a cup of green tea extract or a glass of red wine. After the subject drank a cup of coffee, apparent hydrogen peroxide levels (micro mol/g creatinine) in urine collected 1-2 h after coffee drinking increased 3-10-fold compared to the levels before coffee drinking. The increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels are likely derived mainly from 1,2,4-benzenetriol excreted in urine, because the major component that generates hydrogen peroxide is found to be 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and storing urine collected after coffee drinking increased hydrogen peroxide levels in a time-dependent fashion. Total hydrogen peroxide equivalent levels excreted in 3 h-urine after coffee drinking were estimated to be 0.5-10% that of coffee consumed. A residual amount of hydrogen peroxide may be retained or consumed in human bodies.