Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 08/2003; 158(1):85-92.
Source: PubMed


Some studies have suggested that eating patterns, which describe eating frequency, the temporal distribution of eating events across the day, breakfast skipping, and the frequency of eating meals away from home, may be related to obesity. Data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (1994-1998) were used to evaluate the relation between eating patterns and obesity. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and a body weight measurement were collected at five equally spaced time points over a 1-year period from 499 participants. Data were averaged for five time periods, and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Odds ratios were adjusted for other obesity risk factors including age, sex, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results indicate that a greater number of eating episodes each day was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio for four or more eating episodes vs. three or fewer = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.91). In contrast, skipping breakfast was associated with increased prevalence of obesity (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 12.90), as was greater frequency of eating breakfast or dinner away from home. Further investigation of these associations in prospective studies is warranted.

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    • "We believe that the amplitude of health risk underestimation (McDonald's e Subway) may depend on food deprivation levels. First, public health and nutrition research has found that food insufficient individuals may develop poor dietary practices in terms of the consumption of high-calorie but nutritionally poor products (Dixon et al., 2001), meal irregularity (Ma et al., 2003) and the low consumption of healthy products, such as milk, fruit and vegetables (Tarasuk et al., 2007). Second, previous research in consumer psychology has found that the amplitude of calorie estimation biases decreases with nutrition involvement (Chandon and Wansink, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective and procedure: We examined the effect of health claims and food deprivation levels on the health risk perceptions of fast-food restaurants. Consistent with previous research, we used a within-subjects experimental design to manipulate the health claims of fast-food restaurants using real brands: Subway, expressing strong health claims vs. McDonald's, expressing weak health claims. Participants who did not have access to nutrition information were asked to estimate the health risk associated with food items that were slightly more caloric for Subway than McDonald's (640 kcal vs. 600 kcal). We collected data through a web survey with a sample consisting of 414 American adults. Based on the USDA Food Insufficiency Indicator, participants were classified into two categorical food deprivation levels: food sufficiency and food insufficiency. Results and conclusions: We find that risk perceptions for obesity, diabetes and cardiac illnesses are lower (higher) for the restaurant with stronger (lower) health claims, i.e., Subway (McDonald's). Moreover, we also find that food deprivation levels moderate this effect, such that health risk underestimation is aggravated for individuals who suffer from food insufficiency. More precisely, we find that food insufficient individuals are more responsive to health claims, such that they perceive less health risk than food sufficient individuals for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). Exploring the underlying mechanism of the latter effect, we found that dietary involvement mediates the relationship between food deprivation levels and health risk perceptions for the restaurant with stronger health claims (Subway). These results provide an interdisciplinary contribution in consumer psychology and public health.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Social Science & Medicine
    • "kg/ m 2 ) and 21.2 % obese (BMI C 30 kg/m 2 ). Obesity predisposes people to a series of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases (Wyatt et al. 2006; James et al. 2004) that contribute to the highest burden of disease in Serbia (Atanaskovic-Markovic et al. 2003). Although obesity has a strong genetic background (Heberbrand et al. 2000), health behaviours, such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and smoking cessation, are commonly considered to be the underlying cause of the increase of body weight (Borodulin et al. 2010; Rodriguez Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00038-015-0765-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine relationship between health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) in a Serbian adult population. Methods: Study population included adults aged 20 and more years. A stratified, two-stage national representative random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Results: Regarding BMI, out of the 12,461 subjects of both sexes, 2.4 % were underweight, 36.5 % overweight and 22.4 % obese. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both in men and women, risk factors for obesity were former smoking, irregular eating breakfast and low physical activity level, while in women only risk of obesity was associated with alcohol consumption. In both sexes, risk factors for overweight were former smoking and low physical activity level, and in women additionally those were alcohol consumption, irregular eating breakfast, always adding salt to meals and consumption of 2-4 portions of fruit daily. Smoking and irregular eating of breakfast in men were risk factors for underweight. Conclusions: Physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, irregular breakfast consumption, adding salt to meals, frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption were related to BMI in adult Serbian population.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Public Health
    • "Eating occasions were defined as any occasion during which any food or drink was consumed (12, 13, 17, 20). In previous studies, if 2 eating occasions occurred in #15 min, the 2 events were counted as a single eating occasion; when >15 min separated 2 eating occasions, these were considered distinct eating occasions (1,4,10,17,20). In the present study, however, all foods and beverages reported at one discrete clock time were considered to be part of one eating occasion, because almost all eating episodes (>99.5%) occurred $15 min apart in NHANES (32). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Evidence of the association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity is inconsistent. Objective: With the use of data from the NHANES 2003-2012, this cross-sectional study examined the associations between EF, meal frequency (MF), and snack frequency (SF) and overweight/obesity and central obesity. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed with the use of two 24-h dietary recalls in 18,696 US adults ≥20 y of age. All eating occasions providing ≥50 kcal of energy were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15% or <15%), self-report, and time (0600-1000, 1200-1500, 1800-2100, or other). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute ORs and 95% CIs. Results: When analyzed without adjustment for the ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF, and SF showed inverse or null associations. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF was positively associated with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) and central obesity (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women). Compared with the lowest category (≤3 times/d), the OR (95% CI) for overweight/obesity in the highest category (≥5 times/d) was 1.54 (1.23, 1.93) in men (P-trend = 0.003) and 1.45 (1.17, 1.81) in women (P-trend = 0.001). The corresponding value for central obesity was 1.42 (1.15, 1.75) in men (P-trend = 0.002) and 1.29 (1.05, 1.59) in women (P-trend = 0.03). The self-report-based MF and time-based MF were positively associated with overweight/obesity, central obesity, or both, although MF based on energy contribution showed no associations. There were positive associations for all SF measures in men and for the energy-contribution-based SF in women. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study suggests that higher EF, MF, and SF are associated with increased likelihood of overweight/obesity and central obesity in US adults. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the associations observed here.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Nutrition
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