Maternal Smoking and Smoking in Adolescents: A Prospective Community Study of Adolescents and Their Mothers

Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology Unit, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
European Addiction Research (Impact Factor: 2.1). 08/2003; 9(3):120-30. DOI: 10.1159/000070980
Source: PubMed


The associations between maternal smoking and nicotine dependence and patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring were examined in a large community-based sample of adolescents. Data were derived from baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of 938 respondents aged 14-17 years at the outset of the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study, a prospective-longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults and their parents respectively. Smoking and nicotine dependence in respondents were assessed using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DSM-IV algorithms). Diagnostic information about smoking behavior in mothers was collected by independent direct diagnostic interviews with the mothers. In comparison to children of non- or occasionally smoking mothers, children of regularly smoking and nicotine-dependent mothers had higher probabilities of using tobacco as well as of developing nicotine dependence. For all ages under consideration, survival analyses revealed a higher cumulative lifetime risk of regular smoking and nicotine dependence among these children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy seems to represent an additional risk for these outcomes in children, specifically with regard to the risk of developing nicotine dependence. Associations were comparable for sons and daughters. Our findings show that maternal smoking predicts escalation of smoking, development of nicotine dependence, and stability of smoking behavior in children. Implications for specific intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

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Available from: Hildegard Pfister, Jan 26, 2016
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    • "With regard to smoking behaviour in adolescents, exposure to smoking by significant others is related to the development of nicotine dependence symptoms. Children had a higher risk of becoming nicotine dependent from adolescence to early adulthood when their mother had ever smoked, been a daily smoker, or was dependent on nicotine [28,29]. Having smoking peers was also associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence in adolescents [28,30,31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles in a population-based sample of adolescent smokers. A longitudinal study among 6,783 adolescents (12 to 14 years old at baseline) was conducted. In the first and second year of secondary education, personality traits and exposure to smoking in the social environment were assessed. Two and a half years later, adolescents' smoking status and nicotine dependence symptom profiles were assessed. A total of 796 adolescents were identified as smokers and included in the analyses. At follow-up, four distinct dependence symptom profiles were identified: low cravings only, high cravings and withdrawal, high cravings and behavioural dependence, and overall highly dependent. Personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion did not independently predict nicotine dependence profiles, whereas exposure to smoking in the social environment posed a risk for the initial development of nicotine dependence symptoms. However, in combination with environmental exposure to smoking, extraversion and neuroticism increased the risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles. Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. These insights offer important directions for tailoring interventions to prevent the onset and escalation of nicotine dependence. Opportunities for intervention programs that target individuals with a high risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles are discussed.
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    • "The most likely adults that adolescents would spend time around are their parents. Parents' smoking is associated with adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms (Lieb et al., 2003; Kandel et al., 2007) as well as smoking initiation and escalation (Bricker et al., 2006; Bricker, Peterson, Sarason, Andersen, & Rajan, 2007). Therefore, the current study's results would be consistent with interpretation that adults' smoking is a proxy indicator of the role of parents' smoking in adolescent nicotine dependence symptoms. "
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    • "Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Milberger et al., 1998), conduct disorder (e.g., destructive and aggressive behavior)(Braun et al., 2008; Wakschlag et al., 1997), and cognitive deficits (Naeye and Peters, 1984) in the offspring. In addition, the children of mothers who smoked during their pregnancy are more likely to develop a tobacco dependency than the children of mothers who did not smoke (Buka et al., 2003; Kandel et al., 1994; Lieb et al., 2003). "
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