Bisphenol A Is Released from Used Polycarbonate Animal Cages into Water at Room Temperature

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 08/2003; 111(9):1180-7. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.5993
Source: PubMed


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages.

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    • "Its release in the food chain is related mainly by sterilization process (temperature and time) and the amount of coating. As it is mentioned, BPA migrates from the coating of the can into the content mostly during the sterilization process (Howdeshell et al., 2003; Takao et al., 2002; Geens et al., 2010; Munguıa-Lopez et al., 2005). Duration of can storage, elevated temperatures during storage or damage of the can do not affect the levels of BPA in the food (Goodson et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered as an endocrine-disruptor in which humans are exposed daily mainly by food-contact products, toys, recycled paper and drinking containers. In this study, we validated a method for the isolation and the detection of BPA in human head hair samples and estimated the burden of BPA in hair of Greek population. Methods: Hair samples were collected from 69 volunteers. The isolation of the BPA was performed by solid-liquid extraction with methanol and its determination by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Results: The limits of quantification (LOQ=9.7pgmg(-1)), the accuracy (92.6%), the precision (inter 15.3%, intra 13.0%), the ion suppression (<8.1%) and the recovery (88.3%) of the method were found satisfactory. Differences in the detection rates of the positive samples as well in detected levels of BPA between rural and urban population were observed. The 41.2% of the samples collected from urban population were positive whereas the positive samples from rural population were 14.8% (p=0.025). The mean concentration of the positive samples for the urban population was 64.1pgmg(-1) (17.7-192.8pgmg(-1)), for the rural population 40.3pgmg(-1) (13.1-72.8pgmg(-1)) and for the children 37.9pgmg(-1) (13.1-72.8pgmg(-1)). Significant statistical differences (p=0.021) were observed though between urban and rural population only when negative samples were replaced with LOD/2 values. Conclusion: The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in hair for the estimation of the population burden to BPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "Regarding foods, the sex–gender differences observed at the gastrointestinal level assume a higher relevance in the bio-availability of food and drug [108] [109] [110] which is also influenced by food form (males eat pelleted food better than females) [111] [112] [113], suggesting that sex can play a role. Indeed, for sex-gender studies, the materials where foods and beverages are held are also important, because oestrogenic compounds can be present in water bottles and cages and may be leached, especially when cages and bottles are old and visibly worn [114]. However, little attention has been given to this aspect, even in studies focused on the investigation of endocrine disruptors [115]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many international organisations encourage studies in a sex-gender perspective. However, research with a gender perspective presents a high degree of complexity, and the inclusion of sex-gender variable in experiments presents many methodological questions, the majority of which are still neglected. Overcoming these issues is fundamental to avoid erroneous results. Here, pre-analytical aspects of the research, such as study design, choice of utilised specimens, sample collection and processing, animal models of diseases, and the observer's role, are discussed. Artefacts in this stage of research could affect the predictive value of all analyses. Furthermore, the standardisation of research subjects according to their lifestyles and, if female, to their life phase and menses or oestrous cycle, is urgent to harmonise research worldwide. A sex-gender-specific attention to pre-analytical aspects could produce a decrease in the time for translation from the bench to bedside. Furthermore, sex-gender-specific pre-clinical pharmacological testing will enable adequate assessment of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of drugs and will enable, where appropriate, an adequate gender-specific clinical development plan. Therefore, sex-gender-specific pre-clinical research will increase the gender equity of care and will produce more evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "BPA is by far the best studied as an estrogenic chemical released from reusable hard and clear PC-type products (for reviews see [4-6]). For example, Howdeshell et al. [25] reported that BPA with significantly detectable EA leaches from PC animal cages. Le et al. [26] reported that BPA leaches from PC drinking bottles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perceived higher safety, especially for babies, also release other chemicals that have EA. Methods We used two, well-established, mammalian cell-based, assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc) to assess the EA of chemicals that leached into over 1000 saline or ethanol extracts of 50 unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, and UV radiation) BPA-free PC-replacement products. An EA antagonist, ICI 182,780, was used to confirm that agonist activity in leachates was due to chemicals that activated the mammalian estrogen receptor. Results Many unstressed and stressed, PC-replacement-products made from acrylic, polystyrene, polyethersulfone, and Tritan™ resins leached chemicals with EA, including products made for use by babies. Exposure to various forms of UV radiation often increased the leaching of chemicals with EA. In contrast, some BPA-free PC-replacement products made from glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate or cyclic olefin polymer or co-polymer resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any conditions tested. Conclusions This hazard assessment survey showed that many BPA-free PC- replacement products still leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, as did BPA-containing PC counterparts they were meant to replace. That is, BPA-free did not mean EA-free. However, this study also showed that some PC-replacement products did not leach chemicals having significant levels of EA. That is, EA-free PC-replacement products could be made in commercial quantities at prices that compete with PC-replacement products that were not BPA-free. Since plastic products often have advantages (price, weight, shatter-resistance, etc.) compared to other materials such as steel or glass, it is not necessary to forgo those advantages to avoid release into foodstuffs or the environment of chemicals having EA that may have potential adverse effects on our health or the health of future generations.
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