Article

Generation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Cultures for Use in Adoptive Transfer Therapy for Melanoma Patients

Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1502, USA.
Journla of Immunotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.01). 07/2003; 26(4):332-42. DOI: 10.1097/00002371-200307000-00005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The generation of T lymphocytes with specific reactivity against tumor antigens is a prerequisite for effective adoptive transfer therapies. Melanoma-specific lymphocyte cultures can be established from tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by in vitro culture in high levels of IL-2. We have optimized methods for generating melanoma-reactive TIL cultures from small resected tumor specimens. We report a retrospective analysis of 860 attempted TIL cultures from 90 sequential melanoma biopsy specimens from 62 HLA-A2+ patients. Multiple independent TIL derived from a single tumor often exhibited substantial functional and phenotypic variation. Tumor specific activity was detected in TIL from 29 (81%) of 36 patients screened. TIL cultures selected for high activity were generally capable of large numerical expansion using a single round of a rapid expansion protocol. Limited clonal T-cell populations in an oligoclonal TIL culture could confer specific tumor recognition in these highly selected, highly expanded TIL cultures. These methods were efficient at generating TILs suitable for adoptive transfer therapy.

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    • "The recent regulatory concerns regarding the source of enzymes used for enzymatic digestion of tumors may have led to an increased reliance on fragment cultures of tumor samples at cancer centers investigating TIL therapy . Fragment culture methods are faster and more cost effective and studies have reviewed the efficiency of fragment culture and enzymatic digest on different tumors[13]. However we are unaware of any head-to-head comparison of TIL generation from fragments and enzymatic digests of the same tumor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has shown great promise in melanoma, with over 50 % response rate in patients where autologous tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can be cultured and expanded. A major limitation of ACT is the inability to generate or expand autologous tumor-reactive TIL in 25-45 % of patients tested. Methods that successfully identify tumors that are not suitable for TIL generation by standard methods would eliminate the costs of fruitless expansion and enable these patients to receive alternate therapy immediately. Methods: Multispectral fluorescent immunohistochemistry with a panel including CD3, CD8, FoxP3, CD163, PD-L1 was used to analyze the tumor microenvironment in 17 patients with melanoma among our 36-patient cohort to predict successful TIL generation. Additionally, we compared tumor fragments and enzymatic digestion of tumor samples for efficiency in generating tumor-reactive TIL. Results: Tumor-reactive TIL were generated from 21/36 (58 %) of melanomas and for 12/13 (92 %) tumors where both enzymatic and fragment methods were compared. TIL generation was successful in 10/13 enzymatic preparations and in 10/13 fragment cultures; combination of both methods resulted in successful generation of autologous tumor-reactive TIL in 12/13 patients. In 17 patients for whom tissue blocks were available, IHC analysis identified that while the presence of CD8(+) T cells alone was insufficient to predict successful TIL generation, the CD8(+) to FoxP3(+) ratio was predictive with a positive-predictive value (PPV) of 91 % and negative-predictive value (NPV) of 86 %. Incorporation of CD163+ macrophage numbers and CD8:PD-L1 ratio did not improve the PPV. However, the NPV could be improved to 100 % by including the ratio of CD8(+):PD-L1(+) expressing cells. Conclusion: This is the first study to apply 7-color multispectral immunohistochemistry to analyze the immune environment of tumors from patients with melanoma. Assessment of the data using unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified tumors from which we were unable to generate TIL. If substantiated, this immune profile could be applied to select patients for TIL generation. Additionally, this biomarker profile may also indicate a pre-existing immune response, and serve as a predictive biomarker of patients who will respond to checkpoint blockade. We postulate that expanding the spectrum of inhibitory cells and molecules assessed using this technique could guide combination immunotherapy treatments and improve response rates.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "This is clear evidence that TILs effectively track to the CNS (54). Technical issues with producing tumor-specific T cells from brain tumor excision samples currently present a major barrier to conducting clinical trials using TILs in glioma – the minority of biopsy specimens yield satisfactory T cell populations, and the process is labor and time intensive (55). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard of care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients (1). Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly "self," it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor or αβ T cell receptor grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system toward the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Frontiers in Oncology
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    • "A day following lymphodepletion , TILs were infused into patients and high-dose IL-2 therapy was started. Protocols employed to generate TILs are described elsewhere (Dudley et al, 2003; Tran et al, 2008; Dudley et al, "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adoptive therapy with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) induces durable complete responses (CR) in ∼20% of patients with metastatic melanoma. The recruitment of T cells through CXCR3/CCR5 chemokine ligands is critical for immune-mediated rejection. We postulated that polymorphisms and/or expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and the expression of their ligands in tumour influence the migration of TILs to tumours and tumour regression. Methods: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from 142 metastatic melanoma patients enrolled in adoptive therapy trials were genotyped for CXCR3 rs2280964 and CCR5-Δ32 deletion, which encodes a protein not expressed on the cell surface. Expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and CXCR3/CCR5 and ligand genes in 113 available parental tumours was also assessed. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte data were validated by flow cytometry (N=50). Results: The full gene expression/polymorphism model, which includes CXCR3 and CCR5 expression data, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism data and their interaction, was significantly associated with both CR and overall response (OR; P=0.0009, and P=0.007, respectively). More in detail, the predicted underexpression of both CXCR3 and CCR5 according to gene expression and polymorphism data (protein prediction model, PPM) was associated with response to therapy (odds ratio=6.16 and 2.32, for CR and OR, respectively). Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the PPM. Coordinate upregulation of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumour biopsies was associated with OR. Conclusion: Coordinate overexpression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumours was associated with responsiveness to treatment. Conversely, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and CXCR3/CCR5 underexpression influence downregulation of the corresponding receptors in TILs and were associated with likelihood and degree of response.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · British Journal of Cancer
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