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Comments on “The Feldenkrais Method®: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior”

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Comments on “The Feldenkrais Method®: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior”

Abstract

The Feldenkrais Method has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement. One basis for this discussion is that small changes in one system--for example, enhanced body awareness--has far reaching implications across the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor leaning and control are explored.
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Research Quarterly for Exercise and SportResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Research Quarterly for Exercise and SportResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
©2003 by the American Alliance for Health,
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 116–123
Key words: attentional focus, kinesthesia, motor learning,
self-regulation
I
n a recent issue of this journal, Buchanan and Ulrich
(2001) provided a thoughtful look at Feldenkrais
Method
®
principles and how they fit within a dynamic
systems model. Using this model, the authors proposed
a number of potentially fruitful areas of research into the
clinical effectiveness and theoretical bases of the Feldenkrais
Method. This research is warranted, but as Buchanan and
Ulrich mentioned, models other than dynamic systems
may be appropriate to provide a research perspective.
Proposed here are alternative models based largely on
data rather than Feldenkrais theory. It is asserted that the
clinical data show only marginal effectiveness and nar-
row applicability of the Feldenkrais Method to enhance
motor learning and performance, and these findings
are readily explained by current data and theories on
attentional focus, kinesthesia, and self-regulation. Spe-
cifically, it is argued that the Feldenkrais emphasis on self-
awareness is a relatively ineffective way to improve motor
or perceptual motor performance and that self-regula-
tion theory may be a suitable way to look at the psycho-
logical aspects of the Feldenkrais Method. To justify these
arguments, it is first necessary to examine closely the
clinical data on the Feldenkrais Method.
Prior Reviews of the Prior Reviews of the
Prior Reviews of the Prior Reviews of the
Prior Reviews of the
Feldenkrais MethodFeldenkrais Method
Feldenkrais MethodFeldenkrais Method
Feldenkrais Method
The clinical research of the Feldenkrais Method has
been thoroughly reviewed. Literature reviews by Ives and
his colleagues (Ives & Shelley, 1998; Ives & Sosnoff,
2000) and Ellis (1995) have concluded that the data are
not compelling but that the poor quality of research
makes interpretation difficult. Stephens’ (2000) brief
review included a number of theses and conference
abstracts and noted that, despite abundant method-
ological flaws among the studies, the Feldenkrais Method
showed positive results in pain management, range of
motion, muscle activity, posture and breathing, func-
tional mobility, and quality of life. In the most compre-
hensive review to date, and one that included many of
the same abstracts, unpublished theses, and nonjuried
sources included in the Stephens (2000) paper, Ives and
Shelley (1998) concluded that the findings “. . . do not
match the extravagant anecdotal claims. . .” and that “. . . it
Comments on “The
Feldenkrais Method
®
: A Dynamic
Approach to Changing Motor Behavior”
Jeffrey C. Ives
Submitted: March 19, 2002
Accepted: September 30, 2002
Jeffrey C. Ives is with the Department of Exercise and Sport
Sciences at Ithaca College.
The Feldenkrais Method
®
has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement. One basis for
this discussion is that small changes in one system—for example, enhanced body awareness—has far reaching implications across
the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical
data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that
positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As
part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor learning and control are explored.
Dialogue and Commentary
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has not been shown that any of the positive findings can
be directly attributable to Feldenkrais treatments apart
from other factors, such as practice, relaxation, the
Hawthorne effect, exercise/mobility training, biologic
variability, spontaneous and normal recovery, or experi-
mental error” (p. 85). Hopper, Kolt, and McConville
(1999) similarly described the positive results found by
many authors to be unsupportable because of serious
methodological flaws.
More recently, Ives and Sosnoff (2000) concluded
that the best evidence of Feldenkrais effectiveness is for
psychological benefits, a statement also supported by
Huntley and Ernst (2000). Since the extensive review
by Ives and Shelly (1998), other studies have been pub-
lished that have been interpreted to provide strong evi-
dence for the positive effects of the Feldenkrais Method.
Scrutiny of these data, however, gives rise to alternative
explanations that have important theoretical and clini-
cal implications. Space does not permit a full descrip-
tion of these studies, so the reader is urged to seek the
original sources.
Recent StudiesRecent Studies
Recent StudiesRecent Studies
Recent Studies
A series of studies by Kolt and his colleagues (Hop-
per et al., 1999; James, Kolt, McConville, & Bate, 1998;
Kolt & McConville, 2000; Smith, Kolt, & McConville,
2001) have produced conflicting results regarding per-
ceived exertion, hamstring flexibility and length, anxi-
ety reduction, and pain reduction following single or
multiple Feldenkrais lessons. For example, Kolt and
McConville (2000) reported that after four treatment
sessions participants in the Feldenkrais group and in the
relaxation group displayed lower measures of anxiety,
but these significant findings were only in the female
participants and only due to a reduction in anxiety level
from just before Treatment 4 to just after Treatment 4.
These authors (Smith et al., 2001) found no significant
(p = .13) reduction in state anxiety in low back pain suf-
ferers following a 30-min audiotaped Feldenkrais lesson
or in a control group (p = .06) that listened to an
audiotaped story. In this study, the Feldenkrais group sig-
nificantly reduced the affective dimension of pain,
the control group significantly reduced the sensory di-
mension of pain, and neither group significantly re-
duced the evaluative dimension of pain (the Feldenkrais
group had a nonsignificant increase). Examination of
the pre to post mean values suggests that the control
group actually fared better than the Feldenkrais group.
In an uncontrolled case study examination of two
stutterers, Gilman and Yaruss (2000) reported that fol-
lowing 8 weeks of Feldenkrais lessons the patients felt more
in control of their speech, were able to control tension
during speaking, and had less anxiety, yet there was
minimal change in the measurable degree of disfluency.
In a well controlled study, Kirkby (1994) examined
women with severe premenstrual symptoms undergo-
ing Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement (ATM) lessons
or cognitive-behavioral coping skills training over 6
weeks. The women in the coping skills group had a
greater improvement in quality of life and greater im-
provements over a much broader range of symptoms and
measures than did the ATM group, which generally
showed improvements slightly better (but not statistically
better) than the control group.
One commonly cited article supporting the Fel-
denkrais Method examined pain reduction in seven
chronic pain sufferers (Bearman & Shafarman, 1999).
The participants underwent 2 months of Feldenkrais treat-
ments in which pain ratings and historical medical costs
were collected alongside information from the National
Pain Data Bank test instrument. Bearman and Shafarman
reported that the Feldenkrais participants showed “dramatic
improvements” by the end of the 2-month program, and
at a 1-year follow-up the authors concluded that, “. . . while
participants lost ground in most areas of pain control,
function, and quality of life, they were judged generally
healthier than at intake” (p. 26). Both these conclusions
are difficult to evaluate because of the lack of data re-
ported and no statistical tests. These findings were based
on the patients’ recall of pain, which is often poor and
underestimated (Feine, Lavigne, Dao, Morin, & Lund,
1998). The Feldenkrais participants were judged to have
better results when compared to data provided by the
National Pain Data Bank, but this comparison was inap-
propriate, because the Feldenkrais patients were consid-
erably different in many factors than the comparison
group. Although a 40% reduction in medical costs for
the Feldenkrais patients was reported, the sponsoring
health care agency did not choose to include Feldenkrais
in its scope of benefits.
Stephens (2000) examined clinical data in 157
physical therapy patients with musculoskeletal problems
over a 10-year period. The patients were typically seen
by the physical therapist once every 1–3 weeks and were
given a home program of regular physical therapy exer-
cises or Feldenkrais ATM lessons to do on their own time.
Presumably, the in-clinic sessions combined Feldenkrais
with regular physical therapy. In comparison to the pre-
ferred practice patterns and expectations for recovery
published by the American Physical Therapy Associa-
tion (1998), the outcome success and number of visits
fell “within the expected range.” This statement sug-
gests no special benefits with the Feldenkrais method.
Malmgren-Olsson, Armelius, and Armelius (2001)
looked at a normal comparison database of patients suf-
fering with nonspecific musculoskeletal disorders com-
pared to a group undergoing conventional physical
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therapy treatments (a median of 20 treatment sessions),
body awareness therapy (20 sessions), and the Feldenkrais
Method (20 sessions). The Feldenkrais treatments con-
sisted of both ATM and Functional Integration
®
(FI).
All patients were tested for measures of psychological
distress, pain, and self image over a 1-year period. In
comparison to a nonintervention control group, the
three treatment groups all improved over the year. From
a statistical significance standpoint, none of the three
treatment groups differed from one another, but an
examination of effects sizes and mean values indicated
that body awareness therapy was a little better than the
Feldenkrais Method, which was a little better than the con-
ventional treatment. These authors acknowledged that
some, but not all, of the effects may have been due to
placebo or simply improvement over time. They also
made the observation that the active participation by
patients in the body awareness and Feldenkrais groups in
treating their own problems may have been the reason
these methods compared favorably to the conventional
treatment group.
Another well controlled study did show positive
effects of the Feldenkrais Method to lessen complaints from
neck and shoulder problems when compared to con-
ventional physical therapy (Lundblad, Elert, & Gerdle,
1999). Lundblad et al. examined 58 female factory work-
ers complaining of neck and shoulder problems and
tested them on 22 different clinical and physiological
tests and 11 different complaint and pain measure-
ments. Of the 22 clinical (e.g., neck and shoulder range
of movement) and physiological (e.g., peak torque, V0
2
,
electromyographic measures) tests, the Feldenkrais
group significantly improved on eight, the control
group improved on six, and the physical therapy treat-
ment group improved on two. The authors noted that
the absolute differences among these interventions
were minimal and coincided with a lack of statistical sig-
nificance found for the combined treatment effects.
The small differences found in all the groups from pre
to post are of doubtful clinical significance and are most
likely due to familiarization effects with the testing ap-
paratus or, as the authors discussed, may have had some-
thing to do with a change in work environment that
occurred during the study period. The only clinical test
the Feldenkrais group clearly performed better at com-
pared to the other groups was a “cortical control” mea-
sure, a measurement based on Feldenkrais methodology.
This measurement, however, was not validated with any
of the objective tests of muscle relaxation using elec-
tromyography. The Feldenkrais group did improve sig-
nificantly in 5 of 11 complaint and pain disability tests
(e.g., pain perception, coping) compared to 1 of 11 for
the control group and 0 of 11 for the physical therapy
group. The percentage of improvement for the Feldenkrais
group in some of these measures was large, especially
when compared to the other groups that had a tendency
to worsen from pre to post. However, it was not neces-
sarily expected that the physical therapy group would
improve, for Lundblad and her colleagues noted that
traditional physical therapy has been shown to be inef-
fective in similar cases (e.g., Feine & Lund, 1997).
Preliminary Clinical ConclusionsPreliminary Clinical Conclusions
Preliminary Clinical ConclusionsPreliminary Clinical Conclusions
Preliminary Clinical Conclusions
The current evidence supports two conclusions.
First, the Feldenkrais Method has not been shown to be
better than the treatments it has been compared against
or if compared to successful treatments that have been
indicated for a particular condition. Even the effects of
pain reduction reported for the Feldenkrais
treatments
must be considered in comparison to targeted behav-
ioral interventions that have been shown to be statisti-
cally and clinically effective (e.g., Haugli, Steen, Lærum,
Nygard, & Finset, 2001). Findings of improved emo-
tional well being among Feldenkrais participants must
similarly be compared to the near unequivocal effects
reported for simple relaxation training (Linden, 1994)
and exercise (Fox, 1999). From a clinical standpoint, it
seems difficult to recommend the Feldenkrais Method
above other techniques.
Second, any effects noted appear to be psychologi-
cal and not physiological. These psychological effects
may be related to simple relaxation effects (Gilman &
Yaruss, 2000), the interpersonal relationships devel-
oped among clients and practitioner, or the feelings of
wellness and anxiety reduction that may accompany
touch-based therapy (Vickers & Zollman, 1999). These
findings are consistent with suggestions that the Fel-
denkrais Method may be more efficacious in women than
men, particularly regarding pain and other psychologi-
cal factors (Malmgren-Olsson et al., 2001). Most of the
studies that have shown positive psychological effects
have used predominately female participants (e.g.,
Johnson, Frederick, Kaufman, & Mountjoy, 1999; Kirkby,
1994; Lundblad et al., 1999). These data can be tied to
the numerous findings that men and women differ in pain
perception and manifestation of pain types (Berkley,
1997), somatization of stress (Nakao et al., 2001), and
that women have been shown to positively respond to
behavioral interventions for pain (Haugli et al., 2001).
Using Feldenkrais methods to improve awareness may aid
in some types of psychological and somatic complaints,
but, again, when compared to other methods such a
body awareness training (which has a considerable psy-
chological counseling component, see Malmgren-
Olsson et al., 2001) or simple relaxation (Smith et al.,
2001), the Feldenkrais Method does not stand out.
Changes in physiological performance, such as flexibil-
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ity, movement efficiency, or postural control, have either
not been shown, shown conflicting results, or been of
minimal effect size. In light of the claims that the
Feldenkrais Method is a movement re-education method,
greater changes in physiological performance should
be expected.
Consider, for instance, three recent studies that
looked at postural sway characteristics following Feldenkrais
interventions (Buchanan & Vardaxis, 2000; Diedrich,
Feng, Buchanan, Reese, & Thelen, 1999; Seegert &
Shapiro, 1999). From a statistical and effect size stand-
point there were few differences among the Feldenkrais
treatments and control treatments that consisted of ei-
ther no activity, stretching, or relaxation. There were also
conflicting findings among the reports. Seegert and
Shapiro (1999) reported after a single 75-min Feldenkrais
session that their participants displayed less postural
sway velocity and amplitude. In contrast, following a
single Feldenkrais lesson Diedrich et al. (1999) reported
that their participants swayed at higher frequencies than
the control groups. After eight Feldenkrais lessons over 4
weeks, Buchanan and Vardaxis (2000) noted that sway
had become more circular by reducing the amount of
extreme excursions. Again, however, all of these find-
ings must be viewed with reservation, because in all the
studies there were few statistical and effect size differ-
ences from pre- to posttest or among the Feldenkrais and
control groups.
Explanations and Alternative ViewpointsExplanations and Alternative Viewpoints
Explanations and Alternative ViewpointsExplanations and Alternative Viewpoints
Explanations and Alternative Viewpoints
Given the arguments from Buchanan and Ulrich
(2001) and others (e.g., see Bate, 1994) that the Feldenkrais
Method fits motor learning and control theories, why has
it not been shown to be more effective in producing
notable motor performance changes? An essential fac-
tor in the Feldenkrais Method is its emphasis on self-aware-
ness, and this factor may be its shortcoming when
training for better body coordination. As Buchanan and
Ulrich pointed out, the self-awareness emphasis is con-
trary to the literature on goal setting. Focusing on being
aware of one’s own movements and exploration of one’s
own sensory and perceptual cues are analogous to adopt-
ing an internal focus of attention. An internal focus or
“body awareness” may be a useful strategy at times for
certain conditions, namely those with a large psychologi-
cal dimension (e.g., pain, see Steen & Haugli, 2001),
but an external focus is more effective in learning and
performing motor skills, so much so that Singer, Lidor,
and Cauraugh (1993) described the best motor skill
learning as following a “nonawareness” approach.
When learners focus attention on their own bodily
movements (internal focus of attention) versus focus-
ing attention on the effects of these movements (exter-
nal focus of attention), learning and performance suf-
fer (Wulf, McNevin, Shea, & Wright, 1999). Wulf and her
colleagues have shown that movements ranging from
object manipulation tasks to whole body movement and
balance tasks were acquired, performed, and retained
better with an external focus (Wulf et al., 1999; Wulf,
Shea, & Park, 2001). Similar results can been found in
the physical rehabilitation literature, where added pur-
pose activities (physical activities with meaningful out-
come goals or purposes) that take conscious attention
away from the movement itself help develop more effec-
tive movements (e.g., Hsieh, Nelson, Smith, & Peterson,
1994). These findings are all in line with the five-step
approach of Singer et al. (1993), where learning and
performing motor skills are best done without thinking
about them, and attention is initially placed on some
external cue or movement goal.
If an external focus of attention is purported to be
better for learning and performing motor skills, how can
this be reconciled with evidence that high-level endur-
ance athletes tend to adopt an associative strategy in
which focus is placed on internal bodily sensations such
as breathing, pain, and muscle tension (Masters &
Ogles, 1998)? Association appears to work for low strat-
egy endurance sports with a low motor skill component
(e.g., running and swimming), where external cues are
less important, and is tied to competitive environments,
where the exercise intensity is high (Bachman, Brewer,
& Petipas, 1997). In their review, Masters and Ogles
(1998) concluded that associative strategies relate to
faster performance, whereas dissociative strategies (e.g.,
external focus) relate to lower perceived exertion. This
conclusion is consistent with reports that the mood-en-
hancing qualities of recreational aerobic exercise can
be diminished with an internal focus (Fillingim & Fine,
1986). Thus, an associative strategy appears not in har-
mony with the desired outcomes of Feldenkrais lessons.
Irrespective of the benefits of an external focus, can
improving body awareness improve performance or
enhance motor learning? Buchanan and Ulrich (2001)
noted that Feldenkrais proponents “argue that by first
improving the sensitivity of perception [i.e., goal is on
bodily awareness] one can learn to adapt any behavior
more easily” (p. 319). Body awareness requires a myriad
of sensory and perceptual systems (e.g., tactile, proprio-
ceptive, interoceptors), but kinesthesia predominates
among nonvisual sensory systems and is emphasized in
Feldenkrais lessons. The role of kinesthesia in motor
learning and control and the effectiveness of kinesthetic
training have been vigorously debated, and many ques-
tions remain (Geron, 1986, see also Sims, Henderson,
Morton, & Hulme, 1996, regarding kinesthetic sensitivity
training). Nonetheless, evidence strongly suggests that
kinesthetic cues, kinesthetic imagery, and kinesthetic
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sensitivity are least used or least needed in the early
stages of motor learning (Fleishman and Rich, 1963;
Hardy & Callow, 1999; Laszlo & Sainsbury, 1993) and that
conscious and focused effort is not required and per-
haps not even important to improve perceptual sensi-
tivity. For instance, movement repetitions improve
position sense (Meeuwsen, Sawicki, & Stelmach, 1993),
a single weight training session improves body aware-
ness (Koltyn, Raglin, O’Connor, & Morgan, 1995), and
children improve spontaneously in kinesthetic ability
(Laszlo & Sainsbury, 1993). Aerobic exercise training has
shown to increase internal body consciousness (similar to
body awareness) and body competence (Skrinar, Bullen,
Cheek, McArthur, & Vaughan, 1986). When an associa-
tive strategy or internal focus may be beneficial to learn
or perform certain skills, the ability to do so is learned
quickly (Couture, Jerome, & Tihanyi, 1999; Miller &
Medeiros, 1987).
Early research indicated that kinesthetic ability was
associated with athletic performance (Geron, 1986), but
recent evidence contradicts these findings (Freeman
& Broderick, 1996). This discrepancy is likely a result
of the specificity of training principle, that is, kinesthetic
ability is more likely to be found if the kinesthetic mea-
sures are specific to the athletic movements most prac-
ticed (Jacobson, Chen, Cashel, and Guerrero, 1997).
Perhaps the most controversial topic in kinesthesia con-
cerns kinesthetic training for children with motor prob-
lems (e.g., see Sims et al., 1996). Although kinesthetic
training may help children with or without motor prob-
lems, there are other factors independent of kinesthe-
sia that play a role (Sims & Morton, 1998). Furthermore,
in young school-age children kinesthetic inability does
not affect overall motor skill function (Laszlo &
Sainsbury, 1993). As with other types of training with an
internal focus, kinesthetic training can be brief (e.g., 10
min, see Laszlo & Sainsbury, 1993; Sims & Morton, 1998).
Other factors also argue against the efficacy of ki-
nesthetic training or the importance of conscious kines-
thetic awareness in motor performance. For one,
perceptions of movement-related effort in limb move-
ment tasks are ambiguous measures that often hold little
insight to physical performance related to biomechani-
cal or metabolic efficiency (Rosenbaum & Gregory,
2002). Second, training using conscious attention to-
ward proprioceptive signals may not be effective, because
proprioception use in time-critical tasks is either reflex-
ive or autonomic (Ashton-Miller, Wojtys, Huston, & Fry-
Welch, 2001), or, as Henry (1953) found in his now
classic study, purposeful movement adjustments to out-
side force stimuli are often done below the level of con-
scious awareness. In contrast to body awareness training,
a number of training interventions to improve body con-
trol by challenging multiple sensory systems and requir-
ing the participant to focus on the task demands or
accomplishing movement-related goals, have shown
marked effectiveness in musculoskeletal rehabilitation
and injury prevention (e.g., Holme et al., 1999). Without
dismissing the idea that periodic kinesthetic “scanning”
can be beneficial to motor learning, it is evident that em-
phasizing kinesthetic training offers no particular benefit.
In sum, the relative ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais
Method to elicit changes in motor performance can be
explained based on an inappropriate attentional focus
and an overemphasis on kinesthetic training. Put dif-
ferently, these data provide little support for the use of
Feldenkrais for improving motor skills. On the other hand,
an appropriate framework to study the Feldenkrais Method
may be self-regulation theory. The findings that the
Feldenkrais Method has a psychological emphasis, that men
and women may be affected differently, and that the
Feldenkrais effects may be a result of individuals taking re-
sponsibility for their own health (Malmgren-Olsson et al.,
2001), are all consistent with models of self-regulation.
Self-regulation refers to the psychological processes
one undertakes in pursuing a goal and often takes on
five steps: problem recognition, commitment or motiva-
tion, acquisition and use of skills, maintenance pro-
cesses, and transfer or generalization of skills (Crews,
Lochbaum, & Karoly, 2001). As Crews and her col-
leagues pointed out, examining (and, hence, under-
standing) self-regulation is difficult because of the
“sheer complexity of the process,” but even a cursory look
at self-regulation reveals several things in common with
the Feldenkrais Method. The most important similarities
are that people can harness and self-regulate their own
thoughts, actions, and emotions toward achieving goals
and that increasing awareness can be a first step in the
self-regulation process. (Awareness, however, in self-regu-
lation terminology has a much broader meaning than in
Feldenkrais terminology.) In contrast to the Feldenkrais
Method, self-regulation has a much greater emphasis on
deliberate efforts aimed toward accomplishing specific
goals (Crews et al., 2001). Nonetheless, self-regulation
theory may offer researchers and clinicians alike a use-
ful perspective on the Feldenkrais Method.
Comments on Methodology and SummaryComments on Methodology and Summary
Comments on Methodology and SummaryComments on Methodology and Summary
Comments on Methodology and Summary
Aside from using appropriate controls, three fea-
tures of Feldenkrais interventions need to be taken into
consideration. First, practitioner skill level and the de-
pendence on subjective assessments of movement dys-
function raise concern. In chiropractic and other fields
of manual medicine, such assessments have often been
shown to be unreliable and invalid (e.g., Hestbœk &
Leboeuf-Yde, 2000). Second, meaningful and valid cri-
terion measures must be used. For example, postural
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sway measures, like those used in some Feldenkrais stud-
ies, are little understood in healthy persons, and, thus,
changes due to intervention effects are difficult to in-
terpret (Tarantola, Nardone, Tacchini, & Schieppati,
1997). If testimonials and other qualitative accounts are
reported, appropriate methods must be used in ensure
credibility (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). Last, as Johnson
et al. (1999) noted, expectancy effects may influence
the results. A patient’s preference for a particular treat-
ment affects the outcome of treatment (Awad, Shapiro,
Lund, & Feine, 2000), and it would be anticipated that
patient preferences would gravitate toward noninvasive
and genial methods, such as Feldenkrais. Expectancy ef-
fects also influence the researcher in that a researcher’s
“therapy allegiances” can be associated with the treat-
ment outcomes (Luborsky et al., 1999). Therapy alle-
giances are plain to see in many of the research reports
on the Feldenkrais Method.
In summary, the current research on attentional
focus and kinesthesia provide rationale as to the mar-
ginal effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method to produce
changes in motor performance. In contrast, changes in
psychological performance corresponding to a self-
awareness approach suggest that it may be fruitful to
examine the Feldenkrais Method in light of a self-regula-
tion perspective.
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Author’Author’
Author’Author’
Author’
s Notes Note
s Notes Note
s Note
Please address all correspondence concerning this ar-
ticle to Jeffrey C. Ives, Department of Exercise and Sport
Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Ithaca College,
Ithaca, NY 14850.
E-mail: jives@ithaca.edu
Ives.pmd 4/15/2004, 12:41 PM123
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