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When Do Stereotypes Come to Mind and When Do They Color Judgment? A Goal-Based Theoretical Framework for Stereotype Activation and Application

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Abstract

The authors describe a theoretical framework for understanding when people interacting with a member of a stereotyped group activate that group's stereotype and apply it to that person. It is proposed that both stereotype activation and stereotype application during interaction depend on the strength of comprehension and self-enhancement goals that can be satisfied by stereotyping one's interaction partner and on the strength of one's motivation to avoid prejudice. The authors explain how these goals can promote and inhibit stereotype activation and application, and describe diverse chronic and situational factors that can influence the intensity of these goals during interaction and, thereby, influence stereotype activation and application. This approach permits integration of a broad range of findings on stereotype activation and application.

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... In addition, reward interdependence can influence the way in which people perceive and evaluate others, thus restraining the social categorization processes in a racially diverse workforce. Although stereotypes and biases toward out-group members can be triggered automatically, the extent to which the stereotypes and biases actually induce unfavorable perceptions of and actions toward different others depends on the perceivers' own goals (Kunda and Spencer 2003). If people believe that stereotypical treatment of others does not help to attain their valued outcomes, they tend to inhibit the application of stereotypes and biases (Kunda andSpencer 2003, Moskowitz andIgnarri 2009). ...
... Although stereotypes and biases toward out-group members can be triggered automatically, the extent to which the stereotypes and biases actually induce unfavorable perceptions of and actions toward different others depends on the perceivers' own goals (Kunda and Spencer 2003). If people believe that stereotypical treatment of others does not help to attain their valued outcomes, they tend to inhibit the application of stereotypes and biases (Kunda andSpencer 2003, Moskowitz andIgnarri 2009). This situation would likely occur in the context of reward interdependence, in which unfavorable treatment of out-group members may prove costly by reducing the rewards for everyone, including the in-group members. ...
Article
Despite substantial scholarly attention to workforce demographic diversity, existing research is limited in understanding whether or in what contexts firm-level racial diversity relates to performance and workforce outcomes of the firm. Drawing on social interdependence theory along with insights from social exchange and psychological ownership theories, we propose that the use of broad-based stock options granted to at least half the workforce creates the conditions supporting a positive relationship between workforce racial diversity and firm outcomes. We examine this proposition by analyzing panel data from 155 companies that applied for the “100 Best Companies to Work For” competition with responses from 109,314 employees over the five-year period from 2006 to 2010 (354 company-year observations). Findings revealed that racial diversity was positively related to subsequent firm financial performance and individual affective commitment and was not significantly associated with subsequent voluntary turnover rates, when accompanied by a firm’s adoption of broad-based stock options. However, under the nonuse of broad-based stock options, racial diversity was significantly related to higher voluntary turnover rates and lower employee affective commitment, with no financial performance gains. By documenting the beneficial effects of financial incentives in diverse workplaces, this paper extends theory asserting the value of incentives for performance.
... However, some studies argue that even though gender stereotypes may be widely held, people do not necessarily apply them to their evaluations of political candidates (Brooks, 2013;Schneider and Bos, 2014). Indeed, stereotype reliance is considered as a conditional process depending on both context and characteristics of the perceiver (Kunda and Spencer, 2003). In terms of context, the present study is set in a favourable environment. ...
... It is, however, important to note that the prevalence of political gender stereotypes is not an automatic process or naturally occurring phenomenon. Stereotype reliance is rather found to be a conditional process depending on both the context and the individual characteristics of the perceiver (Kunda and Spencer, 2003). When it comes to the context, research demonstrates that there are differences in how voters perceive female candidates between societies with a long history of women in key political positions and those where this is not the case: in contexts in which voters have extensive experience with women in government, voters display more gender-neutral attitudes (Taylor-Robinson et al., 2016). ...
Article
The gender of political candidates is associated with particular personality traits, capacities and opinions. The extent to which voters apply these political gender stereotypes to their evaluation of political candidates is influenced by both contextual- and individual-level attributes. This article, based on an experimental study conducted among a representative sample of the Flemish (Belgian) population, examines the individual-level determinants of voters’ political gender stereotypes. Our results indicate that political gender stereotypes are only present to a limited extent in Flanders, even among the most likely groups such as older and lower educated voters. Furthermore, stereotype reliance is generally not conditioned by individual-level determinants. Most importantly, the finding that respondents’ perceptions of female candidates is primarily based on their level of agreement with the content of the presented policy position, demonstrates that other cues outweigh the importance of candidate gender.
... Comme nous l'avons évoqué, la littérature en psychologie sociale distingue le concept de stéréotype (i.e., ensemble de connaissances abstraites à propos d'un groupe) de celui de stéréotypisation (i.e., utilisation de ces connaissances face à un individu membre du groupe ; e.g., Leyens et al., 1996). En réalité, le mécanisme de stéréotypisation peut être divisé en deux processus distincts : l'activation du stéréotype et l'application du stéréotype (e.g., Devine & Monteith, 1999 ;Gilbert & Hixon, 1991 ;Kunda & Spencer, 2003). L'activation du stéréotype est définie comme l'augmentation de l'accessibilité mentale des connaissances relatives au groupe (e.g., Gilbert & Hixon, 1991). ...
... De la même manière, l'application du stéréotype peut être décrite comme étant un processus contrôlable (Kunda & Spencer, 2003), mais relativement efficient (Moskowitz et al., 1999 ; mais Gilbert & Hixon, 1991). Pour certains auteurs, la compréhension des processus soustendant le mécanisme de stéréotypisation souffre là encore de limites méthodologiques (Krieglmeyer & Sherman, 2012 ;Rivers et al., 2020). ...
Thesis
Les mesures indirectes occupent une place centrale dans l’étude des stéréotypes et préjugés individuels. Pourtant, ces mesures sont aujourd’hui critiquées : contrairement à ce qui était avancé, celles-ci seraient le reflet d’une multitude de processus couvrant des degrés d’automaticité divers. Les modèles multinomiaux, modèles mathématiques couplés à ce type de mesures, ont l’avantage de démêler la contribution spécifique des principaux processus à l’origine de la réponse individuelle. L’objectif de ce travail était de montrer l’intérêt théorique que peut avoir l’utilisation des modèles multinomiaux dans l’étude des stéréotypes et préjugés. À travers l’exemple d’une mesure indirecte du stéréotype liant les individus maghrébins à une menace, nous avons défendu la thèse selon laquelle les processus et l’organisation des processus à l’origine de la réponse individuelle pouvaient varier en fonction d’un contexte particulier et du type de participants prenant part à la mesure. Notre première partie empirique ne nous a pas permis de confirmer la possibilité qu’un contexte d’attentats puisse influencer de manière contraire deux des processus à l’origine de la réponse. Dans notre deuxième partie empirique, nous avons montré que la relation conditionnelle entre processus pouvait être liée à certaines composantes de la tâche, mais aussi et surtout à certains facteurs individuels. Enfin, notre dernière partie a mis en lumière le caractère reproductible de nos effets avec d’autres stimuli et auprès des participants cibles du stéréotype, mais pas dans un contexte géographique différent. En somme, ce travail de thèse était pour nous l’opportunité de mettre en avant l’importance des précautions à prendre dans l’interprétation des résultats issus de mesures indirectes et l’apport théorique et empirique des modèles multinomiaux dans ces interprétations.
... Carton and Rosette (2011) explored this issue by reflecting on long-standing theories related to how leaders are evaluated. Their review of archival data found that the presence of goal-based stereotyping, which is the application of stereotypes driven by a perceiver's comprehension goals, self-enhancement goals, and their motivation to avoid prejudice (Kunda and Spencer, 2003), 'may systematically bias leader evaluations against black leaders' (Carton andRosette, 2011, p. 1153). And according to Kunda and Spencer (2003), this activation and application of a group stereotype does not take much: ...
... Their review of archival data found that the presence of goal-based stereotyping, which is the application of stereotypes driven by a perceiver's comprehension goals, self-enhancement goals, and their motivation to avoid prejudice (Kunda and Spencer, 2003), 'may systematically bias leader evaluations against black leaders' (Carton andRosette, 2011, p. 1153). And according to Kunda and Spencer (2003), this activation and application of a group stereotype does not take much: ...
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... Because people detect the social group of others rapidly and spontaneously (Ito & Urland, 2003Quinn et al., 2010), and knowledge structures about groups are activated spontaneously (e.g., stereotypes and prejudice; Blair & Banaji, 1996;Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1998;Fazio et al., 1995;Kunda et al., 2002;Kunda & Spencer, 2003), the judgment 1 of the group might bias the judgment of the individual. This might be especially true for relatively unintentional, uncontrollable, quick, or effortless judgment (i.e., automatic judgment, as opposed to a more intentional, controllable, slow, and effortful deliberate judgment). ...
... Indeed, there is evidence that people are extremely fast in categorizing faces to social groups (Ito & Urland, 2003Quinn et al., 2010). Stereotypes and prejudice are also activated fast and spontaneously (Blair & Banaji, 1996;Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1998;Fazio et al., 1995;Kunda et al., 2002;Kunda & Spencer, 2003), following the exposure to a cue that signals group-membership. Thus, the exposure to a target's face might activate prejudice and stereotypes due to the categorization of that face to a social group. ...
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People's automatic (unintentional, uncontrollable, and efficient) preference between social groups often determines their automatic preference between unknown individual members of these groups, a prominent example for automatic prejudice. What happens when the person making the judgment has long known the target individuals? Practice might automatize the deliberate judgment of the individuals. Then, if deliberate judgment is nonprejudiced, automatic prejudice might decrease. In 29 studies (total N = 4,907), we compared preferences between a famous member of a dominant social group and a famous member of a stigmatized social group on indirect measures of evaluation that were developed to measure automatic preference and on self-report measures. In most studies, we chose pairs based on prior self-reported preference for the member of the stigmatized group. The measures showed discrepancy, with indirect measures suggesting an automatic preference for the member of the dominant group. We replicated these results with various target individuals, two pairs of social groups (Black/White, old/young), two indirect measures, and in two countries (Studies 1-23). The indirectly measured prodominant preference was stronger when visual characteristics of the group were present rather than absent (Studies 24 and 25), suggesting a stronger effect of group characteristics on automatic than on deliberate preference between the individuals. On self-report and indirect measures, the preferences between individuals were related to the preferences between their groups (Studies 26 and 27) yet also to individuating information (Studies 28 and 29). Our results suggest that group evaluation plays a central role in the automatic evaluation of familiar (and not only novel) members of stigmatized groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Recent, Kunda ºi Spencer (2003) au integrat astfel de date experimentale într-un model teoretic conform cãruia activarea ºi aplicarea stereotipurilor depind de trei tipuri de scopuri (înþelegere, stimã de sine, ºi motivaþia antiprejudecatã), a cãror importanþã pentru individ poate varia de la o situaþia la alta ºi chiar în cadrul aceleiaºi situaþii în momente de timp diferite. Când aplicarea stereotipurilor poate satisface astfel de scopuri, ele vor fi activate, dar aceeaºi activare va fi inhibatã în cazul în care aplicarea stereotipurilor poate împiedica realizarea scopurilor proeminente într-un anumit moment ºi context. ...
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... Inspired by these findings, in a subsequent set of studies we further explored the relationship between outgroup impressions and the experience of threat by considering a real outgroup . Indeed, the employment of a fictitious group helped us to impose specific characteristics on the group, thus increasing our control over potential confounding factors such as participants' preconceptions of existing groups (Kunda & Spencer, 2003). However, such an approach may undermine the external validity of the findings preventing us from drawing clear conclusions on how people evaluate real outgroups. ...
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Over the past few decades, two-factor models of social cognition have emerged as a dominant framework for understanding impression development. These models suggest that two dimensions-warmth and competence-are key in shaping our cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions toward social targets. More recently, research has jettisoned the warmth dimension, distinguishing instead between sociability (e.g., friendliness and likeability) and morality (e.g., honesty and trustworthiness) and showing that morality is far more important than sociability (and competence) in predicting the evaluations we make of individuals and groups. Presenting research from our laboratories, we show that moral categories are central at all stages of impression development, from implicit assumptions, to information gathering and to final evaluations. Moreover, moral trait information has a dominant role in predicting people's behavioral reactions toward social targets. We also show that morality dominates impression development, because it is closely linked to the essential judgment of whether another party's intentions are beneficial or harmful. Thus, our research informs a new framework for understanding person and group perception: the Moral Primacy Model (MPM) of impression development. We conclude by discussing how the MPM relates to classic and emerging models of social cognition and by outlining a trajectory for future research.
... There are numerous other studies of stereotype application from various fields which examine very different stereotypes, utilizing the model first published by Devine (1989;e.g., Ames, 2004;Ferrucci et al., 2013;Kundra & Sinclair, 1999;Kunda & Spencer, 2003;Leshner, 2006). This present study will focus on this second stage of the stereotyping process. ...
Article
Women are more visible than ever in sports media. Yet, extant research has shown that females have endured an array of issues exclusive to their gender. Consistent research updates on gender in sports media is necessary in order to discover whether an increase in numbers has changed the assessment of women in sports media. This study’s objective was to understand how audiences now perceive women in television sports media, specifically as sports reporters covering the NFL. This quantitative experiment employed two current, veteran sports reporters (one female and one male) and pre-tested for the purpose of this study. It is the first known study that utilized professional television sports reporters. Each reporter recorded the same two “stand-ups” with identical backdrops. Survey participants randomly watched a video either of the male or female giving a fact or an opinion report and were then asked questions to measure their perception of the sports reporter’s knowledge and credibility. Intriguingly, this study did not replicate results from prior research, and therefore could contribute to literature on women in sports media moving forward.
... Gender stereotypes are widely shared and reinforced via a range of social interactions-more so because gender is a highly visible, stable, and ascriptive characteristic [41,42]. Individuals use these attributions to make up for incomplete information about others, and rely on such stereotypes in understanding others' viewpoints [43]. Because of these mechanisms, individuals are evaluated by their peers on whether the content of their contributions is in line with prevalent gender stereotypes. ...
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This paper studies whether demographic similarities between middle and top managers with different tasks (strategy formation and strategy implementation) impacts organizational performance. By drawing on relational demography theory, we investigate the effect of similarity in gender, organizational tenure, and in both these demographics on the overall costs of Dutch municipalities. The main findings of this paper show that the similarity effects are interrelated: when middle and top managers diverge on only one demographic, performance is increased. Also, when leaders are similar on both demographics, performance is impaired. We conclude by discussing the implications for the literature on middle management, relational demography, and strategy formation and implementation.
... For categories to bias decisions, clear diagnostic or individuating information must be absent and perceivers must lack the ability or motivation to control the biasing influence of categories. When decisionmakers have adequate ability and motivation to control the effects of categorical information, or when information is unambiguous (as with strong individuating information or applicability of a single concept; Higgins, 1996), categories have little to no biasing effect on judgments (e.g., Koch, D'Mello, & Sackett, 2015;Krueger & Rothbart, 1988;Locksley, Borgida, Brekke, & Hepburn, 1980;see Jussim, 2012b;Jussim et al., 2015c;Kunda & Spencer, 2003). As stated unequivocally in a summary by Kunda and Thagard (1996) over two decades ago, "It is clear … that the target's behavior has been shown to undermine the effects of stereotypes based on all the major social categories" (p. ...
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We endorse Cesario's call for more research into the complexities of “real-world” decisions and the comparative power of different causes of group disparities. Unfortunately, these reasonable suggestions are overshadowed by a barrage of non sequiturs, misdirected criticisms of methodology, and unsubstantiated claims about the assumptions and inferences of social psychologists.
... Conceptually, there are two types of status characteristics that have been shown to affect the evaluation of individuals: specific and diffuse (Correll and Ridgeway 2006). Specific status characteristics, such as an occupational role or possession of specific skill set, carry cultural expectations for a well-defined range of tasks, thus forming beliefs and aiding evaluations in a limited range of contexts (Kunda and Spencer 2003). For instance, without specific information about an individual, we expect a software engineer to be competent at programming a computer and a kindergarten teacher to be adept at teaching children. ...
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This paper develops and evaluates a theory of status belief transfer, the process by which gender status beliefs differentially affect the evaluations of products made by men and women. We conduct three online experiments to evaluate this theory. In Study 1, we gathered 50 product categories from a large online retailer and had participants rate each product’s association with femininity and masculinity. We find evidence of the pervasiveness of gender-typing in product markets. In Studies 2 and 3, we simulate male-typed and female-typed product markets (craft beer and cupcakes, respectively). In the male-typed product market, a craft beer described as produced by a woman is evaluated more negatively than the same product described as produced by a man. Consistent with our predictions, we further find that if the beer is conferred external status via an award, the evaluation of the beer made by a woman improves by a greater magnitude than the same beer made by a man. In the female-typed product market of cupcakes, the producer’s gender does not affect ratings. Together, the two studies provide evidence of an asymmetric negative bias: products made by women are disadvantaged in male-typed markets, but products made by men are not disadvantaged in female-typed markets. These studies also provide compelling evidence of status belief transfer from producers to their products. We draw out the implications of these findings and suggest ways that gender biases in product markets can be reduced.
... Despite several advantages such as less time-intensive, easy, and cheaper, non-probability sampling (purposive sampling for the study) can be subjected to selection bias (Forster, 2001;Galloway, 2005). Furthermore, self-reporting scales can produce inaccurate results led by social desirability bias (Kunda and Spencer, 2003). Therefore, employing probability sampling with measures that reduce biases of all forms is recommended in future studies. ...
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Subjective wellbeing in terms of objective outcome can be useful to determine the level of progress in clinical practice as well as research studies in Bangladesh. Besides, cultural understanding of well-being for Bangladeshi population is also equally important to report. A valid Bangla version of the five-item WHO Well-being Index can be a suitable measure to achieve the purposes. Therefore, the present study aimed at validating the WHO-5 Well-being Index for general population in Bangladesh. Methods: After following the standard procedures for translation, back-translation, and committee translation, the initial Bangla version of the scale was developed and pretested. Based on the feedback during pretesting, a slight modification was made and the final version was developed. This final version was administered to 269 participants of different socioeconomic backgrounds to find out the reliability and validity of the scale from March 2019 to May 2019. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 24. Results: The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.754) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.713), divergent validity (r = -0.443, p < 0.01 with the Bangla version of Perceived Stress Scale-10) and convergent validity (r = 0.542, p < 0.01 with the Bangla version of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale). The data also yielded one-factor structure for the scale in exploratory factor analysis explaining 38.68% of total variance. The factor structure was further supported in the confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 = 295.852, χ2/df = 2.017, RMSEA = 0.062, CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.964, and SRMR = 0.0255). Conclusion. The findings suggested the Bangla version of the WHO-5 Well-being Index is a psychometrically valid and reliable tool for general adult population in Bangladeshi when it comes to measuring subjective well-being both in clinical practice and research studies.
... Despite several advantages such as less time-intensive, easy, and cheaper, non-probability sampling (purposive sampling for the study) can be subjected to selection bias (Forster, 2001;Galloway, 2005). Furthermore, self-reporting scales can produce inaccurate results led by social desirability bias (Kunda and Spencer, 2003). Therefore, employing probability sampling with measures that reduce biases of all forms is recommended in future studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Subjective wellbeing in terms of objective outcome can be useful to determine the level of progress in clinical practice as well as research studies in Bangladesh. Besides, cultural understanding of well-being for Bangladeshi population is also equally important to report. A valid Bangla version of the five-item WHO Well-being Index can be a suitable measure to achieve the purposes. Therefore, the present study aimed at validating the WHO-5 Well-being Index for general population in Bangladesh. Methods: After following the standard procedures for translation, back-translation, and committee translation, the initial Bangla version of the scale was developed and pretested. Based on the feedback during pretesting, a slight modification was made and the final version was developed. This final version was administered to 269 participants of different socioeconomic backgrounds to find out the reliability and validity of the scale from March 2019 to May 2019. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 24. Results: The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.754) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.713), divergent validity (r = -0.443, p < 0.01 with the Bangla version of Perceived Stress Scale-10) and convergent validity (r = 0.542, p < 0.01 with the Bangla version of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale). The data also yielded one-factor structure for the scale in exploratory factor analysis explaining 38.68% of total variance. The factor-structure was further supported in the confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 = 295.852, χ2/df = 2.017, RMSEA = 0.062, CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.964, and SRMR = 0.0255). Conclusion: The findings suggested the Bangla version of the WHO-5 Well-being Index is a psychometrically valid and reliable tool for general adult population in Bangladeshi when it comes to measuring subjective well-being both in clinical practice and research studies.
... Stereotypes pertaining to parenting roles appear to be enduring, particularly for the role of mother. Generally, stereotypes are activated in the presence of an associated stimulus and therefore contributing to, and shaping, perceptions and evaluations of a person or situation (Kunda & Spencer, 2003). As a result, mothers and fathers are evaluated primarily based on the stereotypes one has learned about these roles. ...
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While the characteristics associated with fathers have taken on more maternal traits more recently, a similar shift has not been observed for maternal characteristics. The role of mother remains stereotyped, and those who do not adhere to this often face criticism. This study examines the impact of parental stereotypes on the cognitive processes associated with reading. A sample of 32 individuals read 24 experimental passages introducing a parent (mother or father) in a traditional or non-traditional role, and in a neutral or disambiguating context. Results show a significant interaction between the type of role and gender of the parent on reading times. Simple main effect tests revealed that for traditional roles, fixation durations were longer when the protagonist was a father than when the protagonist was a mother. There was no effect of role type for fathers, yet for mothers, fixation durations were longer when they were depicted in non-traditional roles than when they were depicted in traditional roles. This disruption of information processing of schema incongruent content suggests that mothers’ parenting stereotypes remain anchored in society and are more rigid than those of fathers, supporting the idea of a double standard in parenting roles.
... Aktivacije teh kategorij so pogosto samodejne in nezavedne (Greenwald et al., 2002). Stereotipizacija torej pomeni poenostavitev kognicije, katere posledica so stereotipna ovrednotenja in odločitve, ki pogosto vodijo do predsodkov (Kunda & Spencer, 2003). Socialne psihologe so stereotipi od nekdaj zanimali, predvsem njihov nastanek, aktivacija in vpliv na odnose med družbenimi skupinami (Dovidio, Glick & Rudman, 2005), pri čemer so predpostavljali, da so posledice stereotipov predvsem negativne (Fiske, 2000). ...
Article
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Potrošniški stereotipi pomembno vplivajo na vedenje porabnikov pri sprejemanju nakupnih odločitev. S pomočjo modela vsebine stereotipov (angl. stereotype content model) (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2007; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick & Xu, 2002) opredelimo stereotipe blagovnih znamk skozi zaznave topline in kompetentnosti kot tople/hladne in kot kompetentne/nekompetentne blagovne znamke. Na podlagi raziskave v okviru projekta “Spremljanje preferenc potrošnikov skozi potrošniške stereotipe” predstavljamo klasifikacijo 96 blagovnih znamk na slovenskem trgu glede na prepoznavnost, toplino in kompetentnost, kot so bile oblikovane na podlagi ocen 25 trženjskih strokovnjakov iz slovenskega prostora. Ugotovitve glede stereotipov o blagovnih znamkah so osnova za oblikovanje trženjskih ciljev in ustrezno pozicioniranje, trženjsko komunikacijo ter ostala orodja trženjskega spleta.
... and "conditional" bias now becomes "widespread" and "pervasive" bias (e.g., Greenwald & Krieger 2006;Kang & Banaji 2006 Locksley et al. 1980;see Jussim 2012b;Jussim et al. 2012bJussim et al. , 2015cKunda & Spencer 2003). As stated unequivocally in a summary by Kunda and Thagard (1996) over two decades ago, "It is clear... that the target's behavior has been shown to undermine the effects of stereotypes based on all the major social categories" (p. ...
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This article questions the widespread use of experimental social psychology to understand real-world group disparities. Standard experimental practice is to design studies in which participants make judgments of targets who vary only on the social categories to which they belong. This is typically done under simplified decision landscapes and with untrained decision makers. For example, to understand racial disparities in police shootings, researchers show pictures of armed and unarmed Black and White men to undergraduates and have them press "shoot" and "don't shoot" buttons. Having demonstrated categorical bias under these conditions, researchers then use such findings to claim that real-world disparities are also due to decision-maker bias. I describe three flaws inherent in this approach, flaws which undermine any direct contribution of experimental studies to explaining group disparities. First, the decision landscapes used in experimental studies lack crucial components present in actual decisions (Missing Information Flaw). Second, categorical effects in experimental studies are not interpreted in light of other effects on outcomes, including behavioral differences across groups (Missing Forces Flaw). Third, there is no systematic testing of whether the contingencies required to produce experimental effects are present in real-world decisions (Missing Contingencies Flaw). I apply this analysis to three research topics to illustrate the scope of the problem. I discuss how this research tradition has skewed our understanding of the human mind within and beyond the discipline and how results from experimental studies of bias are generally misunderstood. I conclude by arguing that the current research tradition should be abandoned.
... Second, easily noticeable attributes may lose their importance as carriers of relevant information over time, leading to a search for other attributes. This proposition is in line with the observations of Kunda and Spencer (2003), who found that constantly-observed attributes lose their importance for person perception over time. Thus, in our setting, initial recognition of noticeable attributes (e.g., extraversion) may have given way to recognition of more covert ones (e.g., conscientiousness). ...
... Second, easily noticeable attributes may lose their importance as carriers of relevant information over time, leading to a search for other attributes. This proposition is in line with the observations of Kunda and Spencer (2003), who found that constantly-observed attributes lose their importance for person perception over time. Thus, in our setting, initial recognition of noticeable attributes (e.g., extraversion) may have given way to recognition of more covert ones (e.g., conscientiousness). ...
Article
We extend Implicit Leadership Theory, which addresses criteria that individuals use to identify leaders, by examining whether the predictors of leadership emergence change over time. Building on leader-distance research, we predict that time influences the traits on which individuals base their selection of others as leaders: Initially, before individuals have had many opportunities to interact, and distance between them is high, they select leaders according to easily-noticeable physical and psychological traits; however, with time, as distance decreases, they rely on more covert psychological traits. We carried out a three-day field study in an intensive workshop for individuals entering an executive-MBA program (n = 64). Data were gathered from participants at four points in time. We found that the criteria by which people nominate leaders change over time from easily- noticeable traits (facial attractiveness, gender, extraversion) to more covert personality traits (conscientiousness).
... Modelele pe bază de reţele asociative dezvoltate până în prezent în cogniţia socială oferă doar explicaţii parţiale privind dinamica stereotipizării. Limitele cele mai des invocate ale acestor modele se referă la faptul că schimbarea stereotipurilor poate fi descrisă doar în manieră incrementalistă, ca un proces lent, datorită conexiunilor extinse dintre atribute (Hilton & von Hippel, 1996); pe de altă parte, asociaţiile dintre atribute putând fi activate automat, apare ideea implicită că dinamica stereotipizării se desfăşoară de regulă în afara controlului voluntar al persoanei (Kunda & Spencer, 2003). ...
... 介于时间和认知的有限性,个体为了快速做出一些反应和判断,往往会对一些人或事物有着固定的 看法 (Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994;Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2001)。比如认为北方人豪爽好客,南方 人聪明细致,男性一般魁梧攻击性强,女性细腻弱小,销售员能说善道,公务员严谨踏实等。刻板印象 一般处于长时记忆里,需要时就会被快速激活用以个体对面前事物的判断 (Stangor, 2009;王沛,杨亚平, 赵仑,2010)。在这个过程中,刻板印象的激活是否需要意识这一点一直存有争议。有研究认为这个过程 无需意识(e.g., Banaji & Hardin, 1996;Bargh, 1999;Clow & Esses, 2007),也有研究发现这个过程中有意识 的存在(e.g., Fein, Hoshino-Browne, Davies, & Spencer, 2003;Spencer, Fein, Wolfe, Fong, & Dunn, 1998)。那 么,刻板印象启动这一认知过程是否需要意识的参与,是否存在阈下语义启动现象? 近年来,研究者发现刻板印象的整个过程中有"目标对象的分类","刻板印象的激活(或刻板印象 的启动)"和"刻板印象的应用"3 个不同的认知过程:个体首先将目标分类,然后启动相应的刻板印象, 最后在将启动的刻板印象加以运用 (Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2001;Kunda & Spencer, 2003;Sherman, Macrae, & Bodenhausen, 2000; 张晓斌,佐斌,2012)。但以往的研究并未区分这 3 个不同的加工过程(e.g., Banaji & Hardin, 1996;Banaji, Hardin, & Rothman, 1993;Clow & Esses, 2007;Macrae, Bodenhausen, & Milne, 1995 在 183 ms 的后掩蔽刺激呈现之后,呈现目标刺激(如刻板特质词"贤惠") 300 ms,要求被试在此时进行 对目标词作出"人"/"景物"的判断并迅速进行按键反应。被试反应完成后进入下一个试次 trial。考虑 到顺序效应,即为了平衡左右手,实验中一半被试"人"为"p"键,"景"为"q"键;另一半被试"人" 为"q"键,"景"为"p"键。因为目标词是"人"的词是"景"的 2 倍,为了防止被试按键习惯,另 ...
... The first includes cognitive processes that control stereotype activation, while the second includes cognitive processes that decide whether stereotypes are used in assessment, judgment, and actions toward others. 6 Dehon et al 7 noted that, even when physicians are well informed toward cultural differences and psychological biases, there are occasions when they depend on stereotypes when they provide healthcare. This can occur, even with low-prejudiced, well-intentioned physicians, who may stereotype certain persons when they feel exhausted, cognitively overpowered, or are expected to make quick decisions using inadequate information. ...
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Objectives: To explore implicit stereotyping among primary healthcare (PHC) physicians and to identify determinants of physicians' stereotyping of patients based on the patients' characteristics and appearance. Methods: This study followed an analytical cross-sectional design conducted between October 2019 and December 2019, and included 250 primary healthcare (PHC) physicians in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which included items concerning physicians' sociodemographic characteristics, and their attitudes toward patient characteristics and patient appearance. Results: Prevalence of stereotyping among PHC physicians was 63.6% with respect to patient characteristics and 57.6% with respect to patient appearance. Stereotyping based on patient characteristics was higher among younger participants, females, those with bachelor's degrees, those in general practitioner positions, and those with less experience in PHC. Conclusion: Most PHC physicians in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are liable to implicit stereotyping based on patient characteristics (namely, gender and educational level) and patient appearance (namely, clothing). Therefore, it is recommended to train PHC physicians in cultural competency to reduce unintentional acts of discrimination toward their patients.
... It usually acts as a contextual identity that influences the performance of behaviors assumed on behalf of organizational roles and identities (Ridgeway, 2009). The researches show that gender classification unconsciously generates stereotypes in the minds of individuals, making them cognitively available to model behavior and judgments (Blair and Banaji, 1996;Kunda and Spencer, 2003). Thus, in contexts that involve people of the opposite or same sex, gender stereotypes implicitly shape behavior and judgments as far as gender is culturally defined as relevant to that situation, for example, a gender typified task, such as mathematics (Ridgeway and Correll, 2004;Ridgeway and Smith-Lovin, 1999). ...
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The central idea of this paper concerns the gender gap in educational pathways. This issue can be addressed from more perspectives. On the one hand, we can analyse this problem from the socialization process perspective. Through this process, individuals learn how to behave and make some evaluations regarding a particular aspect of their lives, in our case the decision-making process in educational career choices. What we can observe here in this paper, is the fact that the socialization process is gendered, prescribing from the earliest stages of life specific educational routes for men and women. On the other hand, we can move further and we can use another perspective such as the expectation-values theory. This theory takes into account the self-perceptions of students regarding their strengths and weaknesses within some disciplines. After this self-evaluation students make some decisions with respect to their future field of study that subsequently will shape their professional career. From the perspective of gender segregation, there are important and persistent disparities due to the uneven concentration of women and men in various fields of study, an issue that should be studied and addressed more, particularly in terms of policies. Therefore, this issue will be presented and analysed in this paper by using the literature in this domain of interest. Also, I will use some statistical data to support this statement.
... Dans le cadre IOD, pas de label RSA, ou de chômeurs de longue durée, ni même d'appellation demandeur d'emploi, ils sont caractérisés comme « professionnels ». L'idée est d'utiliser un stéréotype positif, comme préconisé par plusieurs auteurs, pour faire baiser l'activation de stéréotype négatif et les jugements discriminatoires associés (Guillaumin, 1980 ;Kunda & Spencer, 2003 ;Sinclair & Kunda, 1999 ;Stratton et al. 2006). Une fois le démarrage du contrat effectué, le conseiller offre un suivi sur l'ensemble de la période d'essai, jusqu'à la validation du contrat de travail. ...
Thesis
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Dans notre société où le chômage de masse est devenu phénomène majeur, de plus en plus de personnes sont rejetées durablement du marché du travail et constituent au sein de ce chômage de masse ce qu’on appelle « le chômage d’exclusion ». Pour accompagner cette population souvent stigmatisée, les choix de pratiques d’accompagnement sont divers. Ce travail investigue une notion émergente dans les politiques publiques de lutte contre le chômage et l’exclusion : « la médiation active à l’emploi », au travers de l’exemple de la méthode d’Intervention sur les Offres et les Demandes (Castra 2003, Castra et Valls 2007). En proposant une définition psychosociale de cette notion, la recherche s’articule autour de 4 études.La première étude est une analyse quantitative des méthodes d’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi. Elle démontre l’impact positif des situations de médiation sur la sortie de l’action en position d’emploi durable, particulièrement pour les publics les plus précarisés. Elle est complétée par une seconde étude, une analyse qualitative des parcours d’accompagnement via une enquête auprès des personnes accompagnées, qui souligne la nécessité de mettre en place des actions de médiation active et montre les effets positifs de la rencontre avec les employeurs.La troisième étude est une analyse quantitative des méthodes d’accompagnement des entreprises. Elle démontre que l’investissement sur la relation avec les entreprises est une condition essentielle pour faire démarrer des contrats de travail. Elle est complétée par une quatrième étude, une analyse qualitative de cette relation via une enquête auprès des entreprises accompagnées, qui souligne la nécessité de développer la relation de service avec les entreprises pour répondre aux enjeux des recruteurs et obtenir un cadre plus propice à l’embauche et à l’intégration des personnes accompagnées.L’ensemble de ce travail ouvre la voie à de nombreuses recherches, aussi bien au niveau de la formalisation des outils d’évaluation de la méthode IOD que de l’évolution des outils d’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi.
... A substantial body of social psychology research shows that stereotyping impacts perceptions, evaluations and behavior (e.g. Kunda & Spencer, 2003). ...
Article
Contributing to the literature on brand stereotyping, we draw on the Stereotype Content Model to investigate whether the content of the brand stereotype (in terms of warmth and competence) impacts consumers' perceptions of functional, emotional and social value. In doing so, we explicitly account for the brand's level of perceived globalness (PBG) and localness (PBL) as known influences on both stereotype content and value perceptions. Across two studies, we find that brand warmth consistently and positively impacts functional and emotional value, whereas brand competence enhances functional value. The impact of the stereotyping dimensions on value is subsequently reflected in increased purchase intentions and higher brand ownership. Surprisingly, none of the latter outcomes is affected by social value. Our findings corroborate previous research showing that PBG and PBL are important drivers of brand stereotype content, but also reveal that brand warmth has a stronger impact on behavioral outcomes than brand competence.
... However, this seems unlikely, as the percentage of women employed in an industry was not correlated with the level of creativity required in an occupation (see Table 2). Second, men in female-majority industries may receive relatively less support for creativity because gender stereotypes about creativity are less likely to be activated in more feminine gender-typed domains (Kunda & Spencer, 2003). Without the stereotype of creativity as a masculine characteristic, men may receive less support for creativity, but women would either receive more support or not be affected. ...
Article
Although innovation is vital for the success of organizations, many may not be capitalizing on the creativity of all workers. Gender bias in attributions of creativity may lead to an imbalance in the extent to which organizations support the creativity of men and women. Because organizational support for creativity is positively associated with creative outcomes, this may undermine the creativity of women in the workplace. To determine if gender influences creative workplace behavior through support for creativity, conditional process models were used to analyze the survey responses and external employment data of workers (N = 14,590) across industries in the US. Our analyses demonstrate that men report greater support for creativity in the workplace than women, and greater support for workplace creativity leads to more frequent creative workplace behaviors. The proportion of women employed in an industry influences this relationship, such that differences between men and women become smaller as the proportion of women in an industry increases. However, the level of creativity required in an occupation does not influence the relationship between gender and creativity. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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Differences between children’s and parents’ implicit and explicit gender stereotypes were investigated in two experiments. For the first time, the visual world paradigm compared parents’ and 7-8-year-old children’s looking preferences toward masculine- and feminine-typed objects stereotypically associated with a story character’s gender. In Experiment 1 participants listened to sentences that included a verb that inferred intentional action with an object (e.g., “Lilly/Alexander will play with the toy”), and in Experiment 2 the verb was replaced with a neutral verb (e.g., “Lilly/Alexander will trip over the toy”). A questionnaire assessed participants’ explicit gender stereotype endorsement (and knowledge [Experiment 2]) of children’s toys. Results revealed that parents and children displayed similar implicit stereotypes, but different explicit stereotypes, to one another. In Experiment 1, both children and parents displayed looking preferences toward the masculine-typed object when the story character was male and looking preferences toward the feminine-typed object when the character was female. No gender effects were found with a neutral verb in Experiment 2, reinforcing the impact of gender stereotypes on implicit processing and showing that the effects are not simply driven by gender stereotypic name–object associations. In the explicit measure, parents did not endorse the gender stereotypes related to toys but rather appeared to be egalitarian, whereas children’s responses were gender stereotypic.
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Constructions of teenage fathers largely portray them as absent, criminal, and violent (Johansson and Hammarén 2014; Kiselica and Kiselica 2014), with their identity tied to the role of breadwinner rather than parent. Although teenage fathers report being judged and belittled, little is known about societally held stereotypes toward teenage fathers. With samples of participants in Australia, we conducted three studies, based on the Stereotype Content Model, to explore societal stereotypes, and attitudes more broadly, of teenage fathers, including factors that may influence attitudes. Study 1 (n = 177) investigated attitudes toward teenage fathers, compared to teenage mothers and adult parents, demonstrating they were perceived least favorably. Study 2 (n = 94) explored whether the attitudes and stereotypes of teenage fathers held by university students were similar or different to those of men who are low SES and male adolescents. We found that, similar to male adolescents in general, teenage fathers were seen as lacking maturity and that, similar to men who are low SES, stereotypes were contemptuous. We did not find expected differences in perceived morality. Finally, Study 3 (n = 462) explored whether attitudes toward teenage fathers were less negative if they were perceived to be employed. They were not. Overall, our findings suggested teenage fathers are perceived to lack maturity, morality, competence, warmth, and capacity to parent. Whether they were employed or not made little difference to people’s perceptions. Our findings suggest that stereotypes of teenage fathers are largely contemptuous, which can be internalized by teenage fathers and may reduce their help-seeking.
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The theory of statistical discrimination is a dominant social scientific framework for understanding discrimination in labor markets. To date, the literature has treated this theory as a model that merely explains employer behavior. This article contends that the idea of statistical discrimination, rather than simply providing an explanation, can lead people to view social stereotyping as useful and acceptable and thus help rationalize and justify discriminatory decisions. A preregistered survey experiment with more than 2,000 participants who had managerial experience shows that exposure to statistical discrimination theory strengthened people’s belief in the accuracy of stereotypes, their acceptance of stereotyping, and the extent to which they engaged in gender discrimination in a hiring simulation. Reading a critical commentary on the theory mitigated these effects. These findings imply that theories of discrimination, and the language associated with them, can rationalize—or challenge the rationality of—stereotypes and discrimination and, as a result, shape the attitudes and actions of decision-makers in labor markets.
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As countries face an aging workforce, it is pertinent to understand the experiences of older workers and how perceived age biases can affect them. Data was gathered from interviews conducted with 113 older adults between 55 to 72 years old. Framed in relevant theoretical perspectives, this study proposes a conceptual model to understand how older adults can be affected by negative age stereotypes at three main career points-late career, retirement, and search for bridge employment-and how perceived age biases interplay with other forms of biases and disadvantages. At the late career stage, older workers perceived that unfair HR practices were due to age stereotypes and a lack of academic qualifications. Upon retirement, retirees' perception of age biases was influenced by income level. Retirees who sought bridge employment perceived that age biases had dampened their chances of securing a job.
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There is a critical disconnect between scientific knowledge about the nature of bias and how this knowledge gets translated into organizational debiasing efforts. Conceptual confusion around what implicit bias is contributes to misunderstanding. Bridging these gaps is the key to understanding when and why antibias interventions will succeed or fail. Notably, there are multiple distinct pathways to biased behavior, each of which requires different types of interventions. To bridge the gap between public understanding and psychological research, we introduce a visual typology of bias that summarizes the process by which group-relevant cognitions are expressed as biased behavior. Our typology spotlights cognitive, motivational, and situational variables that affect the expression and inhibition of biases while aiming to reduce the ambiguity of what constitutes implicit bias. We also address how norms modulate how biases unfold and are perceived by targets. Using this typology as a framework, we identify theoretically distinct entry points for antibias interventions. A key insight is that changing associations, increasing motivation, raising awareness, and changing norms are distinct goals that require different types of interventions targeting individual, interpersonal, and institutional structures. We close with recommendations for antibias training grounded in the science of prejudice and stereotyping.
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Research suggests that increased reliance on digital sources (e.g., blogs, social media, online forums) exhibited by the emerging millennial workforce may affect procurement decisions. These arguments contend with studies which indicates that organizational buyers rely on decision shortcuts (e.g., brand, loyalty, and peer opinions) to mitigate risk or to simplify purchase decisions. One can argue that buyers gain more information from digital sources, which may attenuate the role of these shortcuts. At the same time, digital sources may be used to strengthen prior beliefs, which can increase bias towards decision proxies. This study draws from information processing theory to understand the role of digital sources of information in decision‐making, in the context of business purchasing. Based on the Accessibility‐Diagnosticity framework, we introduce a Digital Embeddedness construct to conceptualize the extent to which information from digital sources is integral to an individual’s decision‐making. Analysis of survey responses from 196 purchasing managers suggests that more digitally embedded buyers are more willing to adopt innovations, yet interestingly, focus more on vendors from strong brands and peer opinions. We also find that while more digitally embedded buyers feel more cognitively attached to their existing vendors, this attachment does not translate into purchase loyalty. We discuss implications for buyer‐supplier relations and B2B marketing. By elucidating individual‐level differences in the use of digital sources, this research also has implications for future work that examines the interpretation of digital information to inform business decisions.
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Purpose There is a dearth of human resource management (HRM) literature examining the generalizability of research employing undergraduate student participants. The purpose of this study is to conduct an experiment to compare the job applicant evaluations and hiring decisions of undergraduate student participants with those of working adults with hiring experience. Design/methodology/approach This study employed a between-person 2 × 2 × 4 experimental design: participant group (undergraduate students or working adults with hiring experience) × job gender-type (male typed or female typed) × job applicant (heterosexual female, lesbian female, heterosexual male or gay male). Participants read descriptions of a job and a job applicant and then evaluated the applicant. Findings The results supported a moderated mediation model where participant group moderated the interaction of applicant gender and job gender-type in predicting perceptions of competence, which in turn predicted perceptions of person-job fit, likeability and respect-worthiness, which then predicted hiring decisions. Undergraduate student participants, but not working adults with hiring experience, evaluated female applicants applying for a male-typed job in a manner consistent with gender stereotypes and were less likely to hire the female applicant than the male applicant. Originality/value To inform HRM practice, research must reflect real-world decision-making. The literature on the roles of gender stereotypes and bias in hiring, and other important HRM decisions, relies heavily on undergraduate student participants. Findings of this study suggest a need to further examine whether those studies can be generalized to working adults actually making those decisions.
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We propose a theory of (a) reliance on stereotypes and individuating information in implicit person perception and (b) the relationship between individuation in implicit person perception and shifts in implicit group stereotypes. The present research preliminarily tested this theory by assessing whether individuating information or stereotypes take primacy in implicit judgments of individuals under circumstances specified by our model and then testing the malleability of implicit group stereotypes in the presence of the same (or additional) counterstereotypic individuating information. Studies 1 and 2 conceptually replicated previous research by examining the effects of stereotype-inconsistent and stereotype-consistent individuating information on implicit stereotype-relevant judgments of individuals. Both studies showed that stereotypic implicit judgments of individuals made in the absence of individuating information were reversed when the individuals were portrayed as stereotype-inconsistent and were strengthened when targets were portrayed as stereotype-consistent (though in Study 2 this strengthening was descriptive rather than inferential). Studies 3 and 4 examined whether the strong effects of individuating information found in Studies 1 and 2 extended to the social groups to which the individuals belonged. Even in the presence of up to eight counterstereotypic exemplars, there was no evidence of significant shifts in group stereotypes. Thus, the data showed that the shifts in implicit judgments that were caused by individuating information did not generalize to stereotypes of the social groups to which the individuals belong. Finally, we propose modifications to our theory that include potential reasons for this lack of generalization that we invite future research to explore.
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The human face is arguably the most important of all social stimuli because it provides so much valuable information about others. Therefore, one critical factor for successful social communication is the ability to process faces. In general, a wide body of social cognitive research has demonstrated that perceivers are better at extracting information from their own‐race compared to other‐race faces and that these differences can be a barrier to positive cross‐race relationships. The primary objective of the present paper was to provide an overview of how people process faces in diverse contexts, focusing on racial ingroup and outgroup members within one nation and across nations. To achieve this goal, we first broadly describe social cognitive research on categorization processes related to ingroups vs. outgroups. Next, we briefly examine two prominent mechanisms (experience and motivation) that have been used to explain differences in recognizing facial identities and identifying emotions when processing ingroup and outgroup racial faces within nations. Then, we explore research in this domain across nations and cultural explanations, such as norms and practices, that supplement the two proposed mechanisms. Finally, we propose future cross‐cultural research that has the potential to help us better understand the role of these key mechanisms in processing ingroup and outgroup faces.
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Using a previously untested similarity contingency model of country stereotypes, this study assesses the effects of country stereotypes, perceived country similarity, and their interplay on emotion-driven punitive intent toward foreign, wrongdoing companies. In Study 1, positive country stereotypes (warmth, competence) mitigate punitive intent by diminishing agonistic emotions (contempt, anger, and disgust). Study 2 demonstrates that perceived similarity with a wrongdoing company’s country of origin moderates the indirect effects of country stereotypes on emotion-driven punitive intent. Compensatory effects between country stereotypes and perceived country similarity emerge; with greater (lower) perceived country similarity, the indirect effects of country stereotypes on emotion-driven punitive intent are weaker (stronger). The results provide companies with relevant insights into (1) why consumers emotionally react as they do to wrongdoing companies of different nationalities and (2) how to counterbalance negative effects of company misconduct by harmonizing elements of countries’ warmth, competence, and perceived country similarity in branding and communication content.
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Previous research has shown negative evaluations of tattooed employees in the workplace, particularly in white‐collar jobs and by hiring managers (e.g., Henle et al., 2021), as they are perceived to possibly damage an organization’s image. Drawing on the stereotype and stigma literatures (e.g., Kunda & Spencer, 2003; Zhang et al., 2020), we examined how customers evaluate tattooed employees and the organizations for which they work. We also explored the role of tattoo‐related stereotypes as a mechanism to explain the influence of employee tattoos on customers’ reactions. Across two studies, we found that customers held both negative and positive stereotypes about tattooed employees, but they did not display more negative attitudes or behaviors toward tattooed (versus nontattooed) employees. Further, in white‐collar jobs that involve artistic skills, tattooed employees were viewed more positively, which in turn was related to greater hiring intentions for these employees compared to non‐tattooed employees. We discuss implications of our findings with respect to the shifting nature of tattoos as stigma, the role of stereotype application in understanding tattoo stigma, and the value of considering greater contextual factors in the evaluation of how tattooed employees affect organizations.
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Purpose This research aims to examine the indirect relationship between feminine traits and employee contextual performance through transformational leadership. Additionally, it explored the role of leaders’ sex in moderating the relationship between feminine traits and transformational leadership through a moderated mediation model that subsequently influences employee contextual performance. Design/methodology/approach This study tested and validated the moderated mediation model using a two-wave survey with 295 samples. Bootstrapping was adopted for model testing. Findings The results indicated that leaders’ sex moderated the relationship between feminine traits and employee contextual performance through transformational leadership, such that the indirect effect was stronger for female leaders than for male leaders. Practical implications Female leaders can improve employee contextual performance by demonstrating transformational leadership with feminine traits. Organizations must implement measures (i.e. training) to promote the acceptance and application of leader gender and gender-role trait diversity, reduce the prevalence of gender stereotypes and help leaders benefit from learning and implementing the effective combination of leadership and feminine traits. Originality/value The study demonstrated the joint effects of leaders’ sex (difference) and gender-role traits on employee contextual performance through transformational leadership. These results provide female leaders with feminine traits to gain a leadership advantage and an in-depth understanding of role congruity theory from the perspective of leadership effectiveness.
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This research examined age stereotyping of male individuals displaying intersectional memberships stemming from the combination of age (Young vs. Elderly) and sexual orientation categories (Gay vs. Heterosexual). We found that the age stereotypes of ‘Elderly gay men’ were blurred: ‘Elderly gay men’ were stereotyped less on elderly‐ and more on young‐stereotypical traits than both ‘Elderly heterosexual men’ (Study 1) and ‘Elderly men’ (Studies 2–4). These findings did not occur with any subtype, as was also not the case for ‘Elderly right‐handed men’ (Study 3), but replicate only with atypical subtypes (Study 4). Indeed, the blurring of the age stereotypes for ‘Elderly gay men’ was replicated for an additional atypical subtype, ‘Elderly Atheist men’, and amplified when the atypical subtype involved ‘Elderly men’ in combination with ‘Athlete men’, whose stereotypes implied youthful traits (Study 4). The results informed cognitive models of multiple category stereotyping. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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We challenge the social categorization perspective in the team diversity literature by arguing that stereotypes and not favoritism for members of the same social category govern processes and dynamics in gender-diverse teams. We posit that team members' gender and task stereotypes generate competence attributions that shape individual team members' dominance behavior and performance in a self-fulfilling way: Team members who are attributed more competence behave more dominantly and outperform those who are attributed less competence. We further argue that pro-diversity beliefs may prevent this self-fulfilling tendency of stereotypes by inhibiting individuals' stereotype-confirming behavior. Hypotheses were tested with 97 gender-heterogeneous four-person student teams working on stereotypically masculine- or feminine-typed problems. Team members estimated each other's competence prior to collaboration. Diversity beliefs were manipulated to be either pro-diversity or pro-similarity and dominance was observed with behavioral coding. Multilevel path modeling showed that competence attributions mediated the effects of stereotypical gender-task fit on individual dominance behavior and performance under pro-similarity beliefs but not under pro-diversity beliefs. Our study thus shows that the self-fulfilling tendencies of gender stereotypes in teams can be mitigated by instituting pro-diversity beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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Work-family management has become a highly salient issue for organizations as the world of work experiences ongoing changes due to globalization, technological advances, and new challenges spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the past decade or so, the concept of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) has been recognized by management and organizational science scholars as an important resource for alleviating negative pressures related to work-family management. However, despite evidence suggesting organizations are heavily gendered (i.e., built upon and structured according to assumptions about gender) and that FSSB represent a set of gendered behaviors, the role of gender is largely missing from FSSB theorization. In addition, little is known regarding the antecedents of FSSB and the mechanisms responsible for the enactment or withholding of FSSB by supervisors. To address these gaps, we perform an interdisciplinary theoretical integration to develop a conceptual and process model of gendered antecedents of the FSSB decision-making process. We present theoretically driven propositions regarding how gender-related variables of the supervisory dyad influence both 1) if/how supervisors become aware of an FSSB opportunity, and 2) supervisors' FSSB decisions to enact, withhold, or neglect FSSB. We conclude with practical implications and opportunities for future FSSB research based on implications of our theoretical insights.
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In the United States, politics has become tribal and personalized. The influence of partisan divisions has extended beyond the political realm into everyday life, affecting relationships and workplaces as well as the ballot box. To help explain this trend, we examine the stereotypes Americans have of ordinary Democrats and Republicans. Using data from surveys, experiments, and Americans' own words, we explore the content of partisan stereotypes and find that they come in three main flavors—parties as their own tribes, coalitions of other tribes, or vehicles for political issues. These different stereotypes influence partisan conflict: people who hold trait-based stereotypes tend to display the highest levels of polarization, while holding issue-based stereotypes decreases polarization. This finding suggests that reducing partisan conflict does not require downplaying partisan divisions but shifting the focus to political priorities rather than identity—a turn to what we call responsible partisanship.
Chapter
Over the past few decades, two-factor models of social cognition have emerged as a dominant framework for understanding impression development. These models suggest that two dimensions—warmth and competence—are key in shaping our cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions toward social targets. More recently, research has jettisoned the warmth dimension, distinguishing instead between sociability (e.g., friendliness and likeability) and morality (e.g., honesty and trustworthiness) and showing that morality is far more important than sociability (and competence) in predicting the evaluations we make of individuals and groups. Presenting research from our laboratories, we show that moral categories are central at all stages of impression development from implicit assumptions, to information gathering and to final evaluations. Moreover, moral trait information has a dominant role in predicting people's behavioral reactions toward social targets. We also show that morality dominates impression development, because it is closely linked to the essential judgment of whether another party's intentions are beneficial or harmful. Thus, our research informs a new framework for understanding person and group perception: The moral primacy model (MPM) of impression development. We conclude by discussing how the MPM relates to classic and emerging models of social cognition and by outlining a trajectory for future research.
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In this article, we review evidence showing that both the activation and the application of stereotypes may be influenced by motivation. When an applicable stereotype supports their desired impression of an individual, motivation can lead people to activate this stereotype, if they have not already activated it spontaneously. Motivation can also lead people to apply this stereotype to individuals to whom they might not have applied it otherwise. On the other hand, when an applicable stereotype casts doubt over their desired impression of an individual, motivation can lead people to inhibit the activation of this stereotype. Even if people are unable to inhibit its activation, motivation may still lead them to inhibit its application to this individual. People pick and choose among the many stereotypes applicable to an individual, activating those that support their desired impression of this individual and inhibiting those that interfere with it.
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An experiment examined the hypothesis that elderly people rely on stereotypes more, and are more prejudiced, than younger peo- ple because of deficits in the ability to inhibit information. Con- sistent with predictions, elderly people relied on stereotypes even when instructed not to, whereas young people did not. Elderly people also were more prejudiced than young people, and these differences in stereotyping and prejudice were mediated by age differences in inhibitory ability. Because elderly people reported a stronger desire than young people to control their prejudiced reac- tions, these results suggest that inhibitory failure can cause peo- ple to become more prejudiced than they want to be.
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On the basis of theorizing that proposes that category representations include a variety of associations and not simply trait information, two studies investigated whether the automatic activation of stereotypic traits following category priming is a necessary mediator of automatic social behavior. The results across both studies demonstrated an automatic behavior effect; participants primed with the elderly responded more slowly to general lexical decisions than participants not primed with the elderly. The results also provide evidence for automatic stereotypic trait activation; participants primed with the elderly responded faster to stereotypic than nonstereotypic traits. Moreover, consistent with the view that stereotypes are multicomponential, category priming predicted automatic social behavior in ways independent of mediation-by-trait activation.
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Models postulating 2 distinct processing modes have been proposed in several topic areas within social and cognitive psychology. We advance a new conceptual model of the 2 processing modes. The structural basis of the new model is the idea, supported by psychological and neuropsychological evidence, that humans possess 2 memory systems. One system slowly learns general regularities, whereas the other can quickly form representations of unique or novel events. Associative retrieval or pattern completion in the slow-learning system elicited by a salient cue constitutes the effortless processing mode. The second processing mode is more conscious and effortful; it involves the intentional retrieval of explicit, symbolically represented rulesfrom either memory system and their use to guide processing. After presenting our model, we review existing dual-process models in several areas, emphasizing their similar assumptions of a quick, effortless processing mode that rests on well-learned prior associations and a second, more effortful processing mode that involves rule-based inferences and is employed only when people have both cognitive capacity and motivation. New insights and implications of the model for several topic areas are outlined.
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Current theory and research suggests that stereotyping is inversely related to the allocation of attentional resources. For example, motivational factors (e.g., interdependence, accuracy goals) are argued to increase attentional investment and encourage individuation. Within this model, a neglected feature of the impression formation process is the role of the perceivers’ own self-definition. Based on self-categorization theory, it is argued that whether the salient self-other categorization is defined in interpersonal or group terms, respectively, will determine whether impressions will be more individuated or stereotypic. Two experiments are reported where the effect of interdependence (Experiment 1) and accuracy goals (Experiment 2) as well as the salient comparative context (interpersonal, intergroup) on impression formation were investigated. The results suggest that the nature of self-other categorizations does play a significant role in explaining variability in impression formation.
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Motivation may provoke stereotype use. In a field study of students’ evaluations of university instructors and in a controlled experiment, participants viewed women as less competent than men after receiving negative evaluations from them but not after receiving positive evaluations. As a result, the evaluation of women depended more on the favorability of the feedback they provided than was the case for men. Most likely, this occurred because the motivation of criticized participants to salvage their self-views by disparaging their evaluator led them to use a stereotype that they would otherwise not have used. The stereotype was not used by participants praised by a woman or by participants who observed someone else receive praise or criticism from a woman; all these participants rated the woman just as highly as participants rated a man delivering comparable feedback.
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The present research examines the assertion that individuals differ in the extent to which they seek to control the expression of prejudice. The authors developed the Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions Scale to assess this individual difference. Psychometric properties of the scale are reported, including its stable two-factor structure across samples. In addition, evidence regarding predictive validity is presented. The expression of racial prejudice on self-report measures was moderated by the extent to which respondents reported being motivated to inhibit prejudiced reactions. Specifically, the authors observed interactions between unobtrusive estimates of racial attitudes based on automatic attitude activation and scores on the Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions Scale when predicting self-reported evaluations. Motivated individuals expressed less prejudiced responses even if their unobtrusive estimates revealed automatically activated negativity in response to Blacks. In contrast, the less motivated provided self-reports consistent with their automatically activated attitudes.
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The question of when people rely on stereotypic preconceptions in judging others was investigated in two studies. As a person's motivation or ability to process information systematically is diminished, the person may rely to an increasing extent on stereotypes, when available, as a way of simplifying the task of generating a response. It was hypothesized that circadian variations in arousal levels would be related to social perceivers' propensity to stereotype others by virtue of their effects on motivation and processing capacity. In support of this hypothesis, subjects exhibited stereotypic biases in their judgments to a much greater extent when the judgments were rendered at a nonoptimal time of day (i.e., in the morning for “night people” and in the evening for “morning people”). In Study One, this pattern was found in probability judgments concerning personal characteristics; in Study Two, the pattern was obtained in perceptions of guilt in allegations of student misbehavior. Results generalized over a range of different types of social stereotypes and suggest that biological processes should be considered in attempts to conceptualize the determinants of stereotyping.
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The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study 1, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was predictive of other race-related judgments and behavior. Study 2 concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and Modern Racism Scale (MRS) scores. The reactivity of the MRS was demonstrated in Study 3. Study 4 observed an interaction between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the theoretical and empirical literature that addresses aging and discourse comprehension. A series of five studies guided by a particular working memory viewpoint regarding the formation of inferences during discourse processing is described in the chapter. Compensatory strategies may be used with different degrees of likelihood across the life span largely as a function of efficiency with which inhibitory mechanisms function because these largely determine the facility with which memory can be searched. The consequences for discourse comprehension in particular may be profound because the establishment of a coherent representation of a message hinges on the timely retrieval of information necessary to establish coreference among certain critical ideas. Discourse comprehension is an ideal domain for assessing limited capacity frameworks because most models of discourse processing assume that multiple components, demanding substantially different levels of cognitive resources, are involved. For example, access to a lexical representation from either a visual array or an auditory message is virtually capacity free.
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Previous research has suggested that initial categorization of a target is a rapid, automatic process that occurs relatively independently of attentional and motivational factors. Further processing requires both perceiver interest in the target and sufficient attentional resources. The present study investigated the effects of information-processing goals on the categorization process. With one of three information-processing goals in place-accountability to a third party, estimation of the target's height, or inspection of the videotape's clarity-subjects watched a videotape of a businesswoman. Target categorization was measured usinga lexical decision task. The results demonstrated that whereas subjects in aU conditions categorized the target at a superordinate level (i.e., woman), accountable subjects also categorized the target at a more differentiated subtype level (ie., businesswoman). The authors consider these findings in the context of contemporary models of stereotyping and impression formation.
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Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes.
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assesses what [has been] learned about some of [the] issues [surrounding stereotypes] from social psychological research, and particularly from research guided by a social cognition approach cognitive processes in stereotype formation / stereotypes as cognitive structures / stereotyping and information processing / affect, cognition, and stereotyping / stereotype change (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present research, involving three experiments, examined the existence of implicit attitudes of Whites toward Blacks, investigated the relationship between explicit measures of racial prejudice and implicit measures of racial attitudes, and explored the relationship of explicit and implicit attitudes to race-related responses and behavior. Experiment 1, which used a priming technique, demonstrated implicit negative racial attitudes (i.e., evaluative associations) among Whites that were largely disassociated from explicit, self-reported racial prejudice. Experiment 2 replicated the priming results of Experiment 1 and demonstrated, as hypothesized, that explicit measures predicted deliberative race-related responses (juridic decisions), whereas the implicit measure predicted spontaneous responses (racially primed word completions). Experiment 3 extended these findings to interracial interactions. Self-reported (explicit) racial attitudes primarily predicted the relative evaluations of Black and White interaction partners, whereas the response latency measure of implicit attitude primarily predicted differences in nonverbal behaviors (blinking and visual contact). The relation between these findings and general frameworks of contemporary racial attitudes is considered.
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What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today; that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.
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Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
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Individual differences in the desire for simple structure may influence how people understand, experience, and interact with their worlds. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) scale (M. Thompson, M. Naccarato, & K. Parker, 1989,1992) possesses sufficient reliability and convergent and discriminant validity In Studies 3-5, Ss high in PNS were especially likely to organize social and nonsocial information in less complex ways, stereotype others, and complete their research requirements on time. These data suggest that people differ in their chronic desire for simple structure and that this difference can have important social-cognitive and behavioral implications. A consideration of chronic information-processing motives may facilitate the theoretical integration of social cognition, affect, motivation, and personality
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.
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A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
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This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
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Presents a theory of norms and normality and applies the theory to phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norms are assumed to be constructed ad hoc by recruiting specific representations. Category norms are derived by recruiting exemplars. Specific objects or events generate their own norms by retrieval of similar experiences stored in memory or by construction of counterfactual alternatives. The normality of a stimulus is evaluated by comparing it with the norms that it evokes after the fact, rather than to precomputed expectations. Norm theory is applied in analyses of the enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of the generation of predictions and inferences from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms in causal questions and answers. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Theories of cognition frequently assume the existence of inhibitory mechanisms that deactivate mental representations. Justifying this assumption is difficult because cognitive effects thought to reflect inhibition can often be explained without recourse to inhibitory processes. This article addresses the uncertain status of cognitive inhibitory mechanisms, focusing on their function in memory retrieval. On the basis of a novel form of forgetting reported herein, it is shown that classical associative theories of interference are insufficient as accounts of forgetting and that inhibitory processes must be at work. It is argued that inhibitory processes are used to resolve computational problems of selection common to memory retrieval and selective attention and that retrieval is best regarded as conceptually focused selective attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Self-affirmation processes are being activated by information that threatens the perceived adequacy or integrity of the self and as running their course until this perception is restored through explanation, rationalization, and/or action. The purpose of these constant explanations (and rationalizations) is to maintain a phenomenal experience of the self-self-conceptions and images as adaptively and morally adequate—that is, as competent, good, coherent, unitary, stable, capable of free choice, capable of controlling important outcomes, and so on. The research reported in this chapter focuses on the way people cope with the implications of threat to their self-regard rather than on the way they cope with the threat itself. This chapter analyzes the way coping processes restore self-regard rather than the way they address the provoking threat itself.
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The present article reviews evidence for the malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. In contrast to assumptions that such responses are fixed and ines- capable, it is shown that automatic stereotypes and prejudice are influenced by, (a) self- and social motives, (b) specific strategies, (c) the perceiver's focus of atten- tion, and (d) the configuration of stimulus cues. In addition, group members' indi- vidual characteristics are shown to influence the extent to which (global) stereo- types and prejudice are automatically activated. This evidence has significant implications for conceptions of automaticity, models of stereotyping and prejudice, and attitude representation. The review concludes with the description of an initial model of early social information processing. Given a thimbleful of facts we rush to make general- izations as large as a tub. … Life is short, and the de- mands upon us for practical adjustments so great, that we cannot let our ignorance detain us in our daily transactions. (Allport, 1954, p. 9)
Article
Existing models of impression formation and stereotyping focus on the fit between data and theory, or between individuating and categorical information. This fit is supposed to be determined by cognitive and motivational factors. It is proposed that current perspectives on social judgment can be enriched by going beyond data and theory and adding a third aspect, the social judgeability of the target. First, this new approach is presented in its broad lines. Second, several ways to manipulate judgeability are suggested. Throughout the chapter, we build upon earlier work and provide new empirical evidence. Also, classic experiments are reinterpreted within this new framework which considers stereotypes as social explanations and not as errors or prejudices.
Article
In this article, we review evidence showing that both the activation and the application of stereotypes may be influenced by motivation. When an applicable stereotype supports their desired impression of an individual, motivation can lead people to activate this stereotype, if they have not already activated it spontaneously. Motivation can also lead people to apply this stereotype to individuals to whom they might not have applied it otherwise. On the other hand, when an applicable stereotype casts doubt over their desired impression of an individual! motivation can lead people to inhibit the activation of this stereotype. Even if people are unable to inhibit its activation, motivation may still lead them to inhibit its application to this individual. People pick and choose among the many stereotypes applicable to an individual, activating those that support their desired impression of this individual and inhibiting those that interfere with it.
Article
The chapter presents the two very different basic processes that link attitudes and behavior, along with variants that amount to a mixture of the essentials of each process. Conditions that promote one process or the other also are discussed in the chapter. This discussion of mixed models illustrates the complexity of the role of spontaneous and deliberative processing to understand the manner in which attitudes influence behavior. The basic difference between the two types of models of the attitude-behavior process centers on the extent to which deciding on a particular course of action involves conscious deliberation about a spontaneous reaction to one's perception of the immediate situation. An individual may analyze the costs and benefits of a particular behavior and, in so doing, deliberately reflect on the attitudes relevant to the behavioral decision. These attitudes may serve as one of possibly many dimensions that are considered in arriving at a behavior plan, which may then be enacted.
Article
This article presents a critical review of Social Identity Theory. Its major contributions to the study of intergroup relations are discussed, focusing on its powerful explanations of such phenomena as ingroup bias, responses of subordinate groups to their unequal status position, and intragroup homogeneity and stereotyping. In addition, its stimulative role for theoretical elaborations of the Contact Hypothesis as a strategy for improving intergroup attitudes is noted. Then five issues which have proved problematic for Social Identity Theory are identified: the relationship between group identification and ingroup bias; the self-esteem hypothesis; positive – negative asymmetry in intergroup discrimination; the effects of intergroup similarity; and the choice of identity strategies by low-status groups. In a third section a future research agenda for the theory is sketched out, with five lines of enquiry noted as being particularly promising: expanding the concept of social identity; predicting comparison choice in intergroup settings; incorporating affect into the theory; managing social identities in multicultural settings; and integrating implicit and explicit processes. The article concludes with some remarks on the potential applications of social identity principles. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
We conducted two experiments designed to evaluate the effects of normative influence on reactions to racism. The current problem of racism on college campuses provided the context for these studies. We found that exposure to strongly antiracist normative influence induced the expression of more strongly antiracist opinions, regardless of the number of influencing agents and regardless of whether persons expressed their opinions publicly or privately, than occurred following exposure to normative influence reflecting strong acceptance of racism. Overhearing others voice opinions that reflect strong acceptance of racism led persons to express less strongly antiracist opinions than when no influence was exerted.
Article
A model is presented of how people construct coherent representations of others. It integrates work on knowledge representations with Kintsch's construction-integration model of discourse comprehension and Thagard's model of explanatory coherence. A major claim is that parallel constraint satisfaction processes, fundamental to connectionist modeling, play a major role in the development of coherent representations. Several topics are examined: (a) the role of making goal inferences in trait inferences, (b) how people combine apparently inconsistent traits to arrive at a coherent impression, and (c) how this parallel process model can account for findings that have been given a serial interpretation in Trope's two-stage model of dispositional inference and Gilbert's work on cognitive busyness. It is argued that this model provides a more parsimonious but broader explanation for attributions than alternatives.