Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following stem cell transplantation

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.
Clinical Transplantation (Impact Factor: 1.52). 09/2003; 17(4):338-46. DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-0012.2003.00053.x
Source: PubMed


Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) can occur after stem cell transplantation, but the aetiology is unknown. Based on the association between angiitis syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection, we identified possible risk factors common to these two conditions. Among 83 patients who underwent stem cell transplantation, four developed IIP. We elucidated various parameters and clinical features in four patients with IIP and 79 patients without, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In all four patients, (1) the conditioning regimen induced total body irradiation, (2) serological reactivation of cytomegalovirus and/or human herpesvirus-6 preceded the onset of IIP, (3) their human leucocyte antigen types were among those suspected to increase susceptibility to angiitis syndrome, (4) serum anti-H. pylori antibody was positive before conditioning and remained positive throughout the post-transplantation course, (5) inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, 8 and 12) were increased during the period of leucocyte recovery after transplantation and (6) the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased at the onset of IIP. These findings suggest the possibility that angiitis syndrome and H. pylori infection are involved in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation IIP.

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    • "No compound infectious complication was identified, which might be attributed to prophylactic administration of antimicrobials for HSCT recipients. The detailed pathophysiologies of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (13-17) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (18-21) have not been clarified yet, and the treatment options of these diseases are limited. In general, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage during the pre-engraftment period after HSCT results mainly from idiopathic etiologies and rarely from infections (13-17). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advanced effective prophylaxes, pulmonary complications still occur in a high proportion of all hematopoietic stem cell recipients, accounting for considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to describe the causes, incidences and mortality rates secondary to pulmonary complications and risk factors of such complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We reviewed the medical records of 287 patients who underwent either autologous or allogeneic HSCT for hematologic disorders from February 1996 to October 2003 at Samsung Medical Center (134 autografts, 153 allografts). The timing of pulmonary complications was divided into pre-engraftment, early and late period. The spectrum of pulmonary complications included infectious and non-infectious conditions. 73 of the 287 patients (25.4%) developed pulmonary complications. Among these patients, 40 (54.8%) and 29 (39.7%) had infectious and non-infectious conditions, respectively. The overall mortality rate from pulmonary complications was 28.8%. Allogeneic transplant, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and extensive chronic GVHD were the risk factors with statistical significance for pulmonary complications after HSCT. The mortality rates from pulmonary complications following HSCT were high, especially those of viral and fungal pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the impact of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral mucosa by nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR). Forty six consecutive patients submitted to HSCT and 46 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Oral swabs were taken from the oral mucosa of the patients and control group. The medical records of the patients were reviewed and the following information was retrieved: gender and age of the patient, donor gender, primary disease, stem cell source (bone marrow or blood stem cells), leukocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts, and chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) of salivary glands. The results demonstrated an increased frequency of H. pylori in the oral mucosa of HSCT patients compared to controls (rho = 0.002). The presence of H. pylori in the oral mucosa was not related to the severity of cGVHD. The median counts of platelet/mm3, leukocytes/mm3 and neutrophils/mm3 in the group of HSCT patients positive for H. pylori were not statistically different from those of the patients negative for it. In conclusion, the present study shows increased frequency of H. pylori in the oral mucosa of HSCT patients compared to non-transplanted healthy volunteers.
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