Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis L

ArticleinPhytotherapy Research 17(7):733-6 · August 2003with 407 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1197 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. (Lauraceae) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. The essential oil exhibited: (1) a significant analgesic effect in tail-flick and formalin tests; (2) a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in the formalin-induced edema and (3) a moderate sedative effect at the anti-inflammatory doses. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil was comparable to reference analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs: morphine and piroxicam. Present results make the essential oil worthy of further investigations.

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  • ... In particular, thanks to its volatile compounds in dried leaves, they are used in meat, soup, candy and sauce making as a flavoring [4][5][6][7]. Bay leaves and volatile oils of leaves have an effects of antiepileptic, anticonvulsive [8][9][10], antimicrobial [10], antibacterial [11,12]. ...
    ... The antimicrobial effect is due to the presence of compounds such as 1,8-cineole, camphor, myrcene, β-caryophyllene, eugenol, α-pinene, β-pinene and p-cymene in the content of volatile oil in bay leaf [2,14]. Apart from beneficial properties, there have lots of unique properties of bay leaf volatile oil, such as having thermal stability, does not showing phototoxic effect, positive effects against migraine, headache, high blood sugar, bacterial and fungal infections [9,15]. Leaf volatile oil is advised to use as a mucolytic agent (antipyretic) in advanced asthmatic disorders, upper and lower respiratory tract disorders since it has a 1,8cineole (volatile compound) in it. ...
    Article
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    Laurus nobilis L. is one of the most valuable non-wood forest products on world export market and Turkey. Turkey is the biggest provider country for Laurus nobilis in the world. Therefore, laurel is an important commercial product for our country. In this study, the effects of cultivation area and altitude variation on essential oil content and quantity of laurel leaves were examined which grown in Trabzon, Bartın and Samsun. It was aimed to determine chemical composition of laurel’s leaves grown in Karadeniz region. Laurus nobilis L. leaves were collected in three different height ranges. These were 0-100 m, 100-300 m, 300-600 m. Leaves were shade-dried and crushed. A device called ‘’Clevenger’’ was used for getting volatile oil and their yields were calculated according to dry weight. The yields of essential oils ranged between 0.91% to 1.66 %. These essential oils were obtained from Bartin (B2) (100-300 m) and Artvin (A1) (0-100 m) respectively. The major components of these essential oils were 1,8- cineole (19.71%-35.63%), α-terpinyl acetate (12.86%-21.24%), sabinene (5.98%-9.40%), α- pinene (3.67%-8.45%) and β- pinene (2.91%-5.87%) were the most abundant volatile compounds in the leaves of bay.
  • ... Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae), one of the main sources of plant volatile oils, is an evergreen shrub that can grow up to 8 meters tall. It has dark green leaves about 8-14 cm long and 3-4 cm wide [12,13]. ...
    ... The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of L. nobilis still maintains the importance in both traditional and modern medicine with its pharmacological activities. Studies have shown that L. nobilis volatile oil has antioxidant [15], anticonvulsant [16], analgesic, antiinflammatory [13], antiviral [17], anticholinergic [18], antibacterial [19] and antifungal activities [20]. L. nobilis, which is a powerful medicinal and aromatic plant with these pharmacological properties, has been reported in cosmetic uses. ...
    Article
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    In this study, the components of the volatile oil obtained from Laurus nobilis leaves by steam distillation were determined using Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatography (GC) - 5975 Mass Spectrometry (MS). The antioxidant activities of different extracts of L. nobilis leaves were determined by using DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay and ABTS•+(2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical decolorization assay. Determination of the total phenolic contents of L. nobilis leaf extracts were performed using the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure and total flavonoid contents were measured using a spectrophotometric assay. According to the GC/MS results, 1,8-cineole (46.16%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (10.62%), alpha-pinene (6.27%), terpinen-4-ol (5.07%) and sabinene (4.99%) were found to be the major compounds in volatile oil. The obtained volatile oil was used to make skin care lotion. Stability tests and organoleptic analyses of final product were performed after 1, 5, 30 and 90 days of production. The highest amounts of total flavonoid content were found to be 5.48 ± 0.65 and 8.60 ± 0.12 μg QEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. The highest amounts of total phenolic compounds were found to be 54.42 ± 0.14 and 25.32 ± 0.10 μg PEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. According to the results of ABTS•+, DPPH•and β-carotene linoleic acid assays, ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most active extract (24.98±0.87 μg mL-1, 75.65±0.77 μg mL-1 and 19.32±1.04 μg mL-1)
  • ... The method described by Swinyard and Kufferberg, (1985) as modified by Sayyah et al., (2002) was used in the study. Sixty day old white cockerels were randomly divided into six groups each containing 10 chicks. ...
    ... used throughout the study. The same procedure was carried out for NB and EA fractions at the same dose levels. Seizures were manifested as tonic hind limb extension (THLE) (Swinyard, 1969). The ability to prevent this feature or prolong the latency and/ or onset of the THLE was considered as an indication of anticonvulsant activity (Swinyard, 1969;Sayyah et. al., 2002). ...
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    Aim of the study: To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of root bark extract of Carissa edulis. Materials and methods: The median lethal dose (LD50) of Carissa edulis extract was determined using Lork’s method (1983). The anticonvulsant activity of the extractwas assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced convulsion in mice and maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, with benzodiazepine and phenytoin as standard drugs, respectively. While mechanistic studieswere conducted using both flumazenil, aGABAA-benzodiazepine receptorcomplex site antagonist and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. Results: The median lethal dose (LD50) of Carissa edulis was 282.8 mg/kg and over 5000 mg/kg following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively. Carissa edulis produced 40% and 20% protection against convulsion at 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, compared with 100% protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in Carissa edulis extract-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil and naloxone. Carissa edulis exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the convulsion induced by MEST with 20 mg/kg providing 90% protection while phenytoin (20 mg/kg) produced 100% protection. Conclusion: These results suggest that Carissa edulis possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.
  • ... 140 The antinociceptive effect of the EO of leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), an evergreen and widely distributed plant in the Mediterranean area and Europe, was evaluated. 233 Folk remedies in different countries use this plant to treat numerous diseases. In Iranian traditional medicine, the leaves have been used topically for relieving rheumatic pains. ...
    ... However, above this dose some deaths were observed. 233 Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), commonly known in Iran as "Ostokhoddous", is a widely distributed aromatic herb. ...
    Article
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    Plants and essential oils (EOs) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diverse disorders, including analgesic to pain relief. In this context, the antinociceptive activity of EOs has been attracted attention since the management of pain continues being a major challenge for medicine. This review provides an overview of published reports on the antinociceptive activity of EOs and their constituents from 2000 until the first half of 2015. In this review are compiled the data on the antinociceptive activity of 63 EOs and 26 of their constituents with a discussion about the nociception model used to access the analgesic effect. These data were also analyzed in relation to ethnopharmacological and toxicological data available in the literature. As can be seen by the analysis of more than 300 articles, EOs and their constituents show antinociceptive effects in different models and their action mechanism is quite variable. Although there are a few essential oils or their isolated constituents on the phytopharmaceuticals market, this review intends to put in evidence the often-underexploited vast source of natural compounds with therapeutic potential in pain relief.
  • ... In relation to the qualitative aspects and value added to the final product, it is important to understand of the volatile oil extraction kinetics, especially the major and intermediate compounds that contribute to the sensory and pharmacological properties (Sayyah et al. 2003;Fernandes et al. 2007;Passos et al. 2007). In this respect, we observed that monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes presented antagonistic extraction kinetics, as has been reported for others species Cavalcanti et al. 2015). ...
    Article
    Volatile oils have great economic importance, mainly in the flavor and fragrance sectors, regarding their utility and application in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, volatile oils extracted by hydrodistillation from dried leaves of Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, and Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae, including their chemical composition and extraction kinetics, were evaluated. β-Caryophyllene (15.2%), β-sinensal (7.9%), (Z)-α-trans-bergamotol (7%), α-humulene (5.6%), and β-bisabolene (5.5%) were V. curassavica volatile oil’s major components, while eucalyptol (19.2%), linalool (18.4%), and α-terpineol acetate (13.5%) were the major components of L. nobilis. The kinetics of volatile oil extraction showed a hyperbolic distribution for the two species: the contents of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes extracted from V. curassavica, in the time frame analyzed, showed exponential decline followed by growth, respectively, while the content of these volatiles from L. nobilis showed an individual decrease and linear increase. Monoterpene extraction was faster than sesquiterpene extraction, but both processes presented hyperbolic distributions. Extraction kinetics for eucalyptol, linalool, α-terpineol, α-humulene, and β-caryophyllene and other compounds can be found in this analytical study. Graphical abstract
  • ... The antinociceptive effect of EOGT may be related to the presence of a number of constituents such as eugenol, p-cyme, βcaryophyllene, and estragole in the essential oil extract. For example eugenol the major essential oil of Gundelia tournefortii (9.5 %) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anaesthetic and muscle relaxant properties [25]. Previous study showed that eugenol exhibits antinociceptive effects through different mechanisms that may involve both central and peripheral pathway, One of these mechanisms, is via blockade of calcium channels and vanilloid receptor modulation [26]. ...
    Article
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    Purpose: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Gundelia. tournefortii (EOGT) in various experimental models Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of Gundelia tournefortii was extracted using steam distillation method median lethal dose (LD50) of EOGT was evaluated using the method of Lorke. Antinociceptive effect of EOGT in rats was carried out using chemical (formalin and acetic acid) and thermal (hot-plate) nociceptive tests at doses of 10, 31.6, 100, 316 and 1000 mg/kg. The possible mechanism of action of EOGT was also examined. Results: In acute toxicity test, LD50 for EOGT was 2500 mg/kg. EOGT at test doses (10, 31.6, 100, 316 and 1000 mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced pain response in all tests in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Glibenclamide (potassium channel sensitive to ATP antagonist) and yoimbina (α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist), partially antagonized the antinociceptive activity induced by EOGT. However, naloxone (opioid antagonist) and L-NAME (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) did not reverse the antinociception produced by EOGT. Conclusion: Essential oil from the aerial parts of G. tournefortii shows significant antinociceptive activity, which appeared to involve the participation of K⁺ channels sensitive to ATP and adrenergic receptors. These findings justify in part the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of various painful conditions. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.
  • ... Similarly, Asid and co-workers stated that Citrullus colocynthis extracts exhibit potential efficacy against all stages of M. domestica at 50% concentration (Asid et al., 2015). Previously, many authors have reported the antibacterial (Evrendilek, 2015), antifungal (Gumus et al., 2010), antioxidant (Inan et al., 2012), analgesic and antiinflammatory properties (Sayyah et al., 2003), apart from some acaricidal (Senfi et al., 2014), larvicidal (Pavela, 2008), and insecticidal (Sertkaya et al., 2010) activities by laurel EO. In order to ascertain the potential of bioactive compounds present in the bay EO, we used the GC-MS analysis that revealed dominance of eugenol and phenolic content which was in congruence with previous reports that have stated the chemical composition of the EO from the leaves of L. nobilis (Senfi et al., 2014;Sertkaya et al., 2010). ...
    Article
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    Abstract Background The synanthropic housefly, Musca domestica, augments the transmission of several detrimental diseases like cholera and avian flu. Consequently, during the last century, many physico-chemical methods including synthetic compounds have been applied for its control. But these methods have proven to be prohibitive due to their side effects and serious issues like resistance development, environmental contamination, and detrimental effects on non-target fauna. Therefore, in view of these objectives, we investigated the effects of bay essential oil (EO) against M. domestica. Methods The attractant/repellent assays were conducted by double choice technique. Different enzyme assays evaluating the effect of LC50 concentration of the tested essential oil on larval gut were taken into consideration. To determine the composition, the tested oil was subjected to GC-MS/MS analysis. Further, the morphological alterations caused by EO treatment to third instar larvae were observed in a Nova Nano SEM machine. Data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA using Tukey’s test (p < 0.001). The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated by probit analysis. Results The adulticidal bioassay revealed significant effects with LC50 concentration as 43.03 mg/dm3 against the newly emerged adult flies while in larvicidal assay mortality was dose dependent showing maximum effect at LC50 0.0629 μg/cm2. The pupicidal activity was more effective at a dose of LD50 64.09 μl/0.25 L of air which either killed the pupae or caused deformity in the emerged adults. Likewise total sugar, protein, glycogen, and lipid contents of larvae were reduced after treatment with EO when compared with the normal larvae along with some gut enzymes. The EO reduced the acetylcholinesterase activity from 0.013 U/mg protein in normal larvae to 0.0093 U/mg protein after EO treatment. The GC-MS/MS analysis of the bay EO showed the abundance of myrcene, linalool, eugenol, chavicol, and anethole along with diterpenoid, geranylgeraniol. However, the insecticidal activity of tested EO might be majorly imparted by eugenol content. The FESEM analysis showed shrinkage of integument and distortion to intersegmental regions caused by the tested compound. Conclusion The present study concludes the significant efficacy of bay EO against M. domestica which could be employed to breakdown its population below threshold levels to prevent the menace of vector-borne diseases.
  • ... Large amounts of phytoactive agents are found in EO among which is terpenes. The EO are widely studied, and their antibacterial (Angelini et al., 2006), antifungal (Gumus et al., 2010), antioxidant (Inan et al., 2012), insecticidal (Sertkaya et al., 2010), antiproliferative (Abu-Dahab et al., 2014), analgesic, and antiinflammatory properties (Sayyah et al., 2003) reported. ...
    Article
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    Laurus nobilis L., popularly known as laurel, is a tree belonging to the Lauraceae family, native to Asia. It has long been used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatic disorders, and as a gastric stimulant. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils (EO) and fractions from laurel by column chromatography, and to evaluate their antifungal activity. The EO of L. nobilis leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation, and separated by column chromatography. Thirty-two EO constituents were identified, with 1,8-cineole and linalool comprising 40.14 and 15.69% of the total yield, respectively. The major constituents of the fractions (FR) were: α-terpinyl acetate (FR1: 52.65%), 1,8-cineole (FR2: 76.88%), 1,8-cineole (FR3: 84.24%), linalool (FR4: 67.26%), and linalool (FR5: 90.64%). Antifungal activity of EO and fractions were tested by a broth microdilution method, whereby minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against several fungal organisms (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). EO showed moderate inhibition of C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL), and strongly inhibited of C. gattii (MIC 0.31 mg/mL). FR3 moderately inhibited C. neoformans (0.62 mg/mL), and strongly inhibited C. gattii (MIC 0.31 mg/mL). FR5 moderately inhibited strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL). Laurel ́s EO and the fractions analyzed in this study were confirmed to have antifungal properties. However, further studies on toxicity of these substances and in vivo experiments are necessary to confirm the results presented herein.
  • ... Essential oil up to dose of 0.1 mL/kg had no anticonvulsant activity against PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures. By adopting a similar experimental protocol, the same authors have demonstrated analogous effects of EO from Pimpinella anisum L. (Umbelliferae) fruits [174], and Sayyah et al. [175] have described the same activity by testing the essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) leaves. In all of these studies, the anticonvulsant activity observed may be related mainly to eugenol, estragole, and carvacrol, present in the plants [176], and previously described [177]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.
  • ... Bay leaf traditionally has been used as herbal medicine to treat rheumatism, ear-aches, indigestion, sprains and to promote perspiration [4]. Scientific reports have revealed the antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory [5], and woundhealing [6] activities of this plant. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose: To evaluate the biological properties of polyphenol extracts of three spices–Laurus nobilis (bay), Murayya koenigii (curry) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) from Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: Acetone extracts of these spices were subjected to bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose antiglycation, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Brine-shrimp lethality and phytotoxicity tests were also performed on the extracts (10–1000 μg/mL). Results: The extract of T. vulgaris had the highest antiglycation effect with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.02 mg/mL, as well as antioxidant potential with IC50 of 0.10 and 0.06 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays, respectively (p < 0.05). On the other hand, all the extracts exhibited weak cytotoxicity with 50% lethal dose (LD50) ranging from 1000–2000 μg/mL, and for phytotoxicity, LD50 ranged from 640–1640 μg/mL). Conclusion: Acetone extracts of bay, curry and thyme displayed good antiglycation as well as antioxidant potential and are safe for consumption. However, of all the spices, thyme exhibited the best activity as an antioxidant and antiglycation agent. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.
  • ... Dry fruits and dry leaves are used for adding fragrance to food and consumed as tea, respectively (Baytop [6]). The antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, acetylcholine esterase inhibiting properties of the L. nobilis L. essential oil have been reported (Sayyah et al., [7], Ferreira et al., [8], Soylu et al., [9], and Loizzo et al., [10]). ...
  • ... Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is used as a pain killer. Sayyah et al. (2003) reported that essential oil from Laurus nobilis leaves exhibited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. ...
  • ... The plant grows in Uttarakhand, India at an altitude of 1800-3000 m and has no traditional or commercial use. Senecio rufinervis is an aromatic plant containing essential oil which is produced by many plants and confirms analgesic and antiinflammatory activities [146][147][148][149][150][151]. It was studied the antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from the dried leaves of Senecio rufinervis (25, 50 and 75 mg/Kg, i.p.) in mice subjected to the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests [46]. ...
    Article
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    Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.
  • ... Laurus nobilis L., commonly known as bay (Lauraceae family) is one of the oldest known spices, widely used as a condiment and spice. Bay leaves are often used as a folk remedies and credited with a long list of medicinal uses, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-asthmatic, anti-arthritic and analgesic, among others (Sayyah et al., 2003;Kaileh et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2013). Most of these effects can be related to its high amount of essential oils and phenolic compounds (Santoyo et al., 2006). ...
  • ... De acordo com McGUFFIN et al. (1997), as folhas podem ser utilizadas com segurança, não tendo sido relatados risco no consumo ou restrições ao uso, embora efeitos citotóxicos tenham sido verificados no extrato hexânico testado em animais (KIVÇAK, MERT, 2002). Adicionalmente, atividades analgésica, antiinflamatória (SAYYAH et al., 2003) (CHIEJ, 1983;SKIDMORE-ROTH, 2004;MARINO et al., 2005). ...
    Article
    Commonly named bay or bay laurel, Laurus nobilis L. is a tree with smooth caulinar surface, many branches and leaves, yellow inflorescences and dark spherical fruits. The leaves are scented and used as spice in culinary and as digestive, carminative and antispasmodic in folk medicine. Phytochemical essays have identified various components of the essential oil, mucilage, sesquiterpene lactones, tannins and alkaloids. Owing to its relevance in culinary and phytotherapy, and the lack of morpho-anatomical information for quality control analysis, this work has dealt with leaf macro and microscopic characters of this species. Adult leaves were fixed, freehand sectioned and either stained or prepared according to usual microchemical tests. The leaves are alternate, simple, entire and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermal cells are sinuous and coated with a moderately thick cuticle. Paracytic stomata occur on the abaxial side and some unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and minor vascular bundles with sclerenchymatic sheath extension are embedded in the chlorenchyma. The midrib has biconvex cross-section and the petiole is plain-convex. Both are traversed by a collateral vascular bundle, enclosed in an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath. Secretory cells, spherical and relatively large, are found in the leaf.
  • ... Nevertheless, the primary class of substances with analgesic effects is the opiate narcotics based on the morphine molecule, but which have minimal abuse potential. Several essential oils have proved to have interesting analgesic power [38][39][40]. ...
    Article
    The use of essential oils as industrial food additives is notorious, like their medicinal properties. However, their use in household food spicing is for now limited. In this work, we have made a review to reveal the nutrigenomic actions exerted by their bioactive components, to promote awareness of their modulating gene expression ability and the potential that this implies. Also considered is how essential oils can be used as flavoring and seasoning after cooking and before consumption, such as diet components which can improve human health. Genetic mechanisms involved in the medicinal properties of essential oils for food use are identified from literature. These genetic mechanisms reveal nutrigenomic actions. Reviews on the medicinal properties of essential oils have been particularly considered. A wide diversity of nutrigenomic effects from essential oils useful potentially for food spicing is reviewed. General ideas are discussed about essential oils and their properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, bone-reparation, anti-depressant and mitigatory for Alzheimer's disease. The essential oils for food use are potentially promoting health agents, and, therefore, worth using as flavoring and condiments. Becoming aware of the modulating gene expression actions from essential oils is important for understanding their potential for use in household dishes as spices to improve health.
  • ... Formaldehyde 2.5% v/v was used as inflammogen (Sayya et al., 2003). Rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. ...
    Article
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    The methanolic extract of the rhizome of Stylochiton lancifolius (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain and formalin-induced-inflammation. The methanol extract exhibited significant (P<0.001) inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and a significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw licking time of the second phase of formalin-induced pain in rats. The methanol extract also produced a significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory effect in formalin-induced inflammation which is comparable to that of the reference drug Piroxicam (10 mg/kg), which is a standard analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The intraperitoneal (i.p) median lethal dose (LD 50) of the methanol extract of S. lancifolius was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg in mice. The result obtained from this study showed that the methanol extract of S. lancifolius possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and supports the ethnomedical claim of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.
  • ... 14,15 The antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, acetylcholine esterase inhibiting properties of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. have been reported. 15,16 There are four reports on the essential oil content and composition of Origanum vulgare L, spp. hirtum of Turkish origin. ...
    Article
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    Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare pharmaceutical formulations of mouthwashes and to examine the antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from plants used traditionally in Turkey for oral infections. Materials and Methods: Essential oils were obtained from herbal drugs using water distillation with Clevenger apparatus. The antimicrobial capacities of mouthwash formulations containing a mixture of essential oils with proportions of 4.5% and 9.0% were examined using disc diffusion and microbroth dilutions. Results: The inhibition zone diameters were determined to vary between 7 and 59 mm. The static and cidal activity was generally 50% and greater than 50% when pure essential oil samples were applied on microorganism specimens. Formulation F2, which contained a mixture of essential oils with proportions of 4.5%, showed 6.25% minimum bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 3.125% the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration on all other microorganisms. The antimicrobial effect of pure essential oil samples applied on microorganisms was lower than of mouthwashes formulations; the antimicrobial effect of F2, which contained a mixture of essential oils with proportions of 4.5% was higher than formulation F1, which contained a mixture of essential oils with proportions of 9%. Conclusion: The results obtained by these methods allow us to conclude that the essential oils and the prepared F1 and F2 mouthwash formulations exerted activity against microorganisms affecting the oral cavity. The F2 formulation also had significant antimicrobial activity on the tested microorganisms.
  • ... At the other hand, cineol, eugenol and methyl eugenol produced sedation and motor impairment (Sayyah, et al., 2002). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of laurel leaves essential oil are known, too (Sayyah, et al., 2003). ...
    Article
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    The chemical composition of laurel leaves and fruits essential oils (content of 0.917 and 0.747%, respectively) and laurel leaves extracts obtained at different pressures/temperatures by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were studied by GC-MS. The predominant compound in the essential oils and in CO 2 extracts obtained at pressures/temperatures of 100 bar/40°C and 250 bar/40°C was 1,8-cineole, but at 100 bar/60°C, α−terpineol acetate was dominant. The extraction yield of SFE increases from 0.68 to 2.54% by increasing the density of CO 2 (from 0.29 to 0.88 g/mL). INTRODUCTION Laurel is a small perennial tree native to Asia Minor and the Balkans. A bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) belongs to the family Lauraceae, and is one of the most widely used culinary spices in a any countries. Traditionally has been used as herbal medicine to treat rheumatism, earaches, indigestion, sprains, and to promote perspiration. Also, can be used in treating diabetes and preventing migraine. Bay leaf essential oil is one of main products from bay trees that are used in food, spice, flavoring and cosmetic industries (Sari, et al., 2006; Fang, et al., 2005). The essential oil from the leaves (0.8 to 3%) contains mostly 1,8-cineol (up to 50%), also eugenol, acetyl and methyl eugenol, α-and β-pinene, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol and terpineol. The dried laurel fruits contain 0.6 to 10% of essential oil. The aroma of this essential oil is mostly due to terpenes (cineol, terpineol, α-and β-pinene, citral), but also cinnamic acid and its methyl ester. The potential role of laurel essential oil as an antimicrobial agent was investigated, too (Atanda, et al., 2007; Ozcan and Erkmen, 2001; Smith-Palmer, et al., 2001). Components of laurel essential oil responsible for anticonvulsant activity are methyl eugenol, egenol and pinene. At the other hand, cineol, eugenol and methyl eugenol produced sedation and motor impairment (Sayyah, et al., 2002).
  • ... In the current study, C.aromaticum essential oil showed significant lipoxygenase inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 63.62 ± 1.26 μg/ml (IC 50 for indomethacin: 18.05 ± 0.95 μg/ml) (Fig. 1). Sabinene, the major compound in C.aromaticum essential oil, has been reported to has anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation patterns in previous studies 39 . Therefore, major terpenes (Sabinene, terpinolene and γ-terpinene) present in the essential oil, especially sabinene, may be responsible for this activity. ...
    Article
    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Antioxidant activity was tested by DPPH method. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using microdilution method against seven bacteria and one fungus. The yield of light yellow-coloured essential oil was 1.1%. Eighteen compounds were identified in oil of the aerial parts representing 99.2% of the C. aromaticum oil. Sabinene (28.1%), terpinolene (16.7%) and γ-terpinene (16.1%) were characterized as the main compounds. The oil exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 63.62±1.26 μg/ml. The oil at a concentration of 20 mg/mL inhibited DPPH radical by 2.06%. The oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC: 156 μg/ml) and S.epidermidis ATCC 12228 (MIC: 625 μg/ml). The results showed that C. aromaticum essential oil was rich in monoterpene compounds and had moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains as well as having significant anti-inflammatory activity.
  • ... It is stated that bay leaf has antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) and antifungal benefits (Simic et al., 2004;Sayyah et al., 2002;Sayyah et al., 2003;Rodilla et al., 2008). The bay leaves contain essential oil. ...
  • ... Laurusnobilis belongs to the family Lauraceae, which is native to the southern Mediterranean region and cultivated mainly in Europe and the USA (Fiorini et al., 1997,s.91).This plant is usually cultivated as ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant (Caputo et al., 2017, s.930). Laurel (Laurusnobilis) is an evergreen tree cultivated in many warm regions of the world, particularly in the Mediterranean countries (Longo and Vasapollo, 2005, s.8063;Derwich et al., 2009Derwich et al., , s.3818, Ünal et al. 2016.Laurusnobilisis one of the most useful and valuable natural products essential oil (Chahal et al., 2017(Chahal et al., , s.1153.Laurel is natural floristic elements of Turkey and widely used in industrial area such as medicine, perfumery, food flavoring, pharmacefoods, cosmetics, aromatherapy, phytotherapy, spices, nutrition and sources of aroma chemicals (Zeković et al. 2009;Buchbauer, 2000).The leaves and essential oil of this plant have antibacterial, antimicrobial,antifungal, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antiperspirant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, acaricidal and antiproliferativeactivities (Dadalioglu and Evrendilek, 2004;Chahal et al., 2017;Derwich et al., 2009;Caputo et al., 2017;Al-Kalaldeh et al., 2010;Sayyah et al., 2003;Simić et al., 2003). There are many studies about all of these properties of this plant and its essential oil.Also have been used for stomach discomfort relieving, diabetic treating, migraine prevention, fatigue, indigestion, menstrual irregularities, insect repellent and to treat epilepsy, neuralgia and Parkinsonism.The another area of usage of this plant is as characterization of bio-oil and bio-char and works showed that the bio-oil obtained from laurel extraction residues could be an important liquid fuel source and chemical feedstocks (Ertaş and Alma, 2010). ...
    Article
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    Laurusnobilis belongs to the family Lauraceae, which is native to the southern Mediterranean region and cultivated mainly in Europe and the USA. This plant is usually cultivated as ornamental plant and as a medicinal plant. This plant, which is one of Turkey’s natural floristic elements,has a wide range of usage area such as medical, food industry, perfumery etc. One of the most useful and valuable natural yields of this plant is its essential oil. After extracting essential by steam distillation, pulp of this plant can be evaluated in natural dyeing. Silk and cotton fabric samples were dyed with dry and pulp of Laurusnobilis.Mordant dyeing method was applied and two different mordant materials were applied with pre-mordant process.Alum [Kal(SO4)2.12H2O] and ferrous sulphate(FeSO4.7H2O) were used as a mordant. Rubbing (dry and wet) and washing fastness values were determined.Also the depths of shade were evaluated in terms of K/S and CIELAB colour difference values of the dyed fabric samples.
  • ... L. nobilis essential oil showed analgesic and antiinflammatory activities in mice and rats (Sayyah et al., 2003). Ethanol extract obtained from the leaves and seeds of bay leaf also show the highest antiinflamatory activities by using a carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model ( Kozan et al., 2006). ...
  • ... has been cultivated in the Southern Mediterranean sea region and in Europe, as a vegetable and a traditional medicine [12]. L. nobilis has been reported to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, anticonvulsant, and antifungal actions [13][14][15]. The dried leaves are widely used as a natural remedy to treat arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, and inflammation [16][17][18]. ...
    Article
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    Acne is an inflammatory skin disorder in puberty with symptoms including papules, folliculitis, and nodules. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the main anaerobic bacteria that cause acne. It is known to proliferate within sebum-blocked skin hair follicles. P. acnes activates monocytic cell immune responses to induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the anti-inflammatory function of the Laurus nobilis (L. nobilis) extract (LNE) on several immunological disorders have been reported, the effect of LNE in P. acnes-mediated skin inflammation has not yet been explored. In the present study, we examined the ability of the LNE to modulate the P. acnes-induced inflammatory signaling pathway, and evaluated its mechanism. LNE significantly suppressed the expression of P. acnes-mediated proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and NLRP3. We also found that LNE inhibited the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in response to P. acnes. In addition, eucalyptol, which is the main constituent of LNE, consistently inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammatory signaling pathways. Moreover, LNE significantly ameliorated P. acnes-induced inflammation in a mouse model of acne. We suggest for the first time that LNE hold therapeutic value for the improvement of P. acnes-induced skin inflammation.
  • ... In our previous work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of L. nobilis and the antioxidant activity of the extract and silver nanoparticles were evaluated. In the other reports, different pharmaceutical properties were evaluated for the plant extract (27)(28)(29)(30). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Green synthesis of nanoparticles by biological systems especially plant extracts has become an emerging field in nanotechnology. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Laurus nobilis L. leaves aqueous extract and two different zinc salts (zinc acetate and zinc nitrate) as precursors. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). UV–Vis spectra showed typical absorption peaks in around 350 nm due to their large excitation binding energy at room temperature. Chemical bond formations of zinc oxide were confirmed by FT-IR analyses. XRD results revealed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure, and SEM analyses showed spherical shape with the average size (21.49, 25.26) nm for the synthesized nanoparticles by zinc acetate and zinc nitrate respectively. EDX analyses confirmed high purity for the synthesized nanoparticles.
  • ... ( Simic et al. 2003), gastro protective (Afifi et al.1997), antibacterial, antifungal (Erturk 2006), analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (Sayyah et al. 2003, Isbilir et al. 2008. Since Turkey is one of the main producers and suppliers of the plant, it is important to provide the good quality of laurel products, in which essential oils constitute a big portion. ...
    Article
    In the present study, chemical compositions of essential oils from seeds and leaves of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) were evaluated using GC-GC/MS system. Sixty nine different compounds were identified constituting 86.7% of the total oil from the seed, while 76 compounds were determined, constituting 95.8% of the total oil extracted from the leaves. The major compounds of essential oil from laurel seeds included eucalyptol (17.2%), α-terpinyl acetate (9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (6.1%), spathulenol (5.0%) and methyl eugenol (4.2%), constituting 41.5% of the total oil. However, eucalyptol (18.0%), α-terpinyl acetate (13.1%), sabinene (7.8%), α-pinene (4.5%), 2 (4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-1-pyrroline (4.4%) were identified as the major compounds in the oil from laurel leaves, constituting 47.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol and α-terpinyl acetate, belonging to monoterpenoids, were determined in the highest concentrations within both oils. However, the other principle compounds differ between the two volatile oils.
  • ... Recently it is used in treating diabetes and preventing migraine (Duke 1997, Patrakar et al. 2012). In addition, recent studies of laurel seeds and leaves extracts have been carried out for antioxidant, antiepileptic (Simic et al. 2003), gastro protective (Afifi et al.1997), antibacterial, antifungal (Erturk 2006), analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (Sayyah et al. 2003, Isbilir et al. 2008. Since Turkey is one of the main producers and suppliers of the plant, it is important to provide the good quality of laurel products, in which essential oils constitute a big portion. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In the present study, chemical compositions of essential oils from seeds and leaves of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) were evaluated using GC-GC/MS system. Sixty nine different compounds were identified constituting 86.7% of the total oil from the seed, while 76 compounds were determined, constituting 95.8% of the total oil extracted from the leaves. The major compounds of essential oil from laurel seeds included eucalyptol (17.2%), α-terpinyl acetate (9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (6.1%), spathulenol (5.0%) and methyl eugenol (4.2%), constituting 41.5% of the total oil. However, eucalyptol (18.0%), α-terpinyl acetate (13.1%), sabinene (7.8%), α-pinene (4.5%), 2 (4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-1-pyrroline (4.4%) were identified as the major compounds in the oil from laurel leaves, constituting 47.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol and α-terpinyl acetate, belonging to monoterpenoids, were determined in the highest concentrations within both oils. However, the other principle compounds differ between the two volatile oils.
  • ... [4] The major phytoconstituents present in the L. nobilis leaves and fruits contain sesquiterpene lactones, [5] alkaloids, [6] glycosylated flavonoids, [7] monoterpene, and germacrane alcohols. [8,9] L. nobilis has been reported for its antioxidant, [10] wound healing, [11] neuroprotective, [12] antiulcerogenic, [13] anticonvulsant, [14] analgesic, [15] anti-inflammatory, [16] antimutagenic, [17] immunostimulant, [18] antiviral, [19] antibacterial, [20] and antifungal activities. [21] In the present study, we have developed a simple, optimized, and validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for quantitative determinations of costunolide in the leaves of L. nobilis. ...
    Article
    Objective: To establish a method to determine the content of costunolide in Laurus nobilis leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: The separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column (100 Å, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm pore size) using a mobile phase composed of water:acetonitrile (40:60) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out on a ultraviolet detector at 210 nm. The developed method was validated according to the requirements for International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Results: The proposed method for costunolide was validated for linearity with excellent correlation coefficient (r² > 0.999). The relative standard deviation (RSD) is less than 1% in precision (i.e repeatability and intermediate) of the method. The recovery rate for costunolide was within 100.54%-102.62%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 2.29 and 6.64 parts per million, respectively. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method is simple, rapid, precisely, accurately, and widely accepted and it is recommended for efficient assays in routine work. © 2018 Pharmacognosy Research Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
  • ... 14 La presencia de estos dos monoterpenos también podría influir en su uso como analgésico, pues estos componentes se destacan por su efecto. 15 Las recientes evaluaciones de la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas de R. thyrsoidea muestran diferencias tanto en el tipo como en la abundancia de moléculas, en el aceite esencial de las hojas hay presencia mayoritaria de terpinoleno 26,32 %, α-felandreno (17,16 %), α-terpineno 6,55 %, β-pineno 5,97 % y p-cimol 4,70 %. 16 Los valores de la IC 50 , capacidad de inhibir en un 50 % la concentración de los radicales libres presentes, son los datos de referencia para atribuirle propiedades antioxidantes al aceite esencial, el referente natural de esta actividad es el aceite esencial de T. vulgaris cuyos componentes, timol y carvacrol, son ampliamente conocidos por esta propiedad. 17,18 La evaluación de la capacidad captadora de radicales libres del aceite esencial de los rizomas de R. thyrsoidea es moderada al compararla con el patrón natural de referencia, el aceite de T. vulgaris, y con el BHA, lo que se confirma estadísticamente. ...
    Article
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    ABSTRACT Introduction: Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pav) Poepp. & Eddl., commonly known as shiwanku muyu, is a medicinal plant used by several Ecuadorian Amazonian Indian populations due to its analgesic, anti-influenza, antiophidic and antimalarial properties. Its rhizomes contain essential oil as is typical of several species of the Zingiberaceae family. Objective: Identify the components of the essential oil from R. thyrsoidea rhizomes and evaluate their antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The essential oil molecules were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using two columns of different polarity: DB1-MS (apolar) and DBWax-MS (intermediate polarity). Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated with spectrophotometric DPPH and ABTS assays, whereas antimicrobial activity was determined by the disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration was then estimated. Results: The most abundant molecules in the oil were β-pinene (40.56 %), a-pinene (8.97 %), sabinene (6.54 %) and trans-nerolidol (4.86 %). The most significant results concerning biological activity are related to the inhibitory activity displayed by the two yeasts used in the assay: Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, whose potency is greater than that of the natural referent, T. vulgaris oil. It was found that free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil is low. Conclusions: Traditional uses of R. thyrsoidea for analgesic and anti-flu purposes could be related to the high concentration of a and b-pinenes in the oil. Due to its strong activity against candidiasis, the essential oil could be recommended as treatment for diseases related to these yeasts. Free radical scavenging activity was found to be lower than that of the natural control and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Key words: Renealmia thyrsoidea, essential oil, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, chemical composition, GC-MS.
  • ... Among the reported derivatives, 11 was the only one that showed potent inhibitory activity over DAPK1 with 87% inhibition at 200 nM using 1 M ATP concentration. 212 Compound 11 was also reported to inhibit diversity of kinases such as GSK3 , PKC , PKD2, ROCK1, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3); therefore, it is not a selective kinase inhibitor. By analyzing the structural features of this series, it can be concluded that the N atom of the pyridine part of the 7-azaindole core was a determinant factor for the DAPK1 activity probably due to anchoring the hinge region of DAPK1, thus fixing the compound in the ATP-binding site. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) represent the majority of discovered kinases to date even though a few Food and Drug Administration approved STKs inhibitors are reported. The third millennium came with the discovery of an important group of STKs that reshaped our understanding of several biological signaling pathways. This family was named death‐associated protein kinase family (DAPK family). DAPKs comprise five members (DAPK1, DAPK2, DAPK3, DRAK1, and DRAK2) and belong to the calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinases domain. As time goes on, the list of biological functions of this family is constantly updated. The most extensively studied member is DAPK1 (based on the publications number and Protein Data Bank reported crystal structures) that plays fundamental biological roles depending on the cellular context. DAPK1 regulates apoptosis, autophagy, contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibits metastasis, mediates the body responses to viral infections, and regulates the synaptic plasticity and depression. For their biological roles, several DAPKs’ modulators have been reported for treatment of many diseases as well as acting as probe compounds to facilitate the understanding of the biological functions elicited by this family. Despite that, the number of reported modulators is still limited and more research needs to be conducted on the discovery of novel strategies to activate or inhibit this family. In this report, we aim at drawing more attention to this family by reviewing the recent updates regarding the structure, biological roles, and regulation of this family. In addition, the small‐molecule modulators of this family are reviewed in details with their potential therapeutic outcomes evaluated to help medicinal chemists develop more potent and selective possible drug candidates.
  • ... The major component of laurel EO is 1,8-cineole; other constituent compounds include linalool, α-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, methyl eugenol, α-pinene and β-pinene (16). Several studies on laurel EO have revealed its antibacterial (17), antifungal (18), antioxidant (19), insecticidal (20), acaricidal (21), repellent (22), larvicidal (23), antiproliferative (24), analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties (25). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Aedes aegypti is a mosquito and vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus making it a serious global health problem. We aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis leaves obtained at different seasons and its A. aegypti larvicidal activity. The EO was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation. Larvicidal activity was determined by the larval immersion test. It was identified 37 EO chemical compounds and the major ones were 1,8-cineole and linalool. Seasonal variations affected EO larvicidal activity: spring LC50 was 0.41 mg/mL and LC99 0.77 mg/mL, autumn LC50 was 0.60 mg/mL and LC99 1.37 mg/mL, winter LC50 was 0.66 mg/mL and LC99 3.19 mg/mL and summer LC50 was 0.91 mg/mL and LC99 2.50 mg/mL. The EO extracted during spring showed the highest larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae. Our results present a new perspective of L. nobilis EO use as a larvicidal agent.
  • ... Its dried leaves are also used as tea. It has been reported that essential oil of bay laurel has antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties [11][12][13][14][15] . In Turkey, its wild forms (Vaccinium vitisidea, Vacciniummyrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Vacciniumarctostaphyllos) grow in the Marmara and Eastern Anatolia Regions, especially in the Black Sea Region 16 . ...
    Article
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    This study aimed to determine the composition andthe antifungal activity of the essential oils of Vaccinium myrtillus and Laurus nobilis plants. In the study, 22 components were identified in the essential oil of V. myrtillus, which represented 100% of the total essential oils. Accordingly, 1,8-cineole (41.07%), β-Linalool (12.72%), α-Pinene (12.17%) and Myrtenol (6.48%) were determined as the main components of the essential oil of V. myrtillus. The essential oil of L. nobilis consisted of 39 compounds and 1,8-cineole (50.68%), α-Terpinyl acetate (14.19%), 4-Terpinenol (4.07%) and α-Terpineol (2.90%) were determined as the main components, which represented 100% of the total essential oils. In the trials, doses of 0 (control) 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 μL/petri dish were used. V. myrtillus essential oil inhibited mycelial growth in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.), Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Sacc.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans (FORL) and and Verticillium dahliae Kleb by 61.38%, 100%, 80.36% and 57.91% respectively. Bay laurel essential oil at 10 μL/petri dish dose inhibited the mycelial growth of A. solani, S. sclerotiorum, (FORL) by 100%, whereas it inhibited the mycelial growth in V. dahliae by 61.23%. Study results showed that V. myrtillus and L. nobilis essential oils have strong antifungal activities.
  • Article
    Background: Among various neurological disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an expanding global immune- related inflammatory disease with complex etiologies. There is increasing demand for the use and administration of natural medicaments for this disorder. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) is a school of medicine and a medicinal plants-based resource for clinical studies put forward by Persian scholars. Objective: This paper aims to gather and study the effectiveness of all medicinal plants from the most popular Persian pharmacopeias. Five main Persian pharmacopeias from the 9th to the 18th century A.D. have been studied to identify the remedial plants for this disorder. Moreover, PubMed, and Scopus databases have been checked to derive relevant activities for these plants. Khaddar (numbness), Esterkha (Palsy) and Falej (quadriplegia) are traditional definitions; these are clinically close to what is known as MS in today's medicine. Conclusion: In all, 118 medicinal plants, related to 65 families, have been authenticated out of 157 chosen medicaments. Apiaceae is the most frequent family (13 reports). Fruits and roots of plants have been the most reported botanical parts (34 and 32 items). The employed routes of administration are topical, oral, or a combination of the two (27, 57, and 34 sequentially). Fifteen medicines have been reported for Khaddar, Esterkha, and Falej simultaneously. Antioxidant activities, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of medicines are known as some main mechanisms to manage MS. These functions are possessed by 81%, 36%, and 48% of the studied plants, respectively. Hence, conducting adducible clinical trials and highly approved experimental tests on animals may lead to novel drugs with lesser undesirable and much more therapeutic effects on controlling MS.
  • Article
    Background: The root decoction of Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) is used in traditional African medicine (TAM) in the treatment of epilepsy. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic root extract of Cnestis ferruginea (CF) in mice as well as isolation of its phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effect. Methods: Anticonvulsant activity of CF (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) was assessed using maximal electroshock- (MES), strychnine- (STR) (4 mg/kg, i.p.), picrotoxin- (PTX) (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), bicuculline- (BIC) (2.7 mg/kg, i.p.), isoniazid-(INH) (250 mg/kg, i.p.) and yohimbine (YHB) (45 mg/kg, s.c.)- induced seizure models in mice. Results: CF (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced significant reduction in the duration of MES-induced seizure with peak effect 20% protection at 200 mg/kg. However, peak effect 60% protection of tonic seizure was obtained at 50 mg/kg following CF pretreatment in strychnine model. Clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) completely abolished picrotoxin-induced seizure while the extract produced 40, 20 and 20% protection, respectively, at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. More importantly, CF (100-400 mg/kg) produced 100% inhibition of bicuculline-induced seizure. CF enhanced Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) activity as observed in significant delay in the onset of tonic/clonic convulsion in isoniazid- and yohimbine-induced seizure, respectively, which was comparable to the effect of clonazepam. Conclusion: The results of study suggest that CF possesses anticonvulsant activity possibly mediated through glycinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. The results justify the use of the extract in TAM for the treatment of epilepsy and reinforce the value of studying traditional resources as sources of new drug leads.
  • Article
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    Present study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity of Laurus nobilis grown in Tabuk region of Saudi Arabia. Dried leaves of L. nobilis were extracted with various solvent with increasing polarities. Solvent extracts exhibited variable inhibition zones against bacterial pathogens, however all the solvent extracts showed significant inhibition against fungal pathogens. Acetone extracts had the largest inhibition zone against Streptococcus pnemoniae (37.16 ± 0.23 mm) while ethanol and methanol extract showed the most efficient percentage inhibition against mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata (91.33 ± 0.47; 90.66 ± 0.94).High cytotoxicity was demonstrated by methanol and aqueous extracts (IC50 14.90µg/ml, 24.56 µg/ml), while acetone extracts showed moderate effects on cell inhibition (IC50 41.43µg/ml).The significant activity shown by the bay leaf extracts could be attributed to monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, phenylpropanoids, phenols, and other important phytoconstituents identified in GC- MS and FTIR studies. Our findings clearly show significant antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of solvent extracts of bay leaves, which could be attributed to the presence of wide range of phytochemicals. Since plants derived natural products are less toxic, cheaper, and have negligible side effects, they would serve as an excellent alternative to antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • Article
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    Citrus aurantium L. blossoms are an important medicinal plant part in Iran and some other countries. It is used in traditional medicine as an antiseizure and anticonvulsant natural agent. Early in vitro research of the anticonvulsant activity of the blossom extracts were done but there has been no investigation focused on the blossom essential oil and its anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of C. aurantium blossoms (neroli) was investigated. The anticonvulsant activity of neroli was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion by i.v. and i.p. methods and maximal electroshock (MES) in mice, with diazepam as the standard drug. While mechanistic studies were conducted using flumazenil, a GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist. Neroli produced protection against clonic by i.v adminiatration of PTZ at 20 and 40 mg/kg, compared with protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in neroli-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil. Intraperitonaeal PTZ also decreased the latency of clonic seizure in the neroli (40 mg/kg) treated group. We also showed that neroli (20 and 40 mg/kg), exhibited inhibition of the tonic convulsion induced by MES and decreased the mortality rate. Neroli was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and twenty three constituents, representing 91.0 % of the chromatographical oil were identified. The major components of neroli were characterized as linalool (28.5%), linalyl acetate (19.6%), nerolidol (9.1%) E,E-farnesol (9.1%), α-terpineol (4.9%) and limonene (4.6%) which might be responsible for the anticonvulsant activity. The results suggest that neroli possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of seizure.
  • Article
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    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied in mice and rats. The extract was screened for analgesic activity; using acetic acid induced writhing in mice and formalin induced paw licking test in rats. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using formalin induced hind paw oedema in rats. Results showed that, at a dose of 200 mg/kg the extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice and at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time in rats in the formalin induced paw licking test. The extract at doses of 50,100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hind paw oedema in rats from the first hour of formalin administration. The intraperitoneal LD50 value of the extract was found to be 2,154.1mg/kgin mice and 2,852.l mg/kg in rats. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant extract may probably be due to the presence of phytochemical contents.
  • Chapter
    In recent years, a substantial increase in the use of aromatic herbs and essential oils has progressively been observed. The Mediterranean area represents a particular environment in which many constraint factors (high light, temperature, drought, salinity, air pollution, etc.) induce a wide range of secondary metabolites in plants. These compounds can be usefully utilized by humans for different applications: antibiotics, antimycotics, animal nutrition, cosmetics, food additives, biorepellents, etc. This chapter reviews the literature on recent agro-industrial applications of Mediterranean plant species and medicinal plants used for the treatment of infectious diseases. The review includes accounts of extracts, essential oils and other active principles isolated from plants that have been used by folk medicine as antimicrobial agents. The names and parts of the plants studied, the spectrum of activity, the types of active compounds and the methods used are discussed, as well as their mechanisms of action.
  • Article
    Laurus nobilis Linn. (Lauraceae), commonly known as Bay, has been used as a traditional medicine in the Mediterranean and Europe to treat diverse immunological disorders. Although the effects of L. nobilis on immunosuppression have been reported, the detailed underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, to elucidate the anti‐inflammatory mechanism of L. nobilis, we examined the effect of L. nobilis leaf extract on inflammasome activation in mouse bone marrow‐derived macrophages. L. nobilis leaf extract inhibited NOD‐like receptor pyrin domain‐containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, which was associated with caspase‐1 activation, interleukin‐1β secretion, and apoptosis‐associated speck‐like protein containing a CARD (ASC) pyroptosome complex formation. We also observed that 1,8‐cineole, the major component of L. nobilis extract, consistently suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, L. nobilis leaf extract attenuated the in vivo expression of proinflammatory cytokines in an acute lung injury mouse model. Our results provide the first evidence that L. nobilis leaf extract modulates inflammatory signaling by suppressing inflammasome activation.
  • Article
    Greek islands of the North Aegean Region are a group of 9 inhabited islands (Lemnos, Agios Efstratios, Lesvos, Chios, Psara, Oinousses, Samos, Ikaria and Fourni) in the northern part of the Aegean Sea, close to Asia Minor. Each island of this region can be considered as an autonomous unit in terms of culture and biodiversity. Therefore, we tried to evaluate the status of the traditional uses of medicinal plants in this remote Greek region. Endemic and endangered species such as Sideritis sipylea Boiss., Origanum sipyleum L., Thymus sipyleus Boiss., Pistacia lentiscus L., Verbascum ikaricum Murb., are still used by natives to treat different ailments. Moreover, the use of some species for the ailment of specific diseases has been reported for the first time. About 109 wild plant species of medicinal importance from 52 families, their uses for therapeutic purposes and galenic preparations by local medical doctors and pharmacists are reported. Information included comes primarily by informants and from literature sources. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 200 informants (100 men and 100 women). In addition, informant consensus factor (FIC) and UV value were calculated for the medicinal plants of the current study related with the diseases treated. This research confirms the importance of the medicinal plants and their use in traditional medicine for this region. This ethnopharmacological survey is a fundamental step for the preservation of the local knowledge both for further scientific research and for the protection of endangered and endemic medicinal plants
  • Article
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    Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide, encouraging the search for new and more effective antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial action of selected phytochemicals (eugenol, citronellol, sabinene hydrate, trans-cinnamaldehyde, terpineol and cinnamic acid) against Streptococcus mutans in planktonic and biofilm states as well as the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Methods The antibacterial activity of the selected compounds was evaluated by the determination of the minimal bactericidal concentration. The resazurin assay was used to assess the metabolic activity of sessile S. mutans . The cytotoxicity was determined using a fibroblast cell line. Results Among the tested phytochemicals, citronellol, cinnamic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde were the most effective against both planktonic and sessile S. mutans , an effect apparently related to their hydrophobic character. Additionally, these three compounds did not compromise fibroblasts cell viability. Discussion Citronellol, cinnamic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity proposing their potential as a novel group of therapeutic compounds to control oral infectious diseases. Moreover, their effects are particularly relevant when benchmarked against eugenol, a phytochemical commonly used for prosthodontic applications in dentistry.
  • Chapter
    The most important characteristic of the Moroccan Aromatic and Medicinal Plants sector is its diversity and its richness. Because of the ecological heterogeneity and climatic variations, 800 of the more than 4200 plant species growing in this country are of aromatic and/or medicinal interest. This diversity is more marked when compared with other Mediterranean countries: Algeria (3150), Tunisia (2200), Libya (1800), Egypt (2100), Mauritania (1100), Lebanon (2100), Jordan (2500), Syria (2100) and Portugal (3100). In the European countries France and Spain, the number of native species is 4500 and 4900, respectively. Turkey is the country in this region that shelters the greatest number of species (9000). The Moroccan production of herbs and their extracts comes from both wild crafted and farmed species. It is estimated that only 280 species are currently evaluated. Almost 100 species are exported in the form of dried herbs for food herb trade. More than 20 species are used for the production of essential oils or other aromatic extracts intended primarily for the perfumery and cosmetic industry and for the preparation of hygienic products and the formulation of flavours.
  • Thesis
    Les huiles essentielles sont des composés volatiles extraits des plantes, et possèdent des propriétés aussi diverses qu’intéressantes. Leur origine naturelle leur donne un avantage vis-à-vis du public qui est de plus en plus demandeur de ce type de produit. Le sportif peut notamment s’en servir dans ses entrainements : aucune huile essentielle n’est interdite en compétition ou considérée comme produit dopant. Après avoir vérifié que les huiles essentielles qu’il va utiliser ne lui sont pas contre-indiquées (le public faisant parfois à tord l’amalgame entre produit naturel et produit inoffensif, alors que certaines huiles essentielles sont contre-indiquées pour certains types de patients), le sportif peut les utiliser aussi bien de manière habituelle que pour soigner ses pathologies. L’utilisation de celles-ci vient en complément de l’entraînement et de la médecine allopathique : son usage ne doit pas être déraisonné. Un mélange d’huiles essentielles de gaulthérie couchée, d’eucalyptus citronné, de lavandin super, et de romarin à camphre, dilué dans une huile végétale, est utilisé pour l’échauffement du sportif. D’autres mélanges sont possibles pour la prévention des crampes, pour la récupération, et pour la confiance en soi et la gestion du stress, ceux-ci pouvant être utilisés de manière habituelle par le sportif. Tous ces mélanges sont détaillés dans une partie sur l’utilisation des huiles essentielles à conseiller chez tout sportif. Le sportif n’est pas à l’abri de problèmes physiques. Un mélange d’huiles essentielles de gaulthérie couchée, d’hélichryse italienne, d’eucalyptus citronné, et de menthe poivrée, dilué dans une huile végétale, sert en cas de tendinite, en complément du protocole GREC. D’autres mélanges peuvent être réalisés pour soulager une crampe, une entorse, une déchirure ou une ampoule, ainsi que pour traiter un pied d’athlète. Ces différents points sont explicités dans une partie consacrée à l’utilisation des huiles essentielles pour les pathologies du sportif.
  • Article
    Largely because of their perceived safety, the use of essential oils and other botanically derived products has become increasingly popular. Recent evidence raises concern about the safety of these products, frequently found in cosmetics and sought as an alternative to standard medical treatments. Essential oils are challenging to standardize because of the variable growing conditions, genetics, and harvesting of botanicals. There exists a potential for adverse reactions, in particular allergic contact dermatitis. Furthermore, these products are often sold without prior Food and Drug Administration approval of efficacy and safety. This review focuses on the composition of essential oils, their common associated botanical allergens, and current regulation practices of botanical drug products in the United States and Europe. © 2016 American Contact Dermatitis Society. All Rights Reserved.
  • Article
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    Background: Headache has been recognized since antiquity. From the late nineteenth to the early to mid-twentieth century, Italian folk remedies to treat headache were documented in a vast corpus of literature sources. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the plant-based treatments utilized by Italian folk medicine to heal headache in an attempt to discuss these remedies from a modern pharmacological point of view. Moreover, we compare the medical applications described by Hippocrates, Pliny the Elder, Dioscorides, Galen and Serenus Sammonicus with those utilized by Italian folk medicine to check if they result from a sort of continuity of use by over two thousand years. Results: A detailed search of the scientific data banks such as Medline and Scopus was undertaken to uncover recent results concerning the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and analgesic activities of the plants. Fifty-eight (78.4%) plant-based remedies have shown in vivo, in vitro or in human trials a large spectrum of anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and analgesic activities. Moreover, thirty-one of remedies (41.9%) were already included in the pharmacopoeia between the 5(th) century BC and the 2(nd) century AD. Conclusion: Italian folk medicine could be a promising source of knowledge and could provide evidences for active principles that have not as of yet been fully used for their potential.
  • Article
    L’huile essentielle (HE) de Laurier noble est sans doute moins célèbre que d’autres. Toutefois, tout le monde connaît cet arbre méditerranéen dont les feuilles, aujourd’hui utilisées dans la cuisine, étaient tressées sous forme de couronne scindant la tête des vainqueurs et des empereurs dans l’Antiquité. Cette HE est d’une grande utilité en infectiologie mais aussi d’un point de vue psychologique. Elle a aussi un effet anesthésiant très apprécié lors des soins, notamment en milieu hospitalier.
  • REFERENCES Carlisson KH, Jurna I. 1987. Depression by flupirtine, a novel analgesic agent of motor and sensory response of nocicept-ive system in the rat spinal cord
    • Copyright
    Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 17, 733 –736 (2003) REFERENCES Carlisson KH, Jurna I. 1987. Depression by flupirtine, a novel analgesic agent of motor and sensory response of nocicept-ive system in the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol 143 : 89–99.
  • Article
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    Objective and Design: To evaluate potential anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil, the essential oil steam distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alternifolia.¶Material and Methods: The ability of tea tree oil to reduce the production in vitro of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human peripheral blood monocytes was examined.¶Results: Tea tree oil emulsified by sonication in a glass tube into culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) was toxic for monocytes at a concentration of 0.016% v/v. However, the water soluble components of tea tree oil at concentrations equivalent to 0.125% significantly suppressed LPS-induced production of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10 (by approximately 50%) and PGE2 (by approximately 30%) after 40 h. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry identified terpinen-4-ol (42%), α-terpineol (3%) and 1,8-cineole (2%, respectively, of tea tree oil) as the water soluble components of tea tree oil. When these components were examined individually, only terpinen-4-ol suppressed the production after 40 h of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and PGE2 by LPS-activated monocytes. Conclusion: The water-soluble components of tea tree oil can suppress pro-inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes.
  • Article
    A method for assessing pain and analgesia in rats and cats is described. The procedure involves subcutaneous injection of dilute formalin into the forepaw, after which the animal's responses are rated according to objective behavioral criteria. The formalin test is a statistically valid technique which has two advantages over other pain tests: (1) little or no restraint is necessary, permitting unhindered observation of the complete range of behavioral responses; and (2) the pain stimulus is continuous rather than transient, thus bearing greater resemblance to most clinical pain. The analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter are evaluated using this test.
  • Article
    The formalin test for nociception, which is predominantly used with rats and mice, involves moderate, continuous pain generated by injured tissue. In this way it differs from most traditional tests of nociception which rely upon brief stimuli of threshold intensity. In this article we describe the main features of the formalin test, including the characteristics of the stimulus and how changes in nociceptive behaviour may be measured and interpreted. The response to formalin shows an early and a late phase. The early phase seems to be caused predominantly by C-fibre activation due to the peripheral stimulus, while the late phase appears to be dependent on the combination of an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral tissue and functional changes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These functional changes seem to be initiated by the C-fibre barrage during the early phase. In mice, the behavioural response in the late phase depends on the ambient temperature. We argue that the peripheral tissue temperature as well as other factors influencing the peripheral inflammation may affect the response, possibly confounding the results obtained with the test. Furthermore, we discuss the methods of recording the response and the value of observing more than one aspect of behaviour. Scoring of several behavioural variables provides a means of assessing motor or sensorimotor function as possible causes for changes in behaviour. In conclusion, the formalin test is a valuable addition to the battery of methods available to study nociception.
  • Article
    The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticosum was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively together with the anti-inflammatory activity of the whole essential oil and its major components. In addition, antispasmodic activity was determined in rat uterus preparations using acetylcholine and oxytocin as agonists. The anti-inflammatory activity shown by the essential oil can be attributed in part to the two major components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, although the presence of thymol and carvacrol, minor components capable of potentiating the action of these hydrocarbons, was also confirmed.
  • Article
    The analgesic agent, flupirtine, was tested on motor and sensory responses of the nociceptive system in rats. The motor response was determined in the tail-flick test with radiant heat. The sensory response was determined as activity evoked in ascending axons by electrical stimulation of nociceptive afferents in the sural nerve. The tail-flick latency was dose dependently increased by flupirtine administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (ED50 7.8 mg/kg), intrathecal (i.t.) injection (ED50 14.8 micrograms/rat) or bilateral microinjection into the periaqueductal grey (PAG; ED50 2.6 micrograms/rat). Naloxone reduced the effect of an i.p. injection of flupirtine but was ineffective against an i.t. injection of the drug. The activity in ascending axons responding to afferent C fibre stimulation was depressed by flupirtine administered by intravenous (i.v.) injection (7 mg/kg) under urethane anaesthesia with an intact spinal cord and brain, and by i.t. injection (14 micrograms/rat) to decerebrated spinal rats. Naloxone did not abolish the depressant effect of i.t. injections of flupirtine. Microinjection of flupirtine (1.7 micrograms/rat) made in the PAG did not reduce, but increased the spontaneous and C fibre-evoked activity in ascending axons. The results indicate that flupirtine selectively depresses responses of the nociceptive system by a spinal (motor and sensory responses) and a supraspinal (motor response) action in which opiate-like mechanisms play no or a minor role.
  • Article
    Nine newly synthesized eugenol derivatives were investigated in rats or mice as to their anesthetic, hypothermic, myorelaxant and anticonvulsant effects. Additional pharmacological activity which appeared during the experiments is described. For comparative purposes, six naturally occurring eugenol analogues were included in the study. The results are further discussed as to possible structure-activity relationships between the test compounds and the four investigated effects.
  • Article
    The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticescens was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of the whole essential oil and its major components was also investigated in the rat hindpaw edema model induced by carrageenin or by PGE1. The anti-inflammatory activity shown by the essential oil can be attributed to the two major components, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene. In order to know the role of the adrenal glands in the anti-inflammatory activity exerted by the two major components of the essential oil, they were studied against the carrageenin-induced hindpaw edema in adrenolectomized rats. It is concluded that alpha-pinene needs the integrity of the adrenal glands to exert its anti-inflammatory activity, as opposed to beta-caryophyllene which was also active in adrenolectomized animals.
  • Article
    Ocular inflammation was induced by injection of crystallins (lens protein) intracamerally and endotoxin intravitreously into rabbit and rat eyes, respectively, and was measured with fluorophotometry by quantitating the amount of fluorescein which entered into the globe. Five compounds isolated from anti-inflammatory Chinese herbs were studied for their effects on ocular inflammation. It was found that lens protein-induced inflammation was inhibited significantly by the topical instillation of pulegone (0.5%), friedelin (0.5%), and sabinene (1%), but not by dihydrojasmon or naringin at concentrations up to 1%. However, none of these compounds inhibited endotoxin-induced posterior uveitis.