Background: Lowing intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only effective treating method in glaucoma. Making sure the change of optic disc parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients after IOP reduced can provide objective evidence for evaluating the effect of lowing-IOP on the function of optic nerve. Objective: The present study was to evaluate the change of optic disc parameters and RNFLT in POAG patients after trabeculectomy, and analyze the affecting factors of image parameters. Methods: A serial case-observational study was adapted. Forty eyes of 39 patients with POAG underwent trabeculectomy were recruited in the study. IOP was examined and perimetry was performed before operation and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Optical parameters and RNFLT were measured using Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in above-mentioned time points. The correlations between lowing-IOP range or disease severity and optical disc parameters or mean RNFLT (mRNFLT) were analyzed by Pearson linear correlation. Results: Mean IOP of the 40 eyes was (32.77±8.64) mmHg before operation and (12.45±3.65) mmHg, (13.05±3.90) mmHg, (13.42±3.33) mmHg, (14.22±2.60) mmHg and (14.74±2.46) mmHg 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after operation, with a significant difference among various time points (F=13.73, P = 0.00). However, no significant difference was seen in the mean defect of perimetry among the different time points (F= 1.02, P = 0.41). The cup area (CA), cup/disc area ratio (C/DAR), cup volume (CV), mean cup depth (MCD), cup shape measurement (CSM), horizontal C/D, vertical C/D, rim area (RA), rim/disc area ratio (R/DAR), height variation contour (HVC), rim volume (RV), mRNFLT, RNFL cross sectional area (RNFLA) were gradually improved after operation in comparison with before operation. One year after operation, RV, CSM, mRNFLT, RNFLA were still increased, but vertical C/D was reduced after operation than that of before (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the whole mRNFLT and superior quadrant mRNFLT, inferior quadrant mRNFLT, nasal quadrant mRNFLT and temporal quadrant mRNFLT among before and after operation (F=1.63, P = 0.16; F = 0.51, P = 0.77; F = 1.44, P = 0.20; F = 1.02, P= 0.32; F = 1.31, P = 0.30). Positive correlations were found between lowing-IOP range and the improvement of RV, CSM, vertical C/D (r = 0.45, P = 0.02; r = 0.41, P = 0.04; r = 0.58, P = 0.00), and negative correlations were seen between absolute value of MD and the improvement of RV, CSM 1 year after operation (r = -0.43, P = 0.03; r = -0.62, P = 0.00). Conclusions: Reduction of IOP after trabeculectomy results in the reversal of optic disc parameters. The improvement of the optic disc parameters may be a protective factor for progression of glaucomatous optical nerve damage.