Article

UV exposure in cars

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Abstract

There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

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... The ultraviolet spectrum that reaches the earth's surface (290-400) nm consists of 96.5% UVA (320-400) nm which causes skin wrinkles, UVB (290-320) nm causes sunburn, and UVC(200-290) nm, although it possesses the highest energy and has the greatest potential for biological damage, is effectively filtered by the ozone layer and is therefore not considered being a factor in solar exposure of human beings [2][3][4]. People who spent significant indoor time near windows the parts of their bodies closest to the window showed the most exposure to UV radiation [5][6][7]. Skin cancer and cataracts are significant public health concerns. These diseases could be avoided by reducing exposure to solar UV [5][6][7][8]. ...
... Skin cancer and cataracts are significant public health concerns. These diseases could be avoided by reducing exposure to solar UV [5][6][7][8]. Attention should be paid to the quality of glass used for office buildings, home windows, and building facades, to reduce solar gain, glare near windows, and avoid the risk for developing sun damages for our skin. ...
... During normal daily recreational and occupational activities, there are a number of environments where humans are subjected to solar UV that has been transmitted through glass. Examples of these environments are in offices and homes in the vicinity of a window, in vehicles with untinted windows wound up (15)(16)(17)(18) and in glass greenhouses (19) and sunrooms. The spectrum of the solar UV transmitted through glass is substantially different from that of the unfiltered solar UV spectrum (20,21). ...
... Several different types of dosimeters have been reported for the measurement of UVA exposures (15,24,25). This paper will extend this previous research and employ the UVA dosimeter reported in Parisi et al. (25) for the dosimetric measurements of glass filtered solar UV. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this paper were to investigate how glass-filtered UV irradiances vary with glass thickness, lamination of the glass and the effect of solar zenith angle (SZA), and to measure the glass-filtered UV exposures to different receiving planes with a newly developed UVA dosimeter. Spectroradiometric and dosimetric techniques were employed in the experimental approach. The percentage of the glass-filtered solar UV compared to the unfiltered UV ranged from 59% to 70% and was influenced to a small extent by the glass thickness and the SZA. The laminated glass transmitted 11 to 12% and the windscreen glass transmitted 2.5-2.6%. The influence of the SZA was less for the thicker glass than it was for the thinner glass. The change in transmission was less than 14% for the SZA between 48 degrees and 71 degrees. There was negligible influence due to the SZA on the glass-transmitted UV of the laminated and windscreen glass. The influence of the glass thickness in the range of 2-6 mm on the percentage transmission was less than 16%. The influences of the glass thickness and the SZA on the glass-transmitted UV have been incorporated in the use of a UVA dosimeter for the glass-transmitted UV exposures. The UVA dosimeter was employed in the field to measure the glass-filtered UV exposures to different receiving planes. The UVA dosimeter reported has the potential for personal solar UVA exposure measurements.
... In studies of UV exposure in cars, it was concluded that the parts of the driver's or passengers' bodies closest to a non-laminated or tinted window showed the most exposure to UV radiation. [10][11][12] Extending this conclusion to people that spend significant indoor time near windows, it is reasonable to conclude that exposure to UV through architectural window glass is a topic that should be addressed. ...
... In an open convertible car, the relative personal dose reached 62% of ambient radiation. 11 In a 2004 study, transmission of UVA through a range of automobile glass types was assessed by measuring UV transmission of laminated and non-laminated glass, each with different color tints 21 . Clear non-laminated glass was found to have the lowest UVA protection, followed by ...
Article
In daily activity, much time is spent indoors and in vehicles. Although the adverse effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is now well recognized and active public education programs on photoprotection have been undertaken, the role of window glass in photoprotection has been rarely addressed. It has been known for some time that window glass filters out UVB and transmits UVA and visible light. Recent developments in the glass industry have resulted in glass that provides broad UV protection without the historically associated loss of visible light transmission. Factors affecting UV-protective properties of glass are glass type, glass color, interleave between glass, and glass coating. In this article, photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses is reviewed.
... 1 There is some evidence for preferential lateralization of photodamage and (pre)cancers, in the general population, to the side most exposed to UV radiation while driving. Moehrle et al. 2 reported that left-sided drivers receive five times more UV to the left arm than the right arm, and 20 times more UV on the left side of the face than the right. Actinic keratoses have been reported to occur more frequently on the right side of the body in Australian drivers, where drivers sit on the right side of the car. ...
... Originally described for use in facial cosmetic surgery, they have been adopted widely in reconstructive surgery. [1][2][3][4][5][6] Such sutures are particularly useful in areas where a flap crosses a natural concavity such as the nasofacial sulcus, to prevent 'tenting', or where a flap lies in close proximity to areas such as the lower eyelid where fixation is required to prevent cicatricial distortion of a free margin. ...
Article
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) B is a substantial risk factor for skin cancer in both the immune competent and immunosuppressed organ transplant population (OTR). In OTRs, additional exposure to UVA through drug photosensitisation may contribute to their excess risk, which is well established. (1) There is some evidence for preferential lateralisation of photodamage and (pre)-cancers, in the general population, to the side most exposed to UVR whilst driving. Moehrle et al reported that left-sided drivers receive 5 times more UV to the left arm than the right arm, and 20 times more UV on the left side of the face than the right (2). Actinic keratoses have been reported to occur more frequently on the right side of the body in Australian drivers, where drivers sit on the right side of the car. A left sided bias in skin cancer was observed in the United States where drivers sit on the left side of the car (3, 4, 5). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... One study found that only wavelengths longer than 315, 330, and 340 nm could be transmitted through clear, light green, and dark green tempered glass, respectively (33). Another study found that only wavelengths longer than 335 nm could be transmitted through blue-and greeninsulated tempered glass (32). In conclusion, tempered glass transmits a large amount of UVA radiation and the amount of transmission depends on the color of the glass. ...
... Vehicles classified as trucks are exempt and require 70% only in the windshield and front door windows (34). In a study, Moehrle et al. looked at a sample of glass used by Mercedes-Benz; they found that for tempered glass, blue-colored glass transmitted more UVA radiation than did green (32). ...
Article
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients.
... Sunscreens with primarily UVB (290-315 nm) protection were available from the early 1950s until 1988, and sunscreens with both UVB and UVA (316-400 nm) protection were available since 1988 with increasing SPF numbers over the years (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunscreen). Some scientists think strong UVA exposures allowed by older sunscreen formulations can also initiate CMM 17 with unique signature mutations, 18 while others believe the UVA passing through the glass of office 10 and car windows 19 promotes it. We now know that UVA can possibly also cause both initiation and promotion of CMM because like UVB it causes similar DNA damage, i.e., cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. ...
... 50 Additionally, indoor workers get exposed to only UVA radiation that passes through glass windows while they work in their offices 10 and drive in their cars. 19 UVA cannot make vitamin D 3 26 but rather breaks it down in the skin, capillaries, and when bound to the vitamin D-binding protein. 51 Recently, the UVA passing through airplane windows has been implicated as the cause for pilots and flight attendants having twice the incidence of CMM as the general population. ...
Article
Full-text available
For several decades the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) steadily increased in fair-skinned, indoor-working people around the world. Scientists think poor tanning ability resulting in sunburns initiate CMM, but they do not understand why the incidence continues to increase despite the increased use of sunscreens and formulations offering more protection. This paradox, along with lower incidences of CMM in outdoor workers, although they have significantly higher annual UV doses than indoor workers have, perplexes scientists. We found a temporal exponential increase in the CMM incidence indicating second-order reaction kinetics revealing the existence of two major risk factors. From epidemiology studies, we know one major risk factor for getting CMM is poor tanning ability and we now propose the other major risk factor may be the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) because clinicians find beta HPVs in over half the biopsies. Moreover, we uncovered yet another paradox; the increasing CMM incidences significantly correlate with decreasing personal annual UV dose, a proxy for low vitamin D3 levels. We also discovered the incidence of CMM significantly increased with decreasing personal annual UV dose from 1960, when it was almost insignificant, to 2000. UV and other DNA-damaging agents can activate viruses, and UV-induced cytokines can hide HPV from immune surveillance, which may explain why CMM also occurs in anatomical locations where the sun does not shine. Thus, we propose the two major risk factors for getting CMM are intermittent UV exposures that result in low cutaneous levels of vitamin D3 and possibly viral infection.
... Tinting, however, reduces UVRA penetration to about 15-30%. (Almutawa et al., 2013).In investigations carried out on UV exposure in cars, the findings were that the parts of the driver's or passengers' bodies closest to non-laminated windows exhibited the most exposure to UVR (Kimlin, Parisi, Carter, & Turnbull, 2002;Moehrle, Soballa, &Korn, 2003;Parisi& Wong, 1998). ...
... This makes the laminated glass opaque and the side glass transparent within the UVA spectral region. These findings were also consistent with conclusions drawn from earlier works (Almutawa et al., 2013;Kimlin et al., 2002;Moehrle et al., 2003;Parisi & Wong, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Elevated exposure to UltraViolet Radiation (UVR) from the sun has led to adverse effects on human skin and foods, and therefore, the need for materials that offer resistance to UltraViolet (UV) penetration for protection. Some building window and non-window-materials, car-glasses, Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) rubber and plastic materials have been investigated to determine their transparencies and suitability for use as shields against UVR. These were studied by directly measuring scattered solar radiation through the optical window of a spectrometer and then measuring the scattered light when the window was completely covered with the material to be examined. Wavelengths of light that were not absorbed when sunlight was incident on the samples and the transmitted intensity of sunlight at each wavelength through each sample as compared to the transmitted intensity through air were determined in the UVB and UVA spectral regions. The results showed that the building window-glasses were opaque to UVB but transparent to UVA while the non-window-glasses exhibited transparency in the UVB and UVA spectral regions. The car-glass (laminated), used as windscreen, was opaque to UVB and UVA while the side-glass (non-laminated) was opaque to UVB but transparent to UVA. Perspex, sometimes used as an alternative to windscreen and side-glass in cars, exhibited transparency in UVB and UVA spectral regions. The LLDPE materials used for food storage were transparent to UVB and UVA while the PET plastic materials used for water, fruit juice and beverage storage was opaque to UVB but transparent to UVA.
... The ultraviolet spectrum that reaches the earth's surface (290-400) nm consists of 96.5% UVA (320-400) nm which causes skin wrinkles, UVB (290-320) nm causes sunburn, and UVC(200-290) nm, although it possesses the highest energy and has the greatest potential for biological damage, is effectively filtered by the ozone layer and is therefore not considered being a factor in solar exposure of human beings [2][3][4]. People who spent significant indoor time near windows the parts of their bodies closest to the window showed the most exposure to UV radiation [5][6][7]. Skin cancer and cataracts are significant public health concerns. These diseases could be avoided by reducing exposure to solar UV [5][6][7][8]. ...
... Skin cancer and cataracts are significant public health concerns. These diseases could be avoided by reducing exposure to solar UV [5][6][7][8]. Attention should be paid to the quality of glass used for office buildings, home windows, and building facades, to reduce solar gain, glare near windows, and avoid the risk for developing sun damages for our skin. ...
... During the early 20 th century, people in industrialized countries went against evolution by working indoors during the day. That action alone drastically decreased their daily amount of cutaneous vitamin D 3 and simultaneously exposed them to only UVA radiation passing through glass windows in offices [Godar et al 2009] and cars [Moehrle et al 2003]. People created an artificial UV barrier with window glass that divides the UVB from the UVA, so that the vitamin D-making UVB wavelengths [MacLaughlin et al, 1982] were excluded while only the vitamin D-breaking [Webb et al 1989] and DNA-mutating UVA wavelengths [Peak and Peak 1991;Jones et al 1987;Halliday et al 2005] were included in our indoor-working environment. ...
... People created an artificial UV barrier with window glass that divides the UVB from the UVA, so that the vitamin D-making UVB wavelengths [MacLaughlin et al, 1982] were excluded while only the vitamin D-breaking [Webb et al 1989] and DNA-mutating UVA wavelengths [Peak and Peak 1991;Jones et al 1987;Halliday et al 2005] were included in our indoor-working environment. Possibly because this unnatural UV environment existed for decades in buildings and later in cars [Moehrle et al 2003], CMM was promoted by UVA, after being initiated by UVB sunburns, and began to steadily increase in the mid-1930's or before. We also know the ratio of UVA to UVB increases with increasing latitude and that CMM increases with latitude above ~53°N. ...
... The proteins synthesized by the bacteria exposed to UVR are photometrically quantified and compared with controls with defined radiation exposures. Applying this new method, standardized personal dosimeters have already been produced and tested under different stationary conditions [13][14][15] and in personal dosimetry: professional cyclists in the Tour de Suisse cycling race have been shown to have an average daily personal UV exposure of 20.3 SED. 16 During the Ironman Triathlon World Championships 1999 in Hawaii (3.9-km swim, 180.2-km bike, 42.4-km run), the mean personal UV exposure of 3 triathletes was 20.8 SED. 17 The highest UV exposures have been measured in mountain guides. ...
Article
Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.
... Besides unintentional outdoor UV exposures (7), people can get both unintentional and intentional indoor UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) exposures to their oral tissues when they simply open their mouths. Unintentional indoor UVA exposures can occur to oral tissues when the UV from sunshine passes through glass windows in offices (8) and cars (9). Further unintentional indoor exposures to both UVA and UVB radiations can occur to oral tissues from fluorescent lamps, quartz halogen bulbs, tungsten filament incandescent bulbs (10) and energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs (11), as well as cosmetic tanning devices (12). ...
Article
People can get oral cancers from UV (290-400 nm) exposures. Besides high outdoor UV exposures, high indoor UV exposures to oral tissues can occur when consumers use UV-emitting tanning devices to either tan or whiten their teeth. We compared the carcinogenic risks of skin to oral tissue cells after UVB (290-320 nm) exposures using commercially available 3D-engineered models for human skin (EpiDerm(™) ), gingival (EpiGing(™) ), and oral (EpiOral(™) ) tissues. To compare the relative carcinogenic risks, we investigated the release of cytokines, initial DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), repair of CPDs and apoptotic cell numbers. We measured cytokine release using cytometric beads with flow cytometry and previously developed a fluorescent immunohistochemical assay to quantify simultaneously CPD repair rates and apoptotic cell numbers. We found interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and the initial CPDs are significantly higher, while the CPD repair rates and apoptotic cell numbers are significantly lower for oral compared to skin tissue cells. Thus, the increased release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-8 along with inefficient CPD repair and decreased death rates for oral compared to skin tissue cells suggests mutations are accumulating in the surviving population of oral cells increasing people's risks for getting oral cancers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.
... Although driving comprised the largest percent of time spent outdoors, particularly among women, the cumulative exposures may be significant, but the relative distribution of UVA vs UVB exposures may differ from that of most other activities involving UVR exposures (22,23). In addition, intermittent UV exposure from entering and leaving the vehicle could add up to substantial UV exposures (23,24). ...
Article
Skin cancer studies depend on questionnaires to estimate exposure to ultraviolet light and subsequent risk but are limited by recall bias. We investigate the feasibility of developing a short checklist of categories comprising outdoor activities that can improve sun exposure questionnaires for use in epidemiologic studies. We recruited 124 working and retired U.S. radiologic technologists (52% women). Each subject was instructed to complete a daily activity diary, listing main indoor and outdoor activities between 9:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M. during a 7 day period. A total of 4,697 entries were associated with 1408 h (21.1%) of the total 6,944 h spent outdoors. We were able to classify the activities into seven main activity categories: driving, yard work, home-maintenance, walking or performing errands, water activities, other recreational or sports activities and leisure activities or relaxing outside. These activities accounted for more than 94% of time spent outdoors both for working and retired men and women. Our data document the feasibility and guidance for developing a short checklist of outdoor activities for use in epidemiologic questionnaires for estimating sunlight exposures of working and retired indoor workers.
... The artificial UV barrier created by windows divided UVB from UVA, so that the vitamin-D-making UVB wavelengths [21] were excluded and only the vitamin-Dbreaking [22] and DNA-mutating UVA wavelengths [23][24][25] were included in our indoor-working environment. Possibly because this unnatural UV environment existed for decades in buildings and later in cars [26], CMM was promoted by UVA, after being initiated by UVB sunburns and began to steadily increase in the mid-1930's. ...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.
... Así por ejemplo, vale la pena mencionar que en Alemania se ha establecido que los conductores deben mantener el aire acondicionado del vehículo funcionando y las ventanas de cerradas con el fin de disminuir la exposición solar ocupacional o casual. 35 En el mencionado estudio realizado en Sindelfingen, ciudad ubicada a 443 metros de altura y 48º42´ de latitud norte con IUV entre 7-8, se encontró que los conductores profesionales están expuestos entre un 25-61% respectivamente a la radiación ultravioleta ambiental. Por lo tanto, al hacer una proyección del porcentaje de radiación recibida por nuestros conductores de servicio público o motociclistas, según la latitud y los IUV que se presentan en nuestros municipios, estos individuos pudieran estar recibiendo un gran porcentaje de RUV ambiental, teniendo en cuenta que ya previamente se ha determinado que la DEM acumulada diaria en promedio en Medellín equivale a cerca de 50 DEM. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The incidence of skin cancer has risen in the last two decades worldwide. Cumulative and long-term solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure is one of the most important risk factors for melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer and cataracts. The UV Index (UVI) has been designed to educate the general population regarding sun exposure and the risk for skin cancer. Objective: To quantify the UVI in two different cities in the province of Antioquia (Colombia). Results: High UVI's (Mean: 10) were found in the northeast region of Antioquia as well as in its capital, Medellin city. Discussion and conclusions: This particular population appeared to be exposed to high levels of UV Radiation (UVR) all year round. The use of the UVI may be a useful educative tool for the community in regards to the health risks of overexposure to UVR.
... Shaded areas receive relatively more ultraviolet (UV). Body site shading reflects fraction of total ambient UV that reaches driver seated on left with windows and sunroof closed, as reported in Moehrle et al. 6 Open window increases UV dose by more than 5-fold with continued preferential exposure to left arm. The left-sided bias of melanoma can be partially but not perfectly explained by UV exposure while driving. ...
Article
A recent report suggested a trend toward more ultraviolet-linked skin cancers arising on the left rather than the right side of the body in the United States. We sought to test whether the reported incidences of two ultraviolet-linked skin cancers, malignant melanoma (MM) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), are statistically significantly greater on the left than the right in the United States. MMs (n = 82,587) and MCCs (n = 2384) occurring on the left or right side of the face, arm, or leg that were reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry between 1986 and 2006 were included for analysis. MM and MCC were significantly more likely to present on the left than the right (P < .01 for both MM and MCC). In all, 53% of arm melanomas, 51% of facial melanomas, and 52% of leg melanomas presented on the left. A total of 55% of arm MCCs and 52% of facial MCCs presented on the left, whereas leg MCCs were equally distributed. National registry data did not provide information regarding sun exposure or driving habits. No equivalent registry data were available for basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Both melanoma and MCC are significantly more likely to arise on the left than the right, and this effect was most prominent on the arm. Driver-side automobile ultraviolet exposure (approximately 5-fold stronger on the left than right arm) is a likely contributing factor. It may be prudent to remind individuals prone to skin cancer to take appropriate sun precautions when driving in an automobile.
... Driving in a car ( [35], July, 48°N) with closed windows leads to an exposure of up to 2% of ambient. If windows and sunroof are open, exposure may be up to 34% for certain body parts. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the personal exposure to solar UV radiation in an urban environment was measured. Lifestyle in an urban environment is characterized by staying indoors during most of the day. Furthermore, the ambient UV radiation is mitigated by shadowing by buildings. The aim of the study was to find out activities which may contribute to UV-induced health risk in a low exposure environment. Exposure was measured during typical outdoor activities: shopping, walking, sitting in a sidewalk café, cycling, sightseeing and at an open-air pool (solar elevation: 10 degrees-70 degrees). Measurements were taken with an optoelectronic device which was fixed on the chest. Besides the UV Index we used the sun burn time (SBT) for risk assessments. Generalization of our results was made by calculating ratios of personal exposure to the ambient UV radiation. UV exposure was by far the highest when our study subject stayed at the swimming pool. The SBT was around 30 min for melano-compromised skin type. For all other activities, except shopping, the SBT range up to 1 h. With respect to photodamage we found that at high solar elevation (>45 degrees) photoprotective measures should be applied for certain activities even within a city.
... Indoor workers go to and from work five days a week, usually before 9 a.m. and after 4 p.m., respectively, when the solar UVB is negligible, so that indoor workers hardly make any vitamin D 3 commuting during the workweek and work year. Meanwhile, people can be exposed to UVA passing through the windows of their cars [59], which can break down vitamin D 3 [34]. While at work, many indoor workers are exposed to some UVA through their office windows and to minor amounts of UVA and UVB from fluorescent lights, but they usually get little or no short-term (5-15 min) moderate UVB exposure during the peak hours (11 a.m.-3 p.m.) of their workdays and, most people do not go outside at all. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady exponential rate in fair-skinned, indoor workers since before 1940. A paradox exists between indoor and outdoor workers because indoor workers get three to nine times less solar UV (290-400 nm) exposure than outdoor workers get, yet only indoor workers have an increasing incidence of CMM. Thus, another "factor(s)" is/are involved that increases the CMM risk for indoor workers. We hypothesize that one factor involves indoor exposures to UVA (321-400 nm) passing through windows, which can cause mutations and can break down vitamin D(3) formed after outdoor UVB (290-320 nm) exposure, and the other factor involves low levels of cutaneous vitamin D(3). After vitamin D(3) forms, melanoma cells can convert it to the hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), or calcitriol, which causes growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. We measured the outdoor and indoor solar irradiances and found indoor solar UVA irradiances represent about 25% (or 5-10 W/m(2)) of the outdoor irradiances and are about 60 times greater than fluorescent light irradiances. We calculated the outdoor and indoor UV contributions toward different biological endpoints by weighting the emission spectra by the action spectra: erythema, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma (fish), and previtamin D(3). Furthermore, we found production of previtamin D(3) only occurs outside where there is enough UVB. We agree that intense, intermittent outdoor UV overexposures and sunburns initiate CMM; we now propose that increased UVA exposures and inadequately maintained cutaneous levels of vitamin D(3) promotes CMM.
... It represents the largest portion of natural UV light and it is responsible for tanning and pigmentation of the human skin. [107] UV-B (315-280 nm) is partially blocked by the ozone layer and is the most energetic component of natural UV light. It causes the most photochemical degradation of plastics. ...
Article
Polylactide polymers have gained enormous attention as a replacement for conventional synthetic packaging materials in the last decade. By being truly biodegradable, derived from renewable resources and by providing consumers with extra end-use benefits such as avoiding paying the "green tax" in Germany or meeting environmental regulations in Japan, polylactides (PLAs) are a growing alternative as a packaging material for demanding markets. The aim of this paper is to review the production techniques for PLAs, summarize the main properties of PLA and to delineate the main advantages and disadvantages of PLA as a polymeric packaging material. PLA films have better ultraviolet light barrier properties than low density polyethylene (LDPE), but they are slightly worse than those of cellophane, polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PLA films have mechanical properties comparable to those of PET and better than those of PS. PLA also has lower melting and glass transition temperatures than PET and PS. The glass transition temperature of PLA changes with time. Humidity between 10 and 95% and storage temperatures of 5 to 40 degrees C do not have an effect on the transition temperature of PLA, which can be explained by its low water sorption values (i.e. <100 ppm at Aw = 1). PLA seals well at temperatures below the melting temperature but an appreciable shrinking of the films has been noted when the material is sealed near its melting temperature. Solubility parameter predictions indicate that PLA will interact with nitrogen compounds, anhydrides and some alcohols and that it will not interact with aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, sulfur compounds or water. The CO2, O2 and water permeability coefficients of PLA are lower than those of PS and higher than those of PET. Its barrier to ethyl acetate and D-limonene is comparable to PET. The amount of lactic acid and its derivatives that migrate to food simulant solutions from PLA is much lower than any of the current average dietary lactic acid intake values allowed by several governmental agencies. Thus, PLA is safe for use in fabricating articles for contact with food.
... Some studies used biofilms to measure UV exposures in extreme conditions: sports (85,86), high elevations (87), extremely cold regions like Antarctica (88) and in a spacecraft orbiting around the earth (89). The UV-B passing through car windows was also tested but, as expected, only UV-A passed through the glass (90). This is also true for windows in buildings (Godar et al., unpublished results). ...
Article
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UV radiation affects human health. Human exposure to UV radiation causes a few beneficial health effects like vitamin D3 formation but it causes many detrimental health effects: sunburn, ocular damage, photoaging, immune suppression, DNA damage and skin cancer. In countries with fair-skinned populations, skin cancer is the most diagnosed of all cancers. In the United States in 2002, there were over one million new skin cancer cases. That means one out of every 285 people got skin cancer. Skin cancer of fair-skinned individuals is increasing at an alarming rate (4-6% per year) around the world and has now reached so-called "pandemic" proportions. Thus, it is important to know what UV doses people around the world get throughout their lives. This review covers how the outdoor UV doses are weighted for different biological effects, the most commonly used measuring devices for terrestrial and personal UV doses, the natural and other effects on terrestrial and personal UV doses, the time people spend outside, their ambient exposures and the terrestrial and personal UV doses of adult outdoor and indoor workers as well as children and adolescents around the world. Overall, outdoor-working adults get about 10%, while indoor-working adults and children get about 3% (2-4%) of the total available annual UV (on a horizontal plane). People's UV doses increase with increasing altitude and decreasing latitude; most indoor-working adult Europeans get 10,000-20,000 J/m2 per year, Americans get 20,000-30,000 J/m2 per year and Australians are estimated to get 20,000-50,000 J/m2 per year (excluding vacation, which can increase the dose by 30% or more).
... For example, research using a UV spectroradiometer inside a vehicle with untinted windows found that the irradiance of all of the shorter UVB wavelengths were negligible, however the UVA irradiances from 340 nm to 400 nm were significant in the vehicles 10 . Research employing dosimeters for the measurement of the UV exposures in these environments has also been reported 12,17 . ...
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Exposures to UVA radiation (320 - 400 nm) have been linked to increasing the risk of skin cancer, premature skin photoageing and skin wrinkling. The relative proportion of the UVA irradiances in the solar spectrum changes with time of day and season. Material such as window glass found in offices, homes and motor vehicles acts as a barrier to the shorter solar UVB wavelengths (280 - 320 nm) and transmits some of the longer UVA wavelengths (dependent on the type of glass). As a result, the spectrum of the filtered UV transmitted through the material may be substantially different from that of the unfiltered solar UV spectrum. This results in a change in the relative ratio of UVA to UVB irradiances and a consequent change in the biologically damaging UV exposures. For these environments where the UVB wavelengths have been removed and the UVA wavelengths are still present, it is necessary to consider the erythemal irradiances due to these UVA wavelengths only. This paper investigates the times taken for an exposure of 1 SED (standard erythemal dose) due to the UVA wavelengths.
... Similar to outdoor exposures, their oral tissues can be exposed to both UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation while they are indoors. For example, indoor UVA exposures can occur to people when sunshine passes through glass windows in offices (7) and cars (8). UVA and UVB exposures can occur to oral tissues from dental (9)(10)(11), diagnostic (12,13) and medical procedures (14)(15)(16). ...
Article
People can expose their oral cavities to UV (290-400 nm) by simply opening their mouths while outdoors. They can also have their oral cavities exposed to UV indoors to different UV-emitting devices used for diagnoses, treatments and procedures like teeth whitening. Because the World Health Organization declared UV radiation as a complete human carcinogen in 2009, we asked if oral tissues are at a similar or higher carcinogenic risk compared to skin tissue. To understand the UVB (290-320 nm)-related carcinogenic risks to these tissues, we measured initial DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), the repair rate of CPD (24 h), and the number of apoptotic dead cells over time resulting from increasing doses of erythemally-weighted UV radiation. We used commercially available 3D-engineered models of human skin (EpiDerm(™) ), gingival (EpiGingival(™) ), and oral (EpiOral(™) ) tissues and developed an analytical approach for our tri-labeling fluorescent procedure to identify total DNA, CPD, and apoptotic cells so we can simultaneously quantify DNA repair rates and dead cells. Both DNA repair and apoptotic cell numbers are significantly lower in oral cells compared to skin cells. The combined results suggest UVB-exposed oral tissues are at a significantly higher carcinogenic risk than skin tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Exposure to UV-B in sunlight is the major source of human serum vitamin D. However, car driving, which was the most frequent outdoor activity, might not have contributed to vitamin D synthesis by the skin because most windshields would block nearly all UV-B radiation. 37 In addition, only 9% and 25% of dermatologists spent more than 30 min outdoors during weekdays and weekends at noon, which has the highest intensity of UV-B. The majority of our subjects spent time driving between 6.00-10.00 ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among Thai dermatologists compared with the general working‐age population in Bangkok. A cross‐sectional study was conducted in healthy Thai physicians who had at least 1 years’ experience in dermatology practise and a subsample of the general Thai population from the Fourth National Health Survey. Serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), a combination of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, levels in both groups were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The majority of dermatologists were of Fitzpatrick skin type III (n = 61, 61.3%) or IV (n = 32, 33.3%). The mean serum 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 levels were 18.9 and 18.2 ng/mL, respectively, whereas the corresponding levels in the general population were 26.5 and 25.8 ng/mL. None of the dermatologist had serum 25(OH)D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL), 38 (38.78%) had vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL) and 60 (61.22%) had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in dermatologists was significantly higher than in the general population (61.2% vs 19.2%, P < 0.001). Ninety percent of dermatologists used sunscreen daily and spent time mostly indoors. Dermatologists used physical sun‐protection more than half of the time when outdoors, for example, a book or paper as a sunshade (70.3%), an umbrella (48.4%), a long‐sleeved shirt (20.4%) or a hat (9.7%). In conclusion, dermatologists showed a remarkably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency which may be due to inadequate exposure to sunlight, regular use of sunscreen and practicing various sun‐protection activities.
... In addition to outdoor solar UV exposures, people can receive indoor UV exposure from sunlight through windows, and medical, dental and cosmetic devices. For example, most window glass filters-out UVB radiation but allows significant amounts of UVA radiation to enter people's cars (27) and offices (28). Some medical procedures use UV-emitting devices to diagnose head and neck tumors (29) and oral cancer (30), while others treat chronic graft-versus-host disease (31,32), allergic rhinitis (33), and oral lichen planus (34). ...
Article
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Because we found UV-exposed oral tissue cells have reduced DNA repair and apoptotic cell death compared with skin tissue cells, we asked if a correlation existed between personal UV dose and the incidences of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the United States. We analyzed the International Agency for Research on Cancer's incidence data for oral and pharyngeal cancers by race (white and black) and sex using each state's average annual personal UV dose. We refer to our data as 'white' rather than 'Caucasian,' which is a specific subgroup of whites, and 'black' rather than African-American because blacks from other countries around the world reside in the U.S. Most oropharyngeal carcinomas harboured human papilloma virus (HPV), so we included cervical cancer as a control for direct UV activation. We found significant correlations between increasing UV dose and pharyngeal cancer in white males (p=0.000808) and females (p=0.0031) but not in blacks. Shockingly, we also found cervical cancer in whites to significantly correlate with increasing UV dose (p=0.0154). Thus, because pharyngeal and cervical cancer correlate significantly with increasing personal UV dose in only the white population, both direct (DNA damage) and indirect (soluble factors) effects may increase the risk of HPV-associated cancer.
... 17 As driving represents a special case of assumed 0% UV transmission due to UV protection inherent in car windshields, the hours reported spent driving effectively did not contribute to the final value obtained. 18 Ocular sun exposure was calculated based on the combined outcomes of the two questionnaires. In general, ocular sun exposure was the sum of percent UV transmission for time spent in each condition reported. ...
Article
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Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and repeatability of measures for ocular sun exposure and conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (UVAF), and to test for relationships between the outcomes. Methods: Fifty volunteers were seen for two visits 14 ± 2 days apart. Ocular sun exposure was estimated over a 2-week time period using questionnaires that quantified time outdoors and ocular protection habits. Conjunctival UVAF was imaged using a Nikon D7000 camera system equipped with appropriate flash and filter system; image analysis was done using ImageJ software. Repeatability estimates were made using Bland-Altman plots with mean differences and 95% limits of agreement calculated. Non-normally distributed data was transformed by either log10 or square root methods. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between measures. Results: Mean (±SD) values for ocular sun exposure and conjunctival UVAF were 8.86 (±11.97) hours and 9.15 (±9.47) mm, respectively. Repeatability was found to be acceptable for both ocular sun exposure and conjunctival UVAF. Univariate linear regression showed outdoor occupation to be a predictor of higher ocular sun exposure; outdoor occupation and winter season of collection both predicted higher total UVAF. Furthermore, increased portion of day spent outdoors while working was associated with increased total conjunctival UVAF. Conclusions: We demonstrate feasibility and repeatability of estimating ocular sun exposure using a previously unreported method and for conjunctival UVAF in a group of subjects residing in Ohio. Seasonal temperature variation may have influenced time outdoors and ultimately calculation of ocular sun exposure. As winter season of collection and outdoor occupation both predicted higher total UVAF, our data suggests that ocular sun exposure is associated with conjunctival UVAF and, possibly, that UVAF remains for at least several months after sun exposure.
... Approximately 95% of solar UV radiation reaching the surface of the earth consists of UVA (320nm -400 nm) radiation and only approximately 5% of UVB (280nm -320nm) radiation. The transmission of UVA radiation through windows, sunscreen and human epidermis is much higher than that of UVB radiation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] . The penetration of superficial UVA radiation intothe skin through the upper epidermal layers is approximately 7 -9 times higher than the one of UVB [5,12] . ...
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a plethora of effects on human tissues. In the UV spectrum, wavelengths above 320nm fall into the UVA‐range and for these it has been shown that they induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA mutations and are capable to induce melanoma in mice. In addition to this it was recently shown that UVA irradiation and UVA‐induced ROS also increase glucose metabolism of melanoma cells. UVA irradiation causes a persistent increase in glucose consumption, accompanied by increased glycolysis, increased lactic acid production and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore it was shown that the enhanced secretion of lactic acid is important for invasion of melanoma in‐vitro. The current knowledge of this link between UVA, metabolism and melanoma, possible mechanisms of UVA induced glucose metabolism and their starting points are discussed in this review with focus on ROS and UVA induced cellular stress signaling, DNA damage signaling and DNA repair systems. When looking at the benefits of UVA induced glucose metabolism it becomes apparent that there are more advantages of these metabolic changes than one would expect. Besides the role of lactic acid as initiator of protease expression and invasion its role for immune escape of melanoma cells and the pentose phosphate pathway derived Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as part of a ROS detoxification strategy are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Figure 5 shows SEM micrographs of the titania films on PC with and without the intervening PDMS layer, and Figure 6 the UV-vis spectra for coated and uncoated PC. The PDMS/titania/PC sample has high transmission throughout the visible spectrum, as is the case for uncoated PC which absorbs in the UV [41], but has only negligible absorbance in the visible, as required for good lens quality. Figure 7 shows the AFM images of the scratch tests on PC with and without coatings. ...
Article
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Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect" of a soft intermediate layer.
... Window glass absorbs UVB (e.g. 117) but open windows or open sun roof leads to remarkable exposure (118). In convertibles ERTA reaches that of sitting in the sun. ...
Article
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Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation follows people during their whole life. Exposure to UV radiation is vital but holds serious risks, too. The quantification of human UV exposure is a complex issue. UV exposure is directly related to incoming UV radiation as well as to a variety of factors such as the orientation of the exposed anatomical site in respect to the sun and the duration of exposure. The use of badge‐sensors allows assessing the UV exposure of differently oriented body sites. Such UV devices have been available for over 40 years and a variety of measuring campaigns have been undertaken since then. This paper provides an overview of those studies which reported measurements of the personal UV exposure during outdoor activities of people not related to their occupation. This overview is given chronologically to show the progress of knowledge in this research and is given in respect to different activities. Special focus is put on the ratio of personal exposure to ambient UV radiation. This ratio, when given as a function of solar elevation, allows estimating personal UV exposure at any other location or date if ambient UV radiation is known. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) has well-known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Little attention is given to physical means of photoprotection, namely glass, window films, sunglasses, and clothing. In general, all types of glass block UV-B. For UV-A, the degree of transmission depends on the type, thickness, and color of the glass. Adding window films to glass can greatly decrease the transmission of UV-A. Factors that can affect the transmission of UVR through cloth include tightness of weave, thickness, weight, type of fabrics, laundering, hydration, stretch, fabric processing, UV absorbers, color, and fabric-to-skin distance.
Article
Background Car drivers are generally exposed to direct sunlight during commuting hours, which may lead to irreversible skin damage; however, topographical analysis for different facial areas has not been reported. Methods Facial areas were divided topographically into 11 areas based on esthetic units. We performed a preliminary study to identify the delivery pattern of solar energy on the face in the car during commuting time; subsequently, 15 drivers aged above 50 years were enrolled. Statistical evaluation was performed to investigate topographical differences between the left and right sides of the face and between sexes. Results The left side of the face was different from the right side for L*, a*, and b* on the infraorbital area and L* and b* on the temporal area. Differences were found for L*, a*, or b* between sexes on the central and right face, but not on the left. The left side had more severe hyperpigmentation and wrinkles than the right on average. Conclusion The left facial area, especially the infraorbital and temporal areas, of Korean automobile commuters was vulnerable to sun damage. Therefore, automobile drivers should care about these areas while driving to prevent long‐term effect from chronic solar damage.
Article
Comprehensive measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, concurrent activities and sun-protective practices are needed to develop and evaluate skin cancer prevention and sun protection interventions. The UVR exposures of 345 primary schoolchildren at 23 schools around New Zealand were measured using electronic UVR monitors for 1-week periods over 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005. In addition, ambient UVR levels on a horizontal surface were measured on-site at each school. Children completed activity diaries during the period UVR measurements were made and provided information on their indoor and outdoor status and clothing and sun protection worn. Mean total daily UVR exposure (7:00-20:00 h NZST + 1) at the body location where the UVR monitors were worn was 0.9 SED (standard erythemal dose, 1 SED = 100 J m(-2)). This was 4.9% of the ambient UVR on a horizontal surface. Mean time spent outdoors was 2.3 h day(-1). Differences in children's UVR exposure could be explained in part by activity, where outdoor passive pursuits were associated with higher UVR exposure rates than outdoor active and outdoor travel pursuits. Compared with older children, the activities of younger children, although labeled the same, resulted in different UVR exposures, either as a result of reporting differences or a real difference in UVR exposure patterns. UVR exposure rates were generally higher on weekdays compared with the weekend, confirming the important role of school sun protection and skin cancer prevention programs. High UVR exposure activities included physical education, athletics and lunch break.
Article
Human exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a component of everyday life and a significant hazard for outdoor workers. In addition, a large range of artificial sources also has the potential to provide extreme occupational UV exposure. Even though the human health risks of overexposure to UV are well documented, to date relatively little is known quantitatively about UV exposure. For example, the evidence indicates that workers who are exposed to particular sources (for example, welding arcs) are exposed to extreme UV exposures, despite the use of current control measures. In contrast, increasing evidence points to significant health impacts resulting from underexposure to UV, particularly with the production (or more correctly lack of production) of vitamin D in the skin. The latter poses a serious issue for the work-force, with specific risks for workers lacking adequate sun exposure-underground miners, long-haul flight crews, shift workers, and perhaps indoor workers. Using a risk-management approach, this paper provides a comprehensive review of occupational UV sources, health impact of occupational UV exposure, occupational exposure standards, and levels of exposure in various settings, and discusses the appropriate control measures. In addition, the duality aspect of health impacts from overexposure and underexposure to UV and the associated occupational health implications are specifically explored.
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Significance: The first contact lens to incorporate a photochromic additive was cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration last year. Because any ophthalmic lens that absorbs visible wavelengths will reduce retinal illuminance, it is important to understand the impact of this new photochromic contact lens on vision and both daytime and nighttime driving performance. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of senofilcon A photochromic contact lens wear on vision and driving performance under real-world conditions by comparison with a nonphotochromic contact lens and plano photochromic spectacles. Methods: In this randomized four-visit bilateral crossover study, 24 licensed regular drivers and established wearers of soft contact lenses were enrolled. Subjects wore in random order each of three study lens types: the investigational photochromic soft contact lens (test), a nonphotochromic soft contact lens (control 1), and plano photochromic spectacle lenses (control 2). Driver performance was assessed on a closed-circuit driving track under challenging controlled conditions. The primary endpoint was overall driving performance score calculated as a composite Z score of six objective metrics. Results: All 24 subjects (mean age, 29.8 years) completed the study. For nighttime driving, the adjusted mean differences in Z score (95% confidence interval) between test and control 1 and between test and control 2 were 0.069 (-0.045 to +0.183) and 0.117 (0.003 to 0.231), respectively. For daytime driving, mean differences were 0.101 (-0.013 to +0.216) between test and control 1 and 0.044 (-0.070 to +0.158) between test and control 2. Results demonstrated noninferiority of the test lens relative to controls for nighttime and daytime driving performance using a noninferiority margin of -0.25 Z score. Noninferiority was also demonstrated on all logMAR and contrast threshold testing. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions: Study results revealed no evidence of concerns with either driving performance or vision while wearing photochromic contact lenses.
Article
The aim of this study was to establish a test method with improved reliability and reproducibility for the accelerated weathering test of automotive interior materials. For this purpose, this study measured the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the glass used in actual vehicles in the oceanic climate region of South Korea (Seosan) and in the desert climate region of North America (California Proving Ground). In addition, the SPD was measured according to the position of automotive interior parts, and cumulative light intensity was calculated using the curve fitting method. Results showed that the measured light intensity varied according to the position of interior parts because of numerous variables such as the type of glass, angle of sunlight, and frames of vehicles. We investigated the cumulative light intensity of the solar glass used in this study and the glass of other manufacturers, and the obtained data were incorporated into a data base (DB). Understanding the optical characteristics of filters is important accelerated weathering tests (Xenon). Therefore, we compared the SPD and cumulative light intensity of each filter combination and actual automotive glass to confirm the suitability of the filters for weathering tests.
Article
The effects of chronic sun damage including telangiectasias, solar lentigos, rhytides, enlarged pores, sagging skin, and pre-cancerous and cancerous growths are among the most common presenting complaints in a dermatologist's office. These changes are often worse on the driver's side of the face, emphasizing the role of UVA exposure received while driving in producing these changes. This study was undertaken to measure the ability of car window glass alone and in combination with ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing film to reduce UV-damage as measured using an established in vitro model of photoprotection. STUDY DESIGN MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay with solar simulating radiation (SSR) administered by a xenon arc solar simulator, we measured the photoprotection ability of auto glass, window film that filters UV radiation, and the combination of window film and auto glass. As measured by the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay, auto glass reduced cell death from SSR by 29%, while window film reduced it 90%, and the combination of auto glass and film reduced cell death by 93%, when compared to unfiltered SSR. Window film that filters UV radiation results in dramatic reductions in cytotoxicity when measured by the neutral red uptake photoprotection assay. Widespread use of window film provides an ever-present barrier to ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure and could potentially reduce the detrimental effects of UVA, including photoaging, skin cancer, and ocular damage, such as cataracts. In addition, such film is essential for patients suffering from conditions sensitive to UV radiation, such as lupus erythematosis.
Thesis
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Ces travaux de thèse portent sur la photodégradation de retardateurs de flamme bromés (RFB) : décabromodiphényléther (BDE -209), tétrabromobisphénol A (TBBPA), TBBPA bis (allyl) éther (TBBPA-BAE) et TBBPA bis (2,3-dibromopropyl) éther (TBBPA- DBPE) en milieu solide et dans des échantillons réels. Nous avons d’abord caractérisé par chromatographie en phase liquide-haute résolution couplée à la spectrométrie de masse (LC-HR-MS) le BDE-209 et ses produits de dégradation dans des échantillons de textiles issus de sièges auto des véhicules hors usage (VHUs) des années 90. Puis, nous avons mené des expériences prouvant que ces produits de dégradation étaient d’origine photochimique. Dans un deuxième temps, nous avons étudié l’effet du polystyrène sur la photodégradation du BDE-209, TBBPA et ses dérivés et l’effet de ces RFBs sur la photodégradation du polystyrène. Des analyses par différentes techniques spectroscopiques et chromatographiques (IR, ATR-FTIR, GC-MS, SEC) ont mis en évidence un net effet d’accélération réciproque. La SEC (chromatographie d’exclusion stérique) a révélé une augmentation drastique des coupures de chaîne du PS avec fragmentation. En outre, des photoproduits résultant de l'oxydation du PS et de sa bromation par Br· ont été observés pour la première fois. L’existence de ces sous-produits suggère un nouveau mécanisme de transformation de PS en présence de RFB. Certains de ces photoproduits migrent dans l’eau et l’air, pouvant causer une pollution environnementale.
Article
Photosensitive patients sometimes report disease flares during journeys by car. Window glass blocks all UVB but not all UVA. All car windscreens are made from laminated glass. Side and rear windows are usually made of nonlaminated glass. To determine which types of glass provide most protection from UVA with particular reference to the implications for patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). The percentage transmission of UVA was determined for a selection of glass, both laminated and nonlaminated, and with differing colour tints. Laminated glass transmits less UVA than nonlaminated glass. Tinted glass transmits less UVA than clear glass. Nonlaminated clear glass transmitted the highest percentage of UVA (62.8%) and grey laminated glass the lowest (0.9%). A dose of 5 J cm(-2) UVA, enough to trigger PLE in some patients, could be transmitted through clear nonlaminated glass in 30 min but would take 50 h through grey laminated glass. Patients with severe UVA-induced PLE and other photosensitivity disorders may have disease flares from solar UVA transmission through side-window glass. Protective measures such as wearing long-sleeved clothing, keeping the arm beneath the bottom of the window aperture, or choosing tinted and laminated car windows may be helpful.
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Collagen vascular diseases are multisystem disorders that frequently affect the skin.5 At times, cutaneous disease is the initial manifestation. This article focuses on lupus erythematosus (LE), dermatomyositis, and sclerodermoid syndromes.
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A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.
Article
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Many materials in everyday use such as window glass in homes and offices, glass in sunrooms and greenhouses, vehicle glass and some brands of sunscreens act as a barrier to the shorter UVB wavelengths while transmitting some of the longer UVA wavelengths. This paper reports on the erythemal exposures due to the UVA waveband encountered over a 12-month period for a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 4◦ to 80◦ and the resulting times required for an erythemal exposure of one standard erythemal dose (SED) due to the erythemal exposures to the UVA wavelengths. The minimum time for an exposure of one SED due to the UVA wavelengths in winter is approximately double that what it is in summer. The time period of 40 to 60 min was the most frequent length of time for an exposure of one SED with 60 to 80 min the next frequent length of time required for a one SED exposure.
Article
Previous research has shown an increase in photodamage and precancers on the left side of the face. We sought to determine whether there is a higher frequency of skin cancer development on the left side of the body than the right. The study was a retrospective review of patients with skin cancer referred to our Mohs micrographic surgery and cutaneous oncology unit in 2004. When including all types of skin cancers and both sexes, more cancers occurred on the left (52.6%) than the right (47.4%) (P = .059), with a stronger trend in men (P = .042). There were significantly more malignant melanoma in situ on the left (31/42, 74%) than the right (11/42, 26%) (P = .002). Population was comprised of patients referred to an academic medical center and often for Mohs micrographic surgery. There were significantly more skin cancers on the left than the right side in men. This discrepancy was even more profound in malignant melanoma in situ.
Article
In this study, we examined the photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the surface of car seat covers from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Samples were collected at two car dismantling facilities in Sweden and cover car models from 1989-1998. The content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in nine real samples (fabric and polyurethane foam) was first characterized. Fabric samples that did not contain BDE-209 were then spiked with BDE-209, and irradiated in the laboratory and under sunlight. Photoproducts were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS), whereas volatile products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Similar photodegradation rates and oxidation products were observed in fabric samples irradiated in the laboratory and those collected from ELVs. Estimated half-life of BDE-209 on fabric inside vehicles ranged from 3 to 6 years. Thirteen major photoproducts were identified as lower brominated products, hydroxylated BDEs, brominated and hydroxylated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and dioxins (PBDDs). Furthermore, several photoproducts were found to be transferable into water, particularly bromophenols and hydroxylated BDEs, and others into gas phase such as bromomethanol and 1,2-dibromoethane. This should be taken into consideration for better estimating exposure to PBDEs and to develop strategies for ELV recycling.
Chapter
Glass has the ability to block all ultraviolet-B (290–320 nm) and a variable amount of ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm). Factors affecting ultraviolet radiation transmission include glass type, thickness, color, and film coating.
Article
Background A recent review of the SEER database revealed that melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma occur more commonly on the left side of the body. Similarly, a trend was reported in which nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) were found to be distributed more frequently on the left side of the body. Objectives To compare the sidedness of NMSC in a large patient population. There were five primary objectives of the present study: (i) to confirm or refute the left-sided trend of NMSC in the largest patient population studied for asymmetry to date; (ii) to determine whether the left-sided trend existed in Hispanic/Latino individuals; (iii) to examine skin cancer in older individuals across ethnicities; (iv) to compare distribution across anatomical location and ethnicity; and (v) to measure gender differences in the distribution of NMSC. Methods The last 3026 cases referred to the Mohs surgical unit at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine during 2008–2011 were reviewed. The patient’s age, gender, tumour side, tumour type, anatomical location and ethnicity were recorded. Results There were 1505 (50·2%) right-sided tumours and 1495 (49·8%) left-sided tumours (P = 0·52). The Hispanic/Latino group had a nonsignificant right-sided trend with 607 (52·7%) right-sided cases and 545 (47·3%) left-sided cases (P = 0·06). The non-Hispanic/non-Latino group between the ages of 60 and 85 years had 605 (46·9%) right-sided tumours and 686 (53·1%) left-sided tumours (P = 0·024). The Hispanic/Latino group between the ages of 60 and 85 years demonstrated 404 (54·0%) right-sided tumours and 344 (46·0%) left-sided tumours (P = 0·028). One hundred and fifty-four skin cancers were located on the upper extremities of non-Hispanic/non-Latino individuals with 64 (41·6%) being right sided and 90 (58·4%) left sided (P = 0·036). Seventy-eight skin cancers were located on the upper extremities of Hispanic/Latino individuals with 49 (62·8%) being right sided and 29 (37·2%) left sided (P = 0·024). Males had most of the skin cancers at 2125 (70·8%) cases and females had 875 (29·2%) cases (P < 0·001). Conclusions NMSC appears to be more common on the left side of older non-Hispanic/non-Latino individuals, while it is more common on the right side of older Hispanic/Latino individuals. This is likely to be secondary to an environmental factor, such as ultraviolet radiation. NMSC is significantly more common in males relative to females, which may be attributed to differences in gender roles or referral practices.
Article
Background: Several studies have shown an increase in skin cancers on the left side of the face. But such studies have not been conducted in Korean patients. Objective: In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of left or right sided skin cancers in head and neck areas. Methods: We retrospectively included 384 head and neck skin cancers (Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen disease, Malignant melanoma) diagnosed at our center from January 1995 to February 2011. Location, age, and sex were recorded and analyzed. Results: All types of skin cancers occurred more on the left (54.17%) than on the right (45.83%) (p=0.051), with no stronger trend in men. Conclusion: There are more skin cancers on the left than the right side in Korean patients. But further study is needed because of the small patient population studied.
Article
Head and neck melanomas (HNMs) are frequent and have a poorer prognosis than melanomas at other sites. Photoprotection in these locations is difficult. In this population-based study of 279 HNMs diagnosed in a French region between 2004 and 2009, major differences were found between genders. A clearcut, sex-related distribution was found between a "peripheral" area (scalp, forehead, temples, ears, and neck) and a "central" one (other parts of the face), with 56.7% of HNMs being located in the peripheral area in men and 79.3% in the central area in women (P<0.0001). Moreover, HNMs located in the peripheral area occurred on the left side in 57.6% of men and on the right side in 73.1% of women (P=0.009). Peripheral HNMs differed from central HNMs by a higher proportion of invasive tumors, nodular or superficial spreading melanomas, and a lower proportion of lentigo maligna melanomas (LMMs). We hypothesized that this differential distribution between men and women could be explained mostly by a major role of long-term photoprotection by hair and sun exposure in a car. Important public health messages could result from these observations, such as the role of hairstyles in melanoma prevention and the importance of reducing sun exposure in a car, particularly in professional drivers.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 7 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.405.
Article
Background Head and neck melanomas (HNM) account for an increasing proportion of melanomas and have a poor prognosis. Few population-based studies have focused on specific characteristics of these tumors.Objectives To compare clinical and histological characteristic of HNM with those of melanomas at other sites (MOS) and identify pertinent clinico-pathological subgroups of HNM.Materials and methodsWe performed a retrospective population-based study of incident in situ and invasive melanomas during 2004-2011, using the Champagne-Ardenne regional registry and questionnaires to physicians.ResultsHNM represented 26.7% of 1,548 melanomas, corresponding to a density ratio of 3.7 between HNM and MOS. HNM occurred later than MOS (71.2 vs 58.4 years, p<0.0001), included a higher proportion of in situ cases (49.6% vs 13.5%, p<0.0001) and were mainly lentigo malignant melanomas (73% vs 2.6%, p<0.0001). Invasive HNM, however, included a higher proportion of thick (>2 mm) tumors (33.7% vs 24.1%, p=0.009; mean Breslow thickness: 2.18 vs 1.77 mm, p=0.03), and of nodular melanomas (20.1% vs 12%, p=0.007). HNM occurring in the peripheral area of the head and neck differed from those of central location by a younger age of onset (65.2 vs 72.4 years, p<0.0001), a male predominance (64.4% vs 33.8%, p<0.0001) and higher proportions of invasive (67.2% vs 42%, p<0.0001) and nodular (15.1% vs 7.5%, p=0.01) melanomas.ConclusionHNM highly differ from MOS and are clinically and histologically heterogeneous, possibly as a consequence of different patterns of sun-exposure. These data could help to improve primary and secondary prevention messages towards patients and doctors.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Solar urticaria is an uncommon condition characterized by erythema and whealing shortly after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) and/or visible light. We report a 25-year-old woman with an erythematous, edematous, pruritic reaction minutes after sun exposure while she was taking terbinafine for onychomycosis. Phototesting revealed a UVB-sensitive urticarial reaction, confirming the diagnosis of solar urticaria. This report describes the first patient with possible terbinafine-associated solar urticaria.
Article
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Patients should be able to rely on optometrists and optical dispensers to provide evidence-based answers to their questions on eye protection, including against ultraviolet radiation. Surveys indicate that there is public concern about the need for protection against ultraviolet radiation, particularly in sunlight. This investigation aimed to evaluate the quality of information provided by practitioners in response to typical questions to which they might reasonably be expected to have ready answers. A cross-sectional study was conducted of on-site responses from attendees of a 3 day optical fair, in Sydney, Australia, in 2017. Subjects were not forewarned about the study. The portion of the questionnaire reported here comprised open answers to four questions intended to represent typical enquiries of patients. The questions were about recommendations for ultraviolet protection in the context of 1) computer use, 2) outdoor use, 3) driving and 4) under office lighting. Eighty-three participants returned completed questionnaires out of 140 issued (61% response). The open-answer question responses were grouped into appropriate, borderline (mostly appropriate but mixed with non-UVR related recommendations) and others (mostly non-UVR related recommendations) and by job title. The proportion of appropriate answers to the four questions were 20%, 30%, 12% and 15%, respectively, which did not differ by job title. A significantly higher proportion of optical dispensers than optometrists selected ‘Don’t know/no answer’ for all questions except office use. Eyecare professionals need to be educated on eye protection against UV radiation to improve the quality of information to be given to the public.
Article
Seit Jahren wird ein weltweiter Anstieg der Hautkrebsinzidenz beobachtet. Eine hohe kumulative UV-Strahlenexposition gilt als ein Hauptfaktor für die Entstehung von Neoplasien der Haut. Geeignete Schutzmaßnahmen gewinnen daher zunehmend an Bedeutung. Textilien bieten eine einfachen und effektiven, medizinisch unbedenklichen Schutz vor der UV-Strahlung, doch wird der UV-Schutzfaktor (USF) von Sommertextilien, z.Z. in Europa – im Gegensatz zu Australien – nicht angegeben.Weitgehend unbekannt ist in diesem Zusammenhang, daß bei weitem nicht alle Textilien einen ausreichenden Schutz bieten. Ziel ist, die Faktoren, welche die UV-Durchlässigkeit von Stoffen bestimmen, zu untersuchen und ausgehend von diesen Ergebnissen Materialien mit verbessertem Schutz zu konstruieren. Die UV-Durchlässigkeit wurde an Geweben aus Baumwolle, Seide, Polyester und Viskose mit einer spektralphotometrischen Methode bestimmt. Die UV-Schutzfaktoren der Stoffe wurden aus den Transmissionsdaten berechnet. Anhand der Ergebnisse konnte gezeigt werden, daß UV-Schutzfaktor von der Faserart, der Garn- und Flächenkonstruktion, dem Quadratmetergewicht, dem Feuchtegehalt, der Färbung, der Ausrüstung und der Abnutzung durch den Gebrauch der Stoffe abhängt. Zur Optimierung des UV-Schutzes durch Stoffe wurde erstmals ein Viskosegarn mit einer extrem geringen UV-Durchlässigkeit eingesetzt. Dieses Garn ermöglicht es, leichte Sommerstoffe mit optimiertem UV-Schutz zu konstruieren. Zukünftig wird es damit möglich sein, Kleidung mit einem hohen UV-Schutzfaktor anzubieten. Diese Kleidung wird nicht teurer sein als normale Produkte, so daß eine hohe Effektivität für unsere Präventionsbemühungen erwartet werden kann.
Article
Abstract— A UV-dosimeter has been developed for routine measurements which mainly weights the various components of the spectrum in relation to their damaging effects on a microorganism. For this purpose a biofilm was constructed, comprising dried spores of Bacillus subtilis (wild-type or DNA repair defective strain), immobilized on transparent polyester plastic sheets. After irradiation, the biofilm was incubated in a growth medium. The proteins, synthesized by the immobilized microorganisms after spore germination and several cell divisions, were stained and determined by photometry, giving a measure of the biological activity. The ”biologically effective dose“ was determined from a calibration curve. It reflects the dose equivalent to that of the calibration source producing the same effect. The UV-response of the biofilm is additive and follows the reciprocity law in the range of fluence rates investigated. The response is nearly independent of temperature within the range of -20°C to +70°C as well as of humidity between about 37 and 80% relative humidity. Storage for up to 9 months at <70% relative humidity and room temperature does not significantly influence the viability of the spores.
Article
A rising incidence worldwide of skin cancer has been observed for years. A high cumulative exposure to UV radiation is a major factor in the development of such neoplasms. Suitable protective measures are therefore becoming increasingly important. Textiles provide simple, effective and medically safe protection against UV radiation. At present, however, in Europe--in contrast to Australia--the UV protection factor (UPF) for summer textiles is not stated. It is a largely unknown fact that by far not all textiles offer sufficient protection. Our goal was to study the factors which determine the UV transmission of fabrics and, based on these findings, to design materials which provide enhanced protection. A spectrophotometric method was used to determine the UV transmission by fabrics made of cotton, silk, polyester and viscose. The UV protection factors of the fabrics were computed on the basis of the transmission data. The UV protection factor is dependent on the type of fibre, yarn and surface design, weight per square metre, moisture content, colour, finishing method and degree of wear. To optimize the UV protection via textiles, a viscose yarn with a low UV transmission was used. This yarn makes it possible to design light-weight summer fabrics with optimized UV protection. This development will make it possible to offer clothing with high UV protection on the European marked. This clothing will not be more expensive than normal products, so that effective prevention should be more available.
Article
Since window glass absorbs sunlight below 320 nm, it provides a means of assessing sensitivity to longer wavelengths, i.e. UVA and visible radiation. Positive responses to the query of whether symptoms develop in the auto with the windows up must now be interpreted with regard to the possible presence of tinted plastic film on side and rear windows. These films block nearly all UVA radiation, as does the plastic interleaf of windshields. Thus, occupants of an auto equipped with plastic film receive photoprotection from UVB radiation and well into the UVA region. We define three classes of topical sunscreens: (1) conventional UVB screens, (2) broad-spectrum preparations containing a UVB screen and a UVA absorber and (3) browning agents such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA) that produce a skin coloration that absorbs in the low end of the visible region, with overlap into long-wavelength UVA. By considering responses of photosensitive persons in autos with tinted or untinted windows, coupled with efficacy of appropriate sunscreens, we produced an algorithm defining three photosensitivity subsets. Persons sensitive to long-wavelength UVA and/or visible radiation will benefit from tinted auto windows. In particular, patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) have actively promoted legislation allowing tinted windows. Support for their position is documented by recent reports of induction of lesions in LE patients by exposure to UVA and visible radiation. The brown color produced by DHA is a useful adjunct to the screening action of broad-spectrum sunscreens. Development of a durable color overnight allows application of the DHA preparation in the evening, thus eliminating possible interference with sunscreen use during the day.
Article
Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects.
Article
Full textFull text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (241K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. 18 Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Marks R, Selwood TS. Solar keratoses. The association with erythemal ultraviolet radiation in Australia. Cancer. 1985 Nov 1;56(9):2332–2336. [PubMed]
Article
The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy.
Article
We describe the construction of a small device incorporating a UVB (290-320 nm) sensor that can be worn on the lapel site or waistband and which is electrically coupled to a portable data logger carried in a trouser pocket or worn on a belt. The detector has an approximate cosine-weighted angular response and is linear over a wide dynamic range. It has a spectral sensitivity that follows closely the erythema action spectrum in the UVB region, is less than one order of magnitude greater than this action spectrum in the UVAII region (320-340 nm) and between one to two orders of magnitude greater in the UVAI region (340-400 nm). The instrument has been used to monitor variations in erythemally effective exposure rate that occurred during three outdoor activities with differing weather conditions. Erythemal irradiance incident on the trunk was recorded every 2 s for periods ranging from 1 to 2.2 h. The results demonstrated that behavior outdoors can be a more dominant factor in determining personal exposure than ambient ultraviolet and highlighted the very important role that shade from trees plays in reducing exposure.
Article
For the first time, a continuous biological dosimetry experiment for cytotoxic solar UV-radiation has been performed in Antarctica. The biologically harmful UV-radiation on the ground was measured at the German Antarctic Georg von Neumayer Station (70 degrees 37' S, 80 degrees 22' W) from December 1990 to March 1992 using the biofilm technique. The UV-sensitive targets were dried spores of Bacillus subtilis which were immobilized on the film surface. The UV-induced inhibition of biological activity, determined photometrically from the protein synthesized after incubation and staining, was taken as a measure for the absorbed UV-dose. Films were exposed in horizontal position for time intervals ranging from 4 days during summer up to 51 and 41 days before and after the polar night respectively. The use of different cut-off filters allowed the calculation of the biologically effective UVA, UVB and the complete UV-radiation (UVA + B). The data were compared with the global radiation and the ozone column thickness indicating an increase of biologically harmful UVB radiation during austral spring at reduced ozone concentrations yielding a radiation amplification factor (RAF) of 1.4, whereas for the total UV(A + B) range the RAF amounted to 0.3.
Article
Erythemal ultraviolet (UV)-radiation exposure to the right hand, mid-arm, shoulder, chin, nose and left and right sides of the face has been evaluated in a car from a large family class and a car from a small car class. In the small car, the site with highest exposure received 2.2 times more radiation than the site with the highest exposure in the larger car. In both cars, highest erythemal exposures were to the right shoulder, arm, and hand. Over a 6 h period, erythemal exposure to the right shoulder of a person in the driver's seat of the small car was 3.1 mJ x cm(-2).
Article
The available physical and biological broad-band radiometers designed to determine erythema-effective radiation do not show any response or over/underestimate the biologically effective radiation to a high extent in the ultraviolet (UV)A spectral region. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the biological system used in this study is the first one to make possible measurements of erythema-effective radiation in the sun in the UVA and UVB spectral region. These measurements were performed with a spore-film filter system as well as with spectroradiometers. It was demonstrated that this biotechnological method could be used to determine exact values expressed as minimal erythemal dose (MED). The spore-film system was tested in various field campaigns performed in Germany and in Japan. The seasonal daily variation of UV radiation in Germany determined in the period November 1995 to December 1996 using the spore-film filter system in sunny conditions tallied well with model calculations. The daily dose in Germany measured with the spore-film system close to the summer solstice, in sunny conditions (20.45 MED), was approximately 20 times higher than the lowest value measured close to the winter solstice (0.82 MED), a result which was in accordance with model calculations. The data determined with the spore-film filter system in Sapporo and Naha, Japan, fitted to the erythema-weighted data calculated from spectroradiometric measurements (Brewer), even at low solar radiation angles in a solar spectrum with less UVB but significant UVA. The spore-film dosimeter values were about 103 +/- 8% of the integrated dose of the Brewer instrument. The standard deviation of the spore-film measurements obtained in Japan was 12.8%. The responsivity of the spore-film system towards longer wavelengths within the UVA spectrum was tested with the Okasaki Large Spectrograph with monochromatic radiation. At a wavelength of 365 nm--in a spectral region which is dominant in many tanning lamps and with minor importance for solar radiation in summer conditions--the tested spore-film system gave results that were close (112% compared to the calibration dose) to the calibration dose which was used for irradiation.
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is noted to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. The recent development of a spore film test chamber containing spores of Bacillus subtilis resulted in a new method of UV measurement with a spectral sensitivity profile similar to erythema-weighted data calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. The practical application of dosimeters was tested on 11 persons for 43 days, under different conditions of UV exposure in five different geographical regions. Four professional lifeguards at a public swimming pool carried dosimeters attached to their shoulders or to their caps, for 11 days. Three mountain guides attached dosimeters laterally to their heads on 27 different occasions of mountaineering activity in different mountain regions. Four ski instructors carried lateral head dosimeters during eight days of skiing in the Alps. The life guards received daily UV exposures ranging from 3.6 to 9.5 minimal erythema doses (MED) (mean 5.9, SD +/- 1.9). The mountain guides had personal daily UV exposures of from 4.4 to 17.1 MED (11.9 +/- 3.9) and ski instructors from 2.8 to 8.8 MED (6.1 +/- 1.8). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters can be applied effectively for personal solar UV measurements of occupationally exposed persons. such as lifeguards. mountain guides and ski instructors. UV levels in these occupations exceed international limits of exposure.
Article
There is persuasive evidence that each of the three main types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma, is caused by sun exposure. The incidence rate of each is higher in fairer skinned, sun-sensitive rather than darker skinned, less sun-sensitive people; risk increases with increasing ambient solar radiation; the highest densities are on the most sun exposed parts of the body and the lowest on the least exposed; and they are associated in individuals with total (mainly SCC), occupational (mainly SCC) and non-occupational or recreational sun exposure (mainly melanoma and BCC) and a history of sunburn and presence of benign sun damage in the skin. That UV radiation specifically causes these skin cancers depends on indirect inferences from the action spectrum of solar radiation for skin cancer from studies in animals and the action spectrum for dipyrimidine dimers and evidence that presumed causative mutations for skin cancer arise most commonly at dipyrimidine sites. Sun protection is essential if skin cancer incidence is to be reduced. The epidemiological data suggest that in implementing sun protection an increase in intermittency of exposure should be avoided, that sun protection will have the greatest impact if achieved as early as possible in life and that it will probably have an impact later in life, especially in those who had high childhood exposure to solar radiation.
Physical protection against solar UV radiation
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Ultraviolet radiation protection factors for clear and tinted automobile windscreens
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Physical protection against solar UV radiation
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Broad-spectrum photoprotection
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Ultraviolet radiation protection factors for clear and tinted automobile windscreens
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