Article

In Search of the Organismic Valuing Process: The Human Tendency to Move Towards Beneficial Goal Choices

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  • Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation
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Abstract

We attempted to test Rogers' concept of the organismic valuing process (OVP) by assessing changes in peoples' goal choices over time. When changes occur, are they more or less random, or do people tend to move towards goals that are more likely to be beneficial, both for themselves and others? "Beneficial" goals were defined as goals typically associated with subjective well-being (SWB) and with prosocial behavior--specifically, we focused on the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goal contents. In three studies, participants tended to move towards intrinsic goals and/or away from extrinsic goals over periods ranging from 20 minutes to 6 weeks. These changes were not reducible to social desirability nor to the differing motives underlying differing goal contents, did not vary for persons of different value-types, and had not changed when participants were retested a third time. We conclude that people may have a positive bias toward changing their minds in directions most likely to be SWB enhancing.

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... According to SDT, motivation is not just based on quantity (i.e., how much motivation a person experiences), but also on the quality of one's motivation to perform tasks (Sheldon, 2004;Sheldon Arndt & Houser-Marko, 2003). According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. ...
... According to SDT, motivation is not just based on quantity (i.e., how much motivation a person experiences), but also on the quality of one's motivation to perform tasks (Sheldon, 2004;Sheldon Arndt & Houser-Marko, 2003). According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. Autonomous motivation occurs when individuals identify with goal pursuits that are integrated for identified or intrinsic reasons (Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
... According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. Autonomous motivation occurs when individuals identify with goal pursuits that are integrated for identified or intrinsic reasons (Sheldon et al., 2003). Identified reasons for goal pursuit involve pursing goals that are set extrinsically (e.g., by the academic setting), but are aligned with one's goals or values. ...
Article
In the current study we investigate the effects of a metacognitive training on LD students math performance. It’s known as metacognitive training may influence the school math performance, but there is not enough research on the metacognitive training of learning disability students. The participants were 7th grade students from two different inclusion schools who were randomly into one of the three groups. First group received an individual metacognitive training, the second one a metacognitive training combined with the cooperative learning and the third one was the control group.
... More than intense emotion, current literature (Bauer et al., 2018;Martela & Steger, 2016;McGregor & Little, 1998) recognized meaningful experience associated with individuals' sense-making ability, sense of significance, and capability in pursuing goals for self-development. Therefore, meaningful experience is both dynamic (e.g., related to one's past, present, and plausible future) and idiosyncratic (e.g., related to one's character strengths and innate psychological needs) (Allan, 2015;Harzer, 2016;Sheldon et al., 2003). However, many of these dimensions are implicit and obscure to travelers, but making them explicit allows travelers to be more self-aware of the innate psychological needs required for their well-being (Schüler et al., 2019;Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
... Therefore, meaningful experience is both dynamic (e.g., related to one's past, present, and plausible future) and idiosyncratic (e.g., related to one's character strengths and innate psychological needs) (Allan, 2015;Harzer, 2016;Sheldon et al., 2003). However, many of these dimensions are implicit and obscure to travelers, but making them explicit allows travelers to be more self-aware of the innate psychological needs required for their well-being (Schüler et al., 2019;Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
... Orientations and functionings are the implicit psychological dimensions of experience which are associated with growth goals and well-being determinants (i.e., values). These goals and values are often implicit to people and making them explicit allows one to recognize goals for self-development (Schüler et al., 2019;Sheldon et al., 2003;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). Character strengths can serve as the connecting point between the explicit experiential dimensions of MMEs and that of implicit psychological dimensions because strengths are easily recognizable through one's behaviors, feelings, and thoughts. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... According to SDT, motivation is not just based on quantity (i.e., how much motivation a person experiences), but also on the quality of one's motivation to perform tasks (Sheldon, 2004;Sheldon Arndt & Houser-Marko, 2003). According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. ...
... According to SDT, motivation is not just based on quantity (i.e., how much motivation a person experiences), but also on the quality of one's motivation to perform tasks (Sheldon, 2004;Sheldon Arndt & Houser-Marko, 2003). According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. Autonomous motivation occurs when individuals identify with goal pursuits that are integrated for identified or intrinsic reasons (Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
... According to Sheldon et al. (2003) and Benedetti, Diefendorff, Gabriel & Chandler (2015), the quality of one's motivation ranges from autonomous to controlled with the former being higher in quality. Autonomous motivation occurs when individuals identify with goal pursuits that are integrated for identified or intrinsic reasons (Sheldon et al., 2003). Identified reasons for goal pursuit involve pursing goals that are set extrinsically (e.g., by the academic setting), but are aligned with one's goals or values. ...
Article
The study explores the role of autonomous motivation in predicting proactive coping, motivational study strategies and tested strategies as mediators of the relationship between coping strategy and adjustment at school. A sample of 183 high school students completed a series of questionnaires assessing motivation, coping, study strategies, and perceptions of adjustment at school. Findings revealed one model for consequences of autonomous motivation. Analyses that used structural equation modeling showed that the students’ self‐ determined motivation predicted proactive coping strategy autonomous goal setting with self‐regulatory goal attainment cognitions and behaviour. Further, these resilience resources predicted deep processing, students’ intentions to persist in school task, effort, and implicit academic adjustment like education aspiration, homework and students’ intentions to persist in high school. The findings underscore the importance of autonomous motivation and proactive coping strategy in adjustment at school and suggest that interventions could usefully target the consequences of these processes. The theoretical and practical implications as well as the controversy over the relation between motivation, coping and school adjustment are discussed.
... helping others) in their lives, relative to a control group. Finally, Sheldon et al. (2003) revealed that simply helping individuals become aware of their scores on the Aspiration Index (a measure of materialism) leads people to less strongly materialistic goals. Given the adverse effects of materialism on well-being, interventions aimed at reducing the endorsement of materialism are timely Kasser 2016). ...
... Although no significant changes in beneficial motives (Financial stability and Self-integrated) were witnessed, participants in the experimental group revealed significantly lower Non-integrated motives than the control group two weeks after the intervention. Consistent with previous research, this study finds some support for the fact that simply becoming aware of one's motives may help to keep unhealthy motives for making money at bay (Sheldon et al. 2003). ...
Article
he objectives of this article were twofold: (1) understand what motivates people to make money and how this impacts well-being and (2) explore whether it is possible to encourage the adoption of healthy reasons for making money. Using confirmatory factor analysis (n = 633), Study 1 found support for three broad categories of reasons for making money, namely Financial stability, Self-integrated and Non-integrated motives. Study 2 (n = 464) revealed that when individuals desire money for Financial stability and Self-integrated reasons, this encourages psychological need satisfaction and in turn leads to well-being. When money is pursued for Non-integrated reasons, this leads to the active thwarting of the psychological needs and in turn greater ill-being. Using structural equation modeling, Study 2 also suggests that materialism may be better conceptualized as a set of unhealthy reasons for desiring money. Finally, Study 3 (n = 41) provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of an intervention aiming to help individuals become aware of their own motives for making money and reduce unhealthy motives.
... Intrinsic motivation is known to be a determinant of OCB (e.g., Refs. [54][55][56][57][58][59]). In a similar vein, SDT research has shown that intrinsic motivation encourages prosocial behavior at work by fulfilling needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness [60]. Theorists studying SDT maintain that because extra-role behaviors, such as OCB, require individuals to exert extra effort beyond their formal duties, intrinsic motivation is pivotal to the engagement in those behaviors. ...
... We used four items from De Witte's [70] and Schreurs, Van Emmerik, Günter, and Germeys' scales [41] to measure job insecurity. To assess intrinsic motivation, we used Gagné et al.'s [71] intrinsic motivation scale [60]. Job performance was evaluated with three items from Han, Kim, and Hur's [72] and Williams and Anderson's [73] in-role performance scales. ...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the global economic recession over the past decade, employees have been exposed to constant threats of job insecurity. Despite having conducted extensive research on job insecurity, scholars have paid little attention to the motivational processes underlying employees’ reactions to job insecurity. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between job insecurity, intrinsic motivation, and performance and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), we propose a mediated relationship in which job insecurity decreases intrinsic motivation, which, in turn, undermines job performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and change-oriented OCB. To test our propositions, we collected survey-based data from 152 R&D professionals employed in a South Korean manufacturing company. As predicted, job insecurity was negatively related to intrinsic motivation, which, in turn, had a positive relationship with all three outcomes. Furthermore, job insecurity exerted significant indirect effects on job performance, OCB, and change-oriented OCB through intrinsic motivation. These findings affirm SDT, which posits that motivation, as a key intermediary process, affects employees’ reactions to job stressors.
... Because intrinsic values provide greater levels of need satisfaction and psychological well-being than extrinsic values (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Kasser, 2002;Niemiec et al. OPENNESS, DEATH, AND VALUES 8 2009), openness may allow people to engage existentially challenging information in ways that help them to align their value systems with the pursuits that are best able to provide for optimal fulfillment during their lives (similar to the operation of an organismic valuing process; Rogers, 1951;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). Empirical tests for these propositions may provide some insight into the reasons why, following trauma, some people attempt to make meaning or exhibit posttraumatic growth, whereas others do not attempt to make meaning or experience decreased functioning (Park, 2010). ...
... Perhaps this reflection helps them to come to the realization that, relative to extrinsic values, intrinsic values are more likely to provide need satisfaction and well-being (Kasser, 2002) and are thus worth valuing more. These results suggest that the combination of openness and death deliberation can generate the same kinds of changes attributed to the organismic valuing process in past research (Sheldon et al., 2003). The present effects were evident across two different ways of making people think about their own death that, in previous research, have exhibited divergent effects (e.g., Cozzolino, et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Individual differences that might moderate processes of value shifting during and after deliberating one's own death remain largely unexplored. Two studies measured participants' openness and relative intrinsic to extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) before randomly assigning them to conditions in which they wrote about their own death or dental pain for 6 days, after which RIEVO was assessed again up to 12 days later. When participants confronted thoughts about their own death over a sustained period, high openness to experience helped them shift towards intrinsic values. Implications for understanding openness' role in value reorientation from existential deliberation processes are discussed.
... For mean-level changes, the results are also inconclusive. A few empirical works show that emerging adults move toward intrinsic and self-transcendence values over time (Dobewall et al., 2017;Hope et al., 2014;Sheldon, 2005) because of advanced social roles and organismic valuing processes (Hope et al., 2014;Rogers, 1964;Sheldon et al., 2010). Another study using a direct measure of materialism found no consistent changes in materialism across studies . ...
... Our results showed a normative increase in materialism over time, implying that emerging adults ascribe more importance to materialistic values throughout the college years. This result is inconsistent with the hypothesis that materialism decreases with age due to the mastery of developmental priorities and cumulative maturation (Chaplin & John, 2007;Sheldon, 2005;Sheldon et al., 2010). In addition, this finding conflicts with empirical research showing that emerging adults orient away from extrinsic values toward intrinsic strivings over time (Dobewall et al., 2017;Hope et al., 2014;Sheldon, 2005). ...
Article
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The present study investigated stability and change in materialism in emerging adulthood as well as the predictive roles of socioeconomic status (SES) and gender on the development of materialistic values. Indicator-specific latent state-trait growth models were applied to 4-wave longitudinal data from a sample of 738 Chinese college students. The results showed that materialism was stable: 67% to 86% of the variance in the reliable interindividual differences in materialism were due to trait factors. In addition, materialism showed an increasing trajectory over the college years, and this developmental trend could not be attributed to measurement artifacts or confounding influences. Moreover, low family SES magnified the increase in materialism, whereas being female predicted lower initial levels of materialism. Collectively, these findings illustrate the nature and antecedents of the development of materialism in emerging adulthood.
... The indirect effect test also demonstrated that, consistent with the hypothesis, perceiving the parents as need-supportive vitalizes the experience of need satisfaction, and the experience of need satisfaction leads to an increase in child's intrinsic values. These findings build on the existing findings of Davids et al. (2016), which found an association between need satisfaction and intrinsic values and lend empirical support to the theoretical conjectures from both SDT Sheldon et al., 2003) and Rogers (1964) that the self is the integrative center of an organism equipped with organismic valuing process, and that need satisfaction provides psychological energy to the self. Evidently, intrinsic values do originate or emerge out of experiences of need satisfaction. ...
... When an individual's basic psychological needs are satisfied in a supportive social context characterized by autonomy support, warmth, and structure, the self is energized and provided "nutriments" to explore, experience, weigh and select one's values. And the valuing process seems to take a common direction: the direction towards intrinsic valuesto develop oneself as an individual, to build intimate and meaningful relationships, and to contribute to the betterment of one's community (Sheldon et al., 2003). As Ryan and Deci (2017) argued, satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is the psychological and motivational basis of human well-being and flourishing, one aspect of which is the pursuit of intrinsic values. ...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to examine longitudinally how intrinsic and extrinsic values develop during pread-olescence within a mother-child context by comparing three different developmental pathways-direct value transmission , indirect value transmission, and value origination. Two hundred and thirty-three Korean mother-child dyads of late elementary students (M age ¼ 11.4 years; 55% girls) participated in a year-long online questionnaire survey. A longitudinal structural equation modelling analysis revealed two contrasting developmental pathways for intrinsic and extrinsic values in preadolescents. Intrinsic values developed via value origination, while extrinsic values developed via direct transmission. In other words, intrinsic values originated from the child's own inner psychological experiences and developed in accordance with changes in psychological needs satisfaction, whereas extrinsic values were transmitted from mothers in accordance with the degree to which they endorsed extrinsic values.
... That is, helping behavior driven by a prosocial motive to contribute to the promotion of the receiver's interests (Bolino & Turnley, 2002;Meglino & Korsgaard, 2004;Moon, Kamdar, Mayer, & Takeuchi, 2008) that sometimes leads to self-sacrificing behavior (e.g., Barry & Friedman, 1998;Meglino & Korsgaard, 2004;Omoto & Snyder, 1995). The second motive is the impression management motive, that is, employees' desire to create a favorable image of themselves among their colleagues or superiors (Rioux & Penner, 2001;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003;Bolino & Turnley, 2005). Helping behavior driven by impression management is performed to improve how helpers are perceived by others (Wayne & Liden, 1995). ...
... Helping behavior driven by impression management is performed to improve how helpers are perceived by others (Wayne & Liden, 1995). In summary, the prosocial motive elicits a "good soldier" perception, whereas impression management helping promote a "good actor" perception (Grant, 2008;Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on social exchange theory and attribution theory, this study explores whether newcomers’ helping behavior benefits their adjustment and whether the helping behavior attributed by coworkers to certain motives (prosocial motivation and impression management motivation) moderates these benefits. On the basis of results obtained from time-lagged surveys conducted with 114 newcomers, the study suggests that newcomers’ helping behavior positively influences newcomers’ distal outcome (i.e., organizational commitment) through the mediating effects of two proximal outcomes (task mastery and social integration). We also find that the benefits of newcomers’ helping behavior to their proximal adjustment outcomes are stronger when coworkers attributed newcomers’ helping behavior to prosocial motives but are not influenced by the attribution to impression management motivation. This study (1) theorizes and provides preliminary evidence for the positive implications of newcomer helping behavior on newcomers’ subsequent work performance and social integration and (2) provides evidence that two types of attribution are independent and have distinct moderating effects.
... With respect to the path from intrinsic future goals to extrinsic future goals, we detected a non-significant lagged effect of T1 intrinsic future goals on T2 extrinsic future goals but moderate negative lagged effect of T2 intrinsic future goals on T3 extrinsic future goals. This unstable effect of intrinsic future goals on extrinsic future goals suggests that, although individuals have a natural tendency to move away from extrinsic towards intrinsic future goals (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003;Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), this extrinsic to intrinsic conversion may take time as extrinsic future goals are relatively stable (Sheldon et al., 2003). The findings also suggest that fostering students' intrinsic future goals can potentially constrain the detrimental effects of extrinsic future goals on achievement via reducing the level of subsequent extrinsic future goals adoption. ...
... With respect to the path from intrinsic future goals to extrinsic future goals, we detected a non-significant lagged effect of T1 intrinsic future goals on T2 extrinsic future goals but moderate negative lagged effect of T2 intrinsic future goals on T3 extrinsic future goals. This unstable effect of intrinsic future goals on extrinsic future goals suggests that, although individuals have a natural tendency to move away from extrinsic towards intrinsic future goals (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003;Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), this extrinsic to intrinsic conversion may take time as extrinsic future goals are relatively stable (Sheldon et al., 2003). The findings also suggest that fostering students' intrinsic future goals can potentially constrain the detrimental effects of extrinsic future goals on achievement via reducing the level of subsequent extrinsic future goals adoption. ...
... Intrinsieke waarden zijn voor mensen makkelijker in lijn te brengen met een positieve beleving en met basisbehoeften (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Mensen die meer belang hechten aan intrinsieke waarden dan aan extrinsieke waarden, zijn doorgaans gelukkiger, positiever, meer gemotiveerd en meer vasthoudend bij het realiseren van hun doelstellingen (Sheldon et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Motivation lies at the core of human behavior. It explains why we do what we do. In this article, we seek an explanation for the influence of leadership, purpose, and values on employee engagement through motivation. Engaged employees derive energy from their work, are dedicated, show higher psychological well-being, and perform better. We suspected that motivation, as defined in self-determination theory, is an underlying mechanism that could explain the relationship between leadership and positive outcomes. To this end, we conducted five empirical studies in which the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and connectedness played a central role. We found that engaging leadership, a higher corporate purpose, and intrinsic values stimulated motivation and engagement. The fulfilment of psychological needs (notably autonomy) played an important role in these relationships. A sixth study tested leadership and inspiration in an intervention study. The intervention led to higher motivation among participants, lower absenteeism among employees, and better business performance. Navigating motivation at work supports employees to flourish, develop, and find significance. Keywords: engaging leadership, purpose, values, motivation, engagement
... For the RIEVO analysis, RIEVO change goals had a positive main effect on actual RIEVO across the three times, extending the concurrent findings. Time of measurement also predicted RIEVO, indicating that RIEVO generally increased across waves, replicating an "intrinsic shift" effect previously reported by Sheldon, Arndt, and Houser-Marko (2003). Most importantly, the measurement occasion effect was strongest in combination with a strong RIEVO change goal (for the RIEVO change goal × measurement occasion interaction, b = .12 ...
Article
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We used a new methodology for assessing change motivation (Hudson and Fraley 2015, 2016) to test the hypothesis that striving to improve one’s hedonic well-being fails in its aim, whereas striving to improve one’s eudaimonic functioning succeeds. In three studies, participant goals to increase subjective well-being (SWB) were negatively correlated with concurrent SWB, whereas goals to increase relative intrinsic versus extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) were positively correlated with concurrent RIEVO. In Study 3’s longitudinal investigation, Time 1 RIEVO change goals predicted increased RIEVO six and 12 weeks later, whereas Time 1 SWB change goals did not affect longitudinal SWB. Together, the data support the Aristotelian idea that people should pursue eudaimonia rather than happiness, not least because the latter pursuit may not be as effective.
... Consonant with the humanistic idea of organismic valuing (Rogers, 1961;Sheldon Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003), common dual process models of self-relevant information processing (e.g., Labouvie-Vief, 2003) impinge on SDT. Specifically, as described by Rogers, individuals are better off, in terms of well-being, when they follow the voice of their innate organism. ...
... However, it is important to note that the difference in perspectives is not absolute, but relative. Although SDT's primary interest has been in elaborating a first-person perspective, SDT researchers have also developed and studied of objective measures of motivation and personality (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2003;Weinstein Przybylski, & Ryan, 2013). ...
Article
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One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves towards growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. PSI theory a) is rooted in German volition psychology; b) has emphasized a third-person perspective on motivation and personality; and c) posits that a fully functioning person can form and enact difficult intentions and integrate new experiences, and that such competencies are facilitated by affect regulation. The authors review empirical support for SDT and PSI theory, their convergences and divergences, and how the theories bear on recent empirical research on internalization, vitality, and achievement flow. The authors conclude that SDT and PSI theory offer complementary insights into developing a person’s full potential.
... Moreover, Koen et al. (2016) pointed out, based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan, 1985, 2000;Gagné and Deci, 2005), that different types of job search motivations (from autonomous to controlled) impact job search behavior. Individual autonomous motivation is related to an intrinsic goal (Sheldon et al., 2003), whereas controlled motivation toward the goal has to do with the external environment (Sheldon and Elliot, 1998;Moran et al., 2012). Controlled motivation can be useful to explain the importance of the social context in job search behavior because complying with others' demands involves external regulation (Vansteenkiste et al., 2004). ...
Article
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We examined motivation and behaviors in women’s active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women’s employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women. To analyze the active job search, the respondents were invited to write open-ended responses to questions about their job search behaviors and complete some questionnaires about their motivation for their active job search. The content analysis and quantitative results showed no significant differences in motivational attributes, but there were significant gender differences in the job search behavior (e.g., geographical mobility). Moreover, the results showed heterogeneity in unemployed women by educational level and family responsibilities. The asynchronies observed in a neoliberal context reveal the reproduction of social roles, social-labor vulnerability, and a gender gap. Thus, women’s behavior is an interface between employment and family work, but not their motivations or aspirations. Our results can have positive implications for labor gender equality by identifying indicators of effectiveness in training programs for women’s job search, and it can contribute to designing intervention empowerment policies for women.
... The "Process-Analytic Neuroticism Test for Adults" (PANTER) is an elaborated computer version of the paper-and-pencil method that takes into account the subjective attractiveness of items. Attractive items have a greater intrinsic value than non-attractive ones and are easier to integrate into the self (identification; Kuhl & Kazén, 1994;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). Self-infiltration is therefore restricted to unattractive items (Kazén, Baumann, & Kuhl, 2003) A further advantage of the PANTER procedure is its full experimental control over the objective self-other status and other goal attributes (see Kazén et al., 2003). ...
Chapter
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Although researchers agree that they have to distinguish self-concepts from the entity they refer to (i.e., the self), many still struggle with a clear definition and measure of the self. How well people know themselves (i.e., how much access they have to their implicit self) differs greatly between and within individuals. PSI theory (Kuhl, 2000, 2001) defines the self as part of a larger, parallel-distributed network system (extension memory) that integrates autobiographical information and implicit representations of own needs, goals, and preferences. In the present chapter, we give an overview over six different measures of self-access that are derived from or consistent with PSI theory. Three measures are based on the consistency of explicit ratings with different contents of the self: (a) implicit needs (motive congruence), (b) previous goal selections (self-discrimination), and (c) previous preference ratings (preference stability). Three latency-based measures tap into distinct processing characteristics of the self: (d) intuitive processing as indicated by shorter RTs during a self-classification task (self-activation), (e) integrative (thorough) processing as indicated by longer RTs in case of conflict-laden information (autonoetic access), and (f) evaluative processing as indicated by RTs correlation with decision difficulty (preference sensitivity). Our review elaborates on causes (e.g., negative affect), correlates (e.g., action vs. state orientation), and outcomes (e.g., well-being) of self-access. Overall, the findings indicate that self-access can be reliably and validly measured and constitutes a strong and vital resource in personality functioning.
... He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being supplies by his own senses" (Rogers, 1964, p. 161). From this perspective, we should naturally and consciously select self-concordant goals since they are based on our own preferences and needs (Grouzet, 2013;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). However, as humans we are also vulnerable to societal pressures that may distract us from pursuing what we really want in favour of what we think we have to do. ...
Article
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Do we have the necessary perceptual abilities to set goals that are congruent with our own values and needs? In a prospective study, participants (n=185) identified three goals that they planned to pursue throughout the week. For each goal they then rated their motivation for pursuing it and made predictions about the extent to which goal attainment would satisfy their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. One week later, participants rated their progress on each goal, as well as the actual need satisfaction they experienced. Using Bayesian analysis, we found support for our (null) hypothesis that participants predicted that their goals would satisfy their psychological needs, irrespective of goal self-concordance. While people sometimes overestimated need satisfaction, we found that people who pursued more self-concordant goals actually benefited more from their pursuits, both compared to others who pursued less concordant goals and among their own goals.
... Although research on goal interventions to promote well-being has progressed relatively slowly, it is generally accepted that one way to enhance personal growth and well-being is to help people to identify, strive for and hopefully achieve their idiographic personal goals (which are flexible and self-oriented; see for example Grant, 2013). Based on this notion, the selfconcordance model provides an explanation for the importance of goals, and in particular self-concordant goals, in increasing well-being through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (Sheldon, 2002;Sheldon, Arndt & Houser-Marko, 2003;Sheldon & Houser-Marko, 2001). That is, choosing self-concordant goals tends to increase sustained effort toward attaining those goals, such that goals are more likely to be attained, and as a consequence psychological needs are satisfied, which then leads to the experience of subjective well-being. ...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT Problem: The overall aim of this research program was to further our understanding of motivational processes that predict well-being. The theoretical focus was the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving, which includes the variables of goal self-concordance, sustained effort, goal attainment, need satisfaction, and well-being. Studies 1 to 4 tested this model using a new methodology, and also extended the model. The focus of Study 5 was to experimentally test a manipulation of the “sustained effort” component of the model. Methods and Results: All participants were students in introductory psychology units at The University of New South Wales, who participated for course credit. Study 1 tested the robustness of the model by utilizing retrospective ratings regarding the most important goal in the past four weeks. Appropriate goodness of fit indices for the model were found. In Study 2, the argument was made for direct links to need satisfaction from self-concordance and from sustained effort, and appropriate goodness of fit was found for this modified model. In Study 3, the argument was made for a new variable to be inserted between goal attainment and need satisfaction: personal growth interpretation (PGI) of goal attainment. The PGI Scale was constructed to measure this variable, and then a portion of the model containing this new variable was tested and found to have appropriate goodness of fit. In Study 4, the entire modified model was tested and found to have appropriate goodness of fit. In Study 5, the effectiveness of a goal intervention program, which within the framework of the model focuses on improving the quality of goal-striving behaviour (sustained effort), was experimentally tested in relation to goal attainment. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group was asked to apply the program in helping them achieve their most important self-concordant goal over a one week period. The experimental group rated goal attainment and need satisfaction more highly than did the control group. Conclusion: The four model-fitting studies highlight the important role of psychological processes such as construal in the conative processes that predict subjective well-being. The final experimental study points to opportunities to further test the theoretical model in the context of developing strategies to improve well-being through motivational processes.
... Such participation is correlated with extraversion/sociability as participation is an active, contributive association in interest groups and affectionate groups, suggesting that introverts may be disadvantaged and seek indirect interaction. There is a tendency to seek goals that enhance subjective well-being (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003), and participation in group activity enhances subjective well-being through the physiology of feeling good, of being social, and of belonging. ...
Article
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Purpose To better understand behaviour in increasingly online social networks from a marketing perspective, we propose transcending the notion of an exchange market and so adopt an alternative participatory, communal conceptualisation. This is centred on participation in co-creating value to improve the conditions of the social commons. The focus on participating highlights that more is going on than product-for-money exchange. Design/methodology/approach The discussion of the phenomenon of participating considers finite and infinite games, gifting, part-taking, and customer participation. Findings The concept of creative economy is founded in the collaboration paradigm and suggests an economy of contribution that is not fully explained by monetised exchange between buyer and seller. Implications Observable and familiar examples are identified, and we conclude with some implications for marketing practice that might motivate further scholarship.
... The pro-socially motivated individual is driven by an underlying concern for the other. Sheldon, Arndt, and Houser-Marko (2003) found that individuals who pursue intrinsically motivated goals have a natural tendency to gravitate towards situations that simultaneously benefit themselves and others over time. Grant and Berg (2010) found that connecting individuals with the beneficiaries of their work enhanced prosocial motivation and task performance, perhaps by an increase in experienced inspiration, gratitude, and empathy. ...
Article
Positive psychology is the empirical study of what makes life worth living, an exploration of human flourishing. Work-life integration is a holistic approach to living that enables people to create wins across varying life domains. The author suggests that positive psychology and work-life integration are mutually satisfying fields of study. This paper outlines specific recommendations for how positive psychology theory and research can contribute to an individual’s success in effectively integrating work and life. In turn, the process of improving work-life integration may enhance an individual’s ability to live a flourishing life. Possible implications for this work include future empirical testing of the recommendations made in this paper to determine their validity and reliability and the scientific exploration of specific connections that can be made between positive psychology and work-life integration.
... He is the center of the valuing process, the evidence for his choices being supplied by his own senses" (Rogers, 1964, p. 161). Grouzet (2013) extended this idea by suggesting that people tend to pursue goals that will benefit the organism based on their own preferences and needs (see also Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). An individual will naturally select these goals because intrinsic goals are presumably associated with satisfaction of the psychological needs. ...
Thesis
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According to the dual valuing process model (Grouzet, 2013), the social context can either facilitate the natural human tendency to pursue intrinsic goals, or thwart it by promoting extrinsic goals. Congruent with this idea, research in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) suggests that parental autonomy support (PAS) is associated with the development of intrinsic goals, whereas more controlling parenting styles, such as conditional regard (PCR), are expected to facilitate extrinsic goals. Results from two preliminary studies suggest that mothers tended to use PAS to promote goals that were more intrinsic, as well young adults were more likely to autonomously internalize these goals, whereas PCR was associated with more extrinsic goals. In the current study, we sought to extend these findings by including a general measure of perceived parenting style, as well as asking participants to recall a goal that was promoted during adolescence (i.e., 13-16 years). Results from this study indicate no difference in the type of goal that was promoted or the way in which it was internalized when mothers used either autonomy support or conditional regard, over and above general parenting style. Results will be further discussed with respect to parenting, self-determination theory, and the dual valuing process model.
... In his chapter in Interdisciplinary Handbook, Sheldon cites evidence of the organismic valuing process as leading us, in the long run, in the direction of beneficial goal choices (Sheldon et al. 2003). Additionally, neuroscience begins to explore the biologic foundations being involved in the organismic valuing process, with phenomenon such as ''somatic markers'' (see Lux 2007Lux , 2010, and chapter by Lux) the ''integrative function of the insula'' (see chapter by Ryback) both in the research and theory Handbook (Cornelius-White et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
This book has been concerned with interdisciplinary applications of the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) to substantiate its theories. The concluding chapter provides a meta-view aiming to capture meta-theoretical statements and to integrate and expand between disciplines to offer further generation of ideas, research, and applications. Central elements include an experiential, whole-person approach to integration and enhancement, the systemic nature of the PCA, the recognition of the PCA as a way of being that acknowledges life as a directional, changing, social process, and the quality of interpersonal relationships as decisive factors for the actualization of persons and the constructive forming of their social systems.
... Few researchers actually make the effort to figure out how to test their seemingly untestable assumptions, though rare exceptions do pop up. Sheldon et al. (2003), for instance, found a clever way to test Carl Rogers' assumed inherent ''organismic valuing process''. But finding ways to test the assumptions on which our mini-theories are built is precisely what will be necessary to open up the fortress-like walls that separate and divide the field's various minitheories. ...
Article
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Baumeister asks what a grand theory of motivation might look like, and he identifies the key problems, challenges, and opportunities that need to be considered in its pursuit. I address four of these challenges—how to define motivation, whether motivation is a state or a trait, the primacy of motivation in psychology, and the necessity to not only manage motivational conflict but also to vitalize motivational assets. I focus primarily, however, on the key obstacle that prevents a grand theory—our non-shared assumptions about the nature and dynamics of motivation. I suggest we capitalize on new advances in statistics, methodology, and technology to test what used to be untestable assumptions about motivation. Shared assumptions are necessary for a coherent science, and only a coherent science is capable of constructing a general theory.
... As people engage in decision-making, they are able to draw from the experiential wisdom of the organismic valuing process in order to choose self-concordant goals linked to intrinsic needs such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness. They are increasingly less motivated by extrinsic goals such as material values, fame, or social status (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). As individuals orient themselves more and more toward intrinsic values, they demonstrate corresponding increases in subjective well-being, or happiness (oishi, Diener, Suh & Lucas, 1999;Schmuck, Kasser & Ryan, 2000). ...
Chapter
Dehumanization as a terror management defense is especially prone to impact attitudes and behaviors toward women. A compelling body of evidence demonstrates that reminders of feminine reproductive functions, including menstruation, lactation, and pregnancy, are typically associated with nature. Reminders of the creaturely aspects of women and thoughts about nature tend to trigger anxieties about death and dying. As a result, the animalistic or mechanistic objectification of women serves a terror management function. Animalistic objectification reduces the woman to an object that is less than human, whereas mechanistic objectification idealizes the feminine body as a means to suppress creaturely aspects of feminine reproduction that are experienced as threatening. Objectification can take on various forms, which are explored systematically.
... Our second study hypothesis was that this difference would be affected by the time-frame of the motivation assessment, such that the difference would be eliminated or reduced at the longer-term time frame. This would support our organismic-theoretical supposition that everybody is "intrinsic in the end," that is, oriented towards intrinsic more than extrinsic values and motivations in the long run, even if they are not so oriented in the present (Sheldon et al. 2003). Our third study hypothesis was that physical science students would be midway between the artist and business students. ...
Article
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We considered the interplay of intrinsic and external career motivation by comparing two relevant vocational groups: artists and businesspersons. In Study 1 business students, relative to art students, reported more external and less intrinsic motivations for their current majors, and aspired more to money, status, and appearance in the future. However, the two groups were no different on intrinsic future aspirations for growth, connection, and contribution. In Study 2 business students again had more external and less intrinsic career motivation. However, they were again no different in their intrinsic future aspirations, and also, were no different from art students in their longer-term career motivations. Study 3 used a sample of mTurk workers and replicated the basic pattern of three-way interactions. Physical scientists/science students, also examined in all studies, tended to have current and longer-term motivations lying midway between the art and business groups. Consistent with organismic perspectives on human nature, it appears that everyone aspires for a meaningful and enjoyable future; however, business types may put off these motivations in the present, whereas artistic types pursue them directly. This lends support to the notion that despite motivational differences in the present, everyone desires to be intrinsic in the end.
... 2006) and does so across cultures (Robinson et al., 2012). Following one's innate values (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003) toward greater concordance between one's goals and intrinsic, organismic https://doi. ...
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Two studies examined whether the well-documented link between authenticity and well-being is moderated by the Dark Tetrad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism). We predicted that among those high on these traits, authenticity would be less strongly associated with well-being. Study 1 (N=404) and Study 2 (N=415) showed that authenticity was less strongly related to well-being among those high on Dark Tetrad personality traits. In addition, Study 2 showed that the pattern of moderation was not accounted for by desirability bias. Study 2 demonstrated that the Dark Tetrad did not moderate the association between authenticity and basic need satisfaction. In both studies, at low levels of authenticity, the Dark Tetrad were associated with higher well-being.
... We made some plausible speculations about the potential mechanism, but empirical investigations are needed. Previous research has shown that pursuit of intrinsic goals that focus on personal growth, emotional intimacy, and societal contributions is related to the satisfaction of psychological needs (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). There are shared characteristics between mastery-approach goals and intrinsic goals in that both goals are concerned with personal growth. ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between achievement goals and self-determined motivation of students transitioning from middle school to high school. Participants were 3343 students from 9th to 11th grade. The overall results showed that varying degrees of self-determined motivation from middle school (9th grade) influenced the adoption of achievement goals in the first year of high school (10th grade) and the pursuit of achievement goal in the 10th grade influenced subsequent degrees of self-determined motivation in the 11th grade. One of the notable findings is that while the initial pursuit of mastery-approach goals might begin with various degrees of self-determined motivation, involvement in the pursuit of mastery-approach goals strengthened autonomous motivation while weakening controlled motivation. The current study consolidates the theoretical and practical utility of mastery-approach goals in strengthening intrinsic motivation and internalizing external values.
... Shamir (1990) argued that "many organizationally relevant actions are probably performed both for a person's own sake and for the sake of a collectivity such as a team, department, or organization […] with a wide range of motivational orientations that are neither purely individualistic […] nor purely altruistic" (Shamir, 1990). Several empirical studies found evidence of such possibility (De Dreu & Nauta, 2009;McAdams & de St. Aubin, 1992;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). Thus, it seems reasonable that a convergence between pro-self, pro-social and pro-organizational motivations represents a relevant antecedent of job crafting behaviors. ...
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The concept of “job crafting” is one of the most interesting constructs within the organizational literature about proactivity in the workplace. Several authors pointed out the need of longitudinal research on job crafting. In this paper we illustrate the results of a qualitative empirical research conducted within a large retail company. While available job crafting theory emphasizes individual goals as key motivational drivers for job crafting, we found that organizationally oriented goals and motivations are also very relevant. We also found that when a convergence of individual and organizational goals is observed, the motivation towards job crafting is significantly increased, and that work experience plays a significant role in such process.
... Clinical research on the treatment of diverse disorders shows that when people are helped to become willing to experience, rather than avoid, psychological or physical aversive sensations and to pursue a set of chosen values, their pain diminishes and the meaning and joy in their lives is enhanced (A-Tjak et al., 2015;Atkins et al., 2017;Jiménez, 2012). Moreover, it appears that when people are encouraged to freely choose their values rather than adopt the values that they perceive others demand that they live by, they typically choose a set of prosocial values that involve caring relationships with others (Gagné, 2003;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). ...
Article
This paper argues that diverse disciplines within the human sciences have converged in identifying the conditions that human beings need to thrive and the programs, policies, and practices that are needed to foster well-being. In the interest of promoting this view, we suggest that this convergence might usefully be labeled “The Nurture Consilience.” We review evidence from evolutionary biology, developmental, clinical, and social psychology, as well as public health and prevention science indicating that, for evolutionary reasons, coercive environments promote a “fast” life strategy that favors limited self-regulation, immediate gratification, and early childbearing. However, this trajectory can be prevented through programs, practices, and policies that (a) minimize toxic social and biological conditions, (b) limit opportunities and influences for problem behavior, (c) richly reinforce prosocial behavior, and (d) promote psychological flexibility. The recognition of these facts has prompted research on the adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based interventions. To fully realize the fruits of this consilience, it is necessary to reform every sector of society. We review evidence that free-market advocacy has promoted the view that if individuals simply pursue their own economic well-being it will benefit everyone, and trace how that view led business, health care, education, criminal justice, and government to adopt practices that have benefited a small segment of the population but harmed the majority. We argue that the first step in reforming each sector of society would be to promote the value of ensuring everyone's well-being. The second step will be to create contingencies that select beneficial practices and minimizes harmful ones.
... Relatively little is known, however, about why individuals differ in their attitudes towards death. As research from a Self-Determination Theory perspective has demonstrated the importance of satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness for mental health and integrative functioning in late adulthood (e.g., Sheldon et al., 2003), we aimed to examine the role of older adults' need-based experiences in their death attitudes. In doing so, we asked participants to reflect on their lives and retrospectively recall to what extent they got their psychological needs met throughout their lives. ...
Article
Given that prior research has provided evidence for the role of late adults’ attitudes towards death in their mental health, we sought to understand its underlying sources. Guided by Self-Determination Theory and Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, two cross-sectional studies examined whether older individuals’ psychological need-based experiences, as accumulated during life, relate to their death attitudes and whether their experienced ego integrity and despair play an intervening role in these associations. Whereas Study 1 (N = 394 late adults; Mage = 75.14; SD = 6.52; 62.9% female) involved an assessment of need satisfaction only, in Study 2 (N = 126 late adults; Mage = 78.09; SD = 7.17; 61.9% female) both need satisfaction and need frustration were assessed. Structural equation modeling showed that, across studies, experienced need satisfaction related positively to ego integrity and negatively to despair. Need frustration was related to despair only. In turn, ego integrity related positively to death acceptance and negatively to death anxiety, while despair related positively to death anxiety. Finally, the contribution of need satisfaction to death attitudes was mostly mediated by individuals’ ego integrity. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
... Thus, the more individuals consider sustainable food choice self-related (relevant to their current goals), the greater their intention to choose such products will be. This inclination can be attributed to humans' organismic tendency toward doing good for both the self and others (Sheldon et al., 2003). This discussion leads to the expectation that higher levels of activism will be associated with greater intentions to choose sustainable food at restaurants. ...
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This paper examines the antecedents of sustainable food choices by consumers and investigates the differences between consumers based on their state of motivational imbalance. A sample of 609 respondents from Egypt took part in the study. Data were analyzed using a two-step approach of confirmatory factor analysis and structural models. The results indicate that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, personal norms, and activism are significant antecedents of consumers’ intention toward sustainable food. However, the data reveal a non-significant effect of subjective norms. Motivational imbalance has significant moderating effects, such that consumers who experience motivational imbalance showed consistently weaker intentions than consumers who experience motivational balance. Furthermore, there are significant differences between consumers under various scenarios of motivational imbalance. Specifically, the comparison of different motivational conflicts showed that attitude–subjective norm and attitude–activism conflicts cause the most substantial negative impact on consumer intentions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... However, with the exception of self-determination theory , contemporary perspectives on authenticity do not endorse this assumption but rather equate authenticity with behaving congruently with one's current characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, values, and motives, whatever they may be. (For a description of the organismic valuing tendency from the self-determination perspective, see Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). Given that people possess both This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
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As the term is typically used, authenticity refers to the degree to which a particular behavior is congruent with a person’s attitudes, beliefs, values, motives, and other dispositions. However, researchers disagree regarding the best way to conceptualize and measure authenticity, whether being authentic is always desirable, why people are motivated to be authentic, and the nature of the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being. In this article, we examine existing views of authenticity, identify questionable assumptions about the concept of authenticity, and discuss issues regarding subjective feelings of inauthenticity, the implications of authenticity for psychological and social well-being, and the importance that people place on being authentic.
... In keeping with the person-centered model and Rogers' conceptualization of the fully functioning individual, these results suggest that fully functioning young adults with high self-esteem and life satisfaction, who live life authentically and do not accept external influence, have increased UPSR. Moreover, increased UPSR is positively associated with being in touch with one's true self and not placing excessive value on achieving something different from one's current state, even if those goals are consistent with intrinsic motivation-suggesting that in keeping with the organismic valuing process, those with UPSR experience congruence and will move more naturally toward intrinsic aspirations (Patterson & Joseph, 2013;Rogers, 1959;Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko, 2003). ...
... In addition, a basis of egoistic motivation is autonomy, the extent to which people feel their control and power. It is suggested that intrinsically motivated efforts to help enable people to fulfill their psychological needs for autonomy (Sheldon, Arndt, and Houser-Marko, 2003). In other words, individuals will engage in helping as they want to show their power. ...
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Entrepreneurs are using crowdfunding to reach out to the general public to obtain financial support for their new product development. Those who offer project creators financial support are called backers. In this research the authors examine two types of backer motivation, other orientation and self orientation, and their respective effects on a backer's funding decision on new product ideas at the reward-based crowdfunding platform. Other orientation is defined as a backer's altruistic motivation to help others when making a funding decision; and self orientation is defined as a backer's egoistic motivation to pursue internal feeling, such as personal satisfaction and power to control the project. They find that self orientation has a stronger positive effect than other orientation on the backer's funding decision. Furthermore, the authors examine the difference between men and women, and find that the relationship between other orientation and funding decision is stronger for women than men, but the relationship for self orientation is stronger for men than women. The authors conduct three empirical studies to test the hypotheses in both the backer's and the project creator's contexts. In Study 1, they adopt a survey method to investigate effects of the backer's motivation on his or her funding decision in the film category. In Study 2, they use data of 600 film projects from kickstarter.com to examine linguistic cues used by project creators that stimulate backer motivation. In Study 3, they conduct an experiment to further validate results of the difference between men and women. Although some research suggests that extrinsic reward is a reason for backers' funding behavior, the authors emphasize that their psychological need also plays an influential role. In addition, findings of the difference between men and women enrich the crowdfunding literature by discovering distinct backer subgroups.
... Οη ελδνγελείο ζηφρνη εληάζζνληαη ζηα πιαίζηα ηεο απηφλνκεο θηλεηνπνίεζεο θαη αθνξνχλ ηηο επηδηψμεηο ηνπ αηφκνπ πνπ γίλνληαη θαζαξά επεηδή είλαη εγγελψο ελδηαθέξνπζεο θαη ηθαλνπνηεηηθέο γηα ην άηνκν ζε αληίζεζε κε ηνπο εμσγελείο ζηφρνπο ηνπο νπνίνπο επηιέγεη ην άηνκν επεηδή ζα θεξδίζεη θάπνηα αληακνηβή ή ζα απνθχγεη θάπνηα ηηκσξία (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Ζ κεηαθίλεζε ησλ ζπκκεηερφλησλ πξνο ηελ εγγελή θηλεηνπνίεζε απνηειεί γηα ηνπο Sheldon et al. (2003) απφδεημε γηα ηε ιεηηνπξγία ηεο νξγαληζκηθήο δηεξγαζίαο αμηνιφγεζεο. ...
... The available empirical evidence from the field of positive psychology validates the thesis that the OVP is a real and a fairly tangible force which aspects can be discriminated and observed. Research into human ability to attain goals (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), intrinsic goal orientation (Schmuck, Kasser & Ryan;2000) and people's preference for choosing directions that enhance well-being (Sheldon, Arndt, & Houser-Marko; continuously supported evaluative and progressive character of human nature. Striving toward the fulfilment of psychological needs, self-actualisation and psychological well-being, as well as research into its correlates e.g. ...
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Recent scholarship in the person-centered experiential (PCE) approach has theorized how organismic valuing might be an important process factor in the development of posttraumatic growth. In a test of this prediction we investigated the association between Gendlin’s focusing and posttraumatic growth in 87 participants. All completed measures of focusing attitudes, posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. The results showed that higher scores on focusing attitudes were significantly associated with lower scores on posttraumatic stress (r = −.39, p < .001), and higher scores on posttraumatic growth (lowest r = .32, p < .001), and that the associations with posttraumatic growth remained even with scores on posttraumatic stress partialled out (lowest r = .33, p < .001). Implications of these findings are discussed for therapeutic work with trauma survivors. Specifically, the results provide support that the use of Gendlin’s focusing and/or focusing evocative language may be effective in supporting those who suffer from severe and chronic trauma-related problems. These results provide sufficient support to warrant further clinical research using more sophisticated experimental approaches to test whether therapeutic work using focusing is able to promote posttraumatic growth.
Thesis
Objective: A number of studies have demonstrated a link between extrinsic values and lower psychological well-being. Despite this, relatively few, studies have investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for this link. Experiential avoidance is one of the potential pathogenic mechanisms which have been implicated to mediate the relationship between extrinsically orientated individuals and diminished psychological well-being (Kashdan & Breen, 2007). The current study tested the hypothesis concerning the negative influence of experiential avoidance as a mediator of extrinsic values and poorer psychological well-being. Method: 136 participants completed an anonymous set of measures including the AAQ-II, the PVQ, the BFI, and the GHQ-28. Results: Results showed a significant relation between measures of experiential avoidance and achievement of personal values, indicating that the more experientially avoidant individuals tended to follow more extrinsically orientated valued living, and demonstrate poorer psychological well-being. Also, an intercorrelation between the variables indicated that self reported 'commitment' and 'importance' of each of the personal values were more significant factors than values success and motive. Finally, achievement of personal values was actually a stronger unique predictor of our equation model contrasting with experiential avoidance and psychological well-being. Conclusion: The results of this study are interesting as the findings indicate that individuals who reported greater willingness to experience negatively evaluated psychological private events also reported better psychological well-being, stronger commitment towards their chosen values, higher motivation, seriousness, and empowered gravity to achieve them. Additionally, the findings further suggested that better psychological well-being is associated with lower engagement in experientially avoidant behaviours. Lastly, although we replicated the findings from previous studies, the results of the current investigation suggest that experiential avoidance may play less of a role in the peoples' tendency to follow controlled (pliance goals) versus autonomous motivation (tracking goals) over time
Article
While opportunism, a ‘dark side’ construct, has been discussed at length, inertia, boredom, and complacency, have received less attention. This is surprising given their detrimental effect on relationships. This study identifies antecedents and manifestations of the constructs and discusses strategies for suppressing their emergence. We identify cognitive fatigue and positive reinforcement as antecedents of inertia; routine, formalization, instruction ambiguity, and self-concept incompatibility of boredom; and excessive self-efficacy and relationship continuity of complacency. Manifestations include response invariability, consensus seeking, shallow task engagement, reduced effort, and reduced attentiveness. In the context of resource deployment, we show that, whereas complacency is the result of self-serving resource restriction, boredom and inertia result from involuntary, or well-intentioned, resource restriction. We demonstrate the importance of understanding construct antecedents because, while the consequence of all three is underperformance, strategies for suppressing them vary because of the diverse range of antecedents and their resource deployment implications.
Article
Drawing on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Sheldon & Kasser, 1998), the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic life goals, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and well-being was explored in a sample of 439 freshmen from four different faculties. Three models were examined by structural equation modeling: for goal importance, for present attainment of goals, and for future goals attainment. Specifically, four hypotheses were tested: (1) life goals can be divided into two categories, extrinsic and intrinsic, (2) only intrinsic goals enable satisfaction of basic psychological needs, (3) personal well-being is a direct function of the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and (4) intrinsic goals have an indirect effect on well-being, mediated by satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and extrinsic goals have a direct effect on well-being. The hypothesized relationships were confirmed. The results of the study are consistent with past research and provide support for self-determination theory.
Article
Drawing on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Sheldon & Kasser, 1998), the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic life goals, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and well-being was explored in a sample of 439 freshmen from four different faculties. Three models were examined by structural equation modeling: for goal importance, for present attainment of goals, and for future goals attainment. Specifically, four hypotheses were tested: (1) life goals can be divided into two categories, extrinsic and intrinsic, (2) only intrinsic goals enable satisfaction of basic psychological needs, (3) personal well-being is a direct function of the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and (4) intrinsic goals have an indirect effect on well-being, mediated by satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and extrinsic goals have a direct effect on well-being. The hypothesized relationships were confirmed. The results of the study are consistent with post research and provide support for self-determination theory.
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In this paper, we build upon the model of authenticity proposed by Lehman and colleagues, which includes the dimensions consistency, conformity, and connection. We expand this “3C-view” by adding a fourth dimension, continuity, which results in what we have come to call “4C-view of authenticity.” We discuss our proposal from a process perspective and emphasize that congruence might be a reasonable candidate for a concept that unifies the four dimensions of authenticity.
Chapter
Anesthetic consciousness is an obstacle to the organismic valuing process by which people orient themselves to intrinsically motivated, felt values, which is the basis for experiential wisdom. As a coping mechanism in response to the human finitude and mortality, it is a self-defeating, maladaptive strategy. In contrast, the cultivation of mindfulness creates present-centered, embodied awareness of felt values, which enhances the organismic valuing process, and becomes a basis for authentic life review by which we can come to terms with death and dying. Through the cultivation of mindfulness as a style of being, the person develops attentive awareness of interoceptive feedback from the body, which cultivates compassionate and empathic engagement with others.
Conference Paper
Modern game developers encounter difficulties accounting for an increasingly disparate audience with uniquely individual preferences. These preferences must be identified before any substantive efforts to accommodate them. Because the pursuit of goals and rewards is the central organizing structure in games, individual preferences need to be approached through the lens of goals and rewards selection. Previous research has focused on identifying player types and characteristics, yet rarely connects these characteristics directly with game components. Our experiment applies categories of psychogenic needs to subjects' discrete choices when playing a simple open-source 2D platform game. We found subjects' valuation of short-term versus long-term goal selection to be of particular interest. We also found discrepancies between perceived enjoyments when measured during the gameplay and when measured after the game. The knowledge of how various personalities engage with given goals and selecting rewards is valuable beyond the narrow context of videogames in areas such as placement of employees in the business or soldiers in roles that better fit their personalities and preferences.
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This article looks back and also looks forward at the values aspect of school mathematics teaching and learning. Looking back, it draws on existing academic knowledge to explain why the values construct has been regarded in recent writings as a conative variable, that is, associated with willingness and motivation. The discussion highlights the tripartite model of the human mind which was first conceptualised in the eighteenth century, emphasising the intertwined and mutually enabling processes of cognition, affect, and conation. The article also discusses what we already know about the nature of values, which suggests that values are both consistent and malleable. The trend in mathematics educational research into values over the last three decades or so is outlined. These allow for an updated definition of values in mathematics education to be offered in this article. Considering the categories of values that might be found in mathematics classrooms, an argument is also made for more attention to be paid to general educational values. After all, the potential of the values construct in mathematics education research extends beyond student understanding of and performance in mathematics, to realising an ethical mathematics education which is important for thriveability in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Looking ahead, then, this article outlines a 4-step values development approach for implementation in the classroom, involving Justifying, Essaying, Declaring, and Identifying. With an acronym of JEDI, this novel approach has been informed by the theories of 'saying is believing', self-persuasion, insufficient justification, and abstract construals.
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Self-Determination Theory presents a macro- theory of human motivation that has been applied to many risky behaviours. Nevertheless, there is a scarce literature on the role of this theory in predicting alcohol and cannabis consumption. The aim of this research was to determine how well some constructs of Self- Determination Theory predict frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption among the first and the second year students at the University of Zagreb that lived in student dormitories. Three instruments were translated from English to Croatian: Self-Determination Scale (Sheldon & Deci, 1993), General Causality Orientations Scale (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and The Learning Climate Questionnaire (Williams & Deci, 1996). A pilot study was conducted on a convenient sample of 114 (32.5% males and 67.5% females) participants of the first and the second year of the study at the University of Zagreb that lived in student dormitories. Based on the data from the pilot study, the factor structure of the instruments was examined, and General Causality Orientations Scale was shortened and adapted. The main research was conducted on a quota sample of 438 (37.9% males and 62.1% females) participants of the first and the second year of the study at University of Zagreb that lived in student dormitories. While planning the sample, efforts were made to ensure that ratio of participants regarding the gender and the field of the study represents population ratios. In the research the following instruments were applied: Self-Determination Scale (Sheldon & Deci, 1993) ; adapted version of the autonomy and control subscales of the General Causality Orientations Scale (Deci & Ryan, 1985) ; autonomy subscale of the General Need Satisfaction Scale (Gagné, 2003) ; The Learning Climate Questionnaire (Williams & Deci, 1996) ; extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism subscales of the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP50) ; and the questionnaire on the frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption (adapted version of the European Model Questionnaire, EMCDDA, 2002 ; questions on synthetic cannabinoids were also included). Separate hierarchical regression analysis for males and females were conducted with a number of days in the last 30 days that participant consumed alcohol, and the number of days participant consumed cannabis in a lifetime as criteria. In predicting alcohol consumption among males, the proposed model explained 13.1% of the variance of this behaviour, and extraversion showed to be a significant predictor. Among females, the model explained 10.9% of variance of alcohol consumption, with extraversion and autonomy orientation as significant determinants. The proposed model failed to explain cannabis consumption among males ; there were no significant predictors. Among females, the model explained 11.4% of the variance of cannabis consumption. Significant predictors were extraversion, autonomy causality orientation, and need for autonomy. In the total sample, moderation effects of self-determination and personality traits did not occur, while extraversion and conscientiousness were significant, although weak, predictors of alcohol consumption. On the other hand, there is significant interaction effect of self-determination and extraversion on the frequency of cannabis consumption. The whole model explained 5.4% of variance of cannabis consumption, out of which the interaction effect explained 3.1% of variance. Among participants that were average and high in self-determination, increase in extraversion was followed with an increase in cannabis consumption, and this effect was stronger among students with higher self-determination. The effect was not present among students with low self-determination. Among these participants, cannabis consumption was the same, regardless their extraversion. Since alcohol and cannabis consumption are complex phenomena, it would be unrealistic to expect that high proportion of variance could be explained with motivational theory. In spite of that, this research gave important contributions in understanding alcohol and cannabis consumption among students that live in student dormitories and are at the beginning of their studies. Implications are also recognized on scientific and practical levels. While planning prevention interventions, the fact that different predictors determine alcohol and cannabis consumption among males and females should be taken into an account, as well as the result that students that seem to function well, are not necessarily sufficiently equipped for life challenges.
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Psychological grit predicts success in a range of circumstances, such as greater probability of having lifelong academic achievement and success at jobs. In the interests of including the fullest picture of how grit relates to well-being, knowledge on an individual's strength has been considered to be a possible mediator. The present study aims to understand the nature of psychological wellbeing and grit among young managers who have just been placed at various companies after completing management education, and how their knowledge strength have moderated their sense of psychological wellbeing and grit. For the purpose, 450 students of VI Trimester of their management course were employed as respondents who have already been placed in various companies and are ready to join their jobs within two months from the date of data collection. The study has found that, psychological wellbeing impacts grit and knowledge of own strengths and use of those have moderating effect on psychological wellbeing and grit. Grit entails working strenuously in difficult situations, maintaining effort and concentration over years despite being unsuccessful sometime.
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This article looks back and also looks forward at the values aspect of school mathematics teaching and learning. Looking back, it draws on existing academic knowledge to explain why the values construct has been regarded in recent writings as a conative variable, that is, associated with willingness and motivation. The discussion highlights the tripartite model of the human mind which was first conceptualised in the eighteenth century, emphasising the intertwined and mutually enabling processes of cognition, affect, and conation. The article also discusses what we already know about the nature of values, which suggests that values are both consistent and malleable. The trend in mathematics educational research into values over the last three decades or so is outlined. These allow for an updated definition of values in mathematics education to be offered in this article. Considering the categories of values that might be found in mathematics classrooms, an argument is also made for more attention to be paid to general educational values. After all, the potential of the values construct in mathematics education research extends beyond student understanding of and performance in mathematics, to realising an ethical mathematics education which is important for thriveability in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Looking ahead, then, this article outlines a 4-step values development approach for implementation in the classroom, involving Justifying, Essaying, Declaring, and Identifying. With an acronym of JEDI, this novel approach has been informed by the theories of 'saying is believing', self-persuasion, insufficient justification, and abstract construals.
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We studied how people “cross the Rubicon” when making personal goal selections. In Studies 1 and 2 participants rated the self-concordance of four candidate goals, two with intrinsic and two with extrinsic content, before selecting two goals to actually pursue. Intrinsic goal content predicted higher self-concordance, as did matching between goal content and participant values and motives. Self-concordance in turn explained participants’ actual goal-selections. In longitudinal Study 2, intrinsic goal selection predicted increased well-being. In experimental Study 3, participants randomly assigned to rate candidate goals prior to selection made more intrinsic selections on average, compared to those not afforded this opportunity. We conclude that considering one’s motivations for various candidate goals prior to selecting among them can improve one’s goal choices.
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Dunlop provides an integrative framework for the study of personality as it is lived by the individual and covers much ground in pulling together McAdams' thinking about essential distinctive levels of personality and research from the contextualized personality literature. While we welcome Dunlop's reminder about the importance of recognizing the dynamic relatedness of distinguishable levels of personality, we question whether the presented operationalizations of contextualized personality are optimal. Our comment departs from a clinical angle, and we illustrate these thoughts using examples from Therapeutic Assessment. Copyright (C) 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
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The pursuit of happiness is a fundamental human motivation. Indeed neoclassical economics is built on the assumption that people maximize utility, which, at least in its Benthamite incarnation, was equivalent to maximizing happiness. Despite its virtually axiomatic status, a number of studies have called into question the actual functionality of the goal of explicitly trying to maximize ones happiness. Some studies have found that people mispredict what will bring them happiness - for example, people expect to derive more pleasure from increases in income than they actually experience when their income increases (Loewenstein & Frederick, 1997). Other studies find that people with more materialistic values report lower average levels of happiness than people with more intrinsic motivations (Kasser & Ryan, 1996). The present studies address another dimension of this issue by examining the impact on happiness of deliberately trying to be happy. In a laboratory study, individuals listened to hedonically ambiguous music (Stravinsky) with either explicit instructions to listen to the music "in order to make yourself feel as happy as possible" or they were simply asked to "listen to a piece of music. The degree to which individuals explicitly attended to their happiness was also varied. As they listened to the music, some subjects were asked to monitor their happiness by continually adjusting a computerized "happiness meter". Others were not given happiness monitoring instructions. Both before and after listening to the music participants were given a variety of mood and happiness measures. Although result varied somewhat across the different measures, the central findings were 1) listening to music with the goal of trying to become happy reduced happiness, and 2) monitoring happiness while listening to music also reduced happiness. These findings suggest that at least in hedonically ambiguous situations, the explicit pursuit and monitoring of happiness can be counter- productive. References
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Publisher Summary This chapter deals with terror management theory that attempts to contribute to the understanding of social behavior by focusing on the essential being and circumstance of the human animal. The theory posits that all human motives are ultimately derived from a biologically based instinct for self-preservation. Relative equanimity in the face of these existential realities is possible through the creation and maintenance of culture, which serves to minimize the terror by providing a shared symbolic context that imbues the universe with order, meaning, stability, and permanence. The theory provides a theoretical link between superficially unrelated substantive areas, and focuses on one particular motive that makes it distinctly human and, unfortunately, distinctly destructive. Theories serve a variety of equally important functions, all of which are oriented towards improving the ability to think about and understand the subject matter of discipline. The chapter discusses the dual-component cultural anxiety buffer: worldview and self-esteem, the development and functioning of the cultural anxiety buffer for the individual, and a terror management analysis of social behavior in great detail.
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Two studies were conducted to assess the hypothesis that shifting individuals’ base of self-esteem to more stable, intrinsic self-attributes would reduce psychological defensiveness in the form of self-handicapping attributions and conformity. In Study 1, participants visualized an individual who liked them contingently or noncontingently, or who was neutral toward them, and then made attributions for an impending test performance. Participants who visualized the noncontingently accepting other made fewer self-handicapping attributions. In Study 2, partici pants wrote about an intrinsic self-attribute, an achievement, or a neutral event and then evaluated several abstract art paintings while knowing how other participants purportedly rated the paintings. Participants for whom the intrinsic self was primed conformed less to others’ judgments relative to achievement self-primed and control participants. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for understanding the connection between self-esteem and defensiveness.
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distinguishing among intentional acts: the "why" of behavior [intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, internalization and integration, the consequences of different regulatory styles, the social context and motivational orientations] / the "what" of goals: considering content [goal content and mental health, why do some people focus on extrinsic goals, goals and needs: are some goals better than others] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The constructs of horizontal (H) and vertical (V) individualism (I) and collectivism (C) were theoretically defined and empirically supported. Study 1 confirmed, via factor analysis, that the 4 constructs, HI, V1, HC, and VC, which were previously found in the United States, which has an individualist culture, also were found in Korea which has a collectivist culture. Study 2 investigated multimethod-multitrait matrices measuring the constructs and generally supported their convergent and divergent validity. Study 3 showed how these 4 constructs relate to previously identified components by H. C. Triandis and colleagues. Study 4 showed the relationships of the measurement of the 4 constructs to some of the measures used by other researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Focuses on one of the introspectively accessible concomitants of self-regulatory competence, namely 'uncontrollable rumination,' and provides a brief summary of the authors' theory of volition, and the theory of personality in which it is embedded (Kuhl, 1994, 1997). Specifically, two types of rumination are distinguished that relate to informed vs uninformed self-incongruence (or 'unwantedness') of task-irrelevant intrusions. To the extent that these two types of rumination depend on different affective conditions, they can be applied to the assessment of different types of self-regulation associated with the positive and negative affective systems. It may be further concluded, that people leaning toward overcontrol (a) may be identified on the basis on uninformed self-incongruence of task-irrelevant intrusions, and (b) cannot learn to take advantage of the positive effects of self-reward over self-punishment strategies until they develop the ability to integrate explicit goals into their implicit self-representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Eighty-three people in the slums of Calcutta, India were interviewed, and responded to several measures of subjective well-being. The respondents came from one of three groups: Those living in slum housing, sex workers (prostitutes) residing in brothels, and homeless individuals living on the streets. They responded to questions about life satisfaction and satisfaction with various life domains, as well as to a memory recall measure of good and bad events in their lives. While the mean rating of general life satisfaction was slightly negative, the mean ratings of satisfaction with specific domains were positive. The conclusion is that the slum dwellers of Calcutta generally experience a lower sense of life satisfaction than more affluent comparison groups, but are more satisfied than one might expect. This could be due, in part, to the strong emphasis on social relationships and the satisfaction derived from them.
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• Why do girls tend to earn better grades in school than boys? Why are men still far more likely than women to earn degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? And why are men on average more likely than women to be injured in accidents and fights? These and many other questions are the subject of both informal investigation in the media and formal investigation in academic and scientific circles. In his landmark book Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences (see record 2000-07043-000 ), author David C. Geary provided the first comprehensive evolutionary model to explain human sex differences. Now, over 10 years since the first edition, Geary has completed a massive update, expansion, and theoretical revision of his classic text. New findings in brain and genetic research inform a wealth of new material, including a new chapter on sex differences in patterns of life history development; expanded coverage of genetic research (e.g., DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity as related to male-male competition in primates); fatherhood in humans; cross-cultural patterns of sex differences in choosing and competing for mates; and genetic, hormonal, and sociocultural influences on the expression of sex differences. Finally, through his motivation to control framework, Geary presents a theoretical bridge linking parenting, mate choices, and competition with children's development and sex differences in brain and cognition. The result is a lively and nuanced application of Darwin's insight to help explain our heritage and our place in the natural world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • Why do girls tend to earn better grades in school than boys? Why are men still far more likely than women to earn degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? And why are men on average more likely than women to be injured in accidents and fights? These and many other questions are the subject of both informal investigation in the media and formal investigation in academic and scientific circles. In his landmark book Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences (see record 2000-07043-000 ), author David C. Geary provided the first comprehensive evolutionary model to explain human sex differences. Now, over 10 years since the first edition, Geary has completed a massive update, expansion, and theoretical revision of his classic text. New findings in brain and genetic research inform a wealth of new material, including a new chapter on sex differences in patterns of life history development; expanded coverage of genetic research (e.g., DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity as related to male-male competition in primates); fatherhood in humans; cross-cultural patterns of sex differences in choosing and competing for mates; and genetic, hormonal, and sociocultural influences on the expression of sex differences. Finally, through his motivation to control framework, Geary presents a theoretical bridge linking parenting, mate choices, and competition with children's development and sex differences in brain and cognition. The result is a lively and nuanced application of Darwin's insight to help explain our heritage and our place in the natural world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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The focus of this chapter is on the course of action, which is understood to be a temporal, horizontal path starting with a person's desires and ending with the evaluation of the achieved action outcome. The phenomena of choosing an action goal, initiating the appropriate actions, and executing these actions are assumed to be situated in between. This comprehensive perspective conceives of the course of action as a number of consecutive, distinct segments or phases. It raises questions concerning how people choose action goals, plan and enact their execution, and eaaluate thek efforts. The concept of "mind-set" is employed to find answers to these questions in terms of the cognitive processes or orientations that allow for easy completion of the different action phases.
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In 2 experiments, college student Ss were instructed to choose between a drug that allegedly interfered with performance and a drug that allegedly enhanced performance. This choice was the main dependent measure of the experiment. The drug choice intervened between work on soluble or insoluble problems and a promised retest on similar problems. In Exp I with 68 males and 43 females, all Ss received success feedback after their initial problem-solving attempts, thus creating one condition in which the success appeared to be accidental (noncontingent on performance) and one in which the success appeared to be contingent on appropriate knowledge. Males in the noncontingent-success condition were alone in preferring the performance-inhibiting drug, presumably because they wished to externalize probable failure on the retest. The predicted effect, however, did not hold for female Ss. Exp II, with 87 Ss, replicated the unique preference shown by males after noncontingent success and showed the critical importance of success feedback. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.
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Current theories of motivation provide insightful discussions of why people behave as they do. In addition, the research studies surrounding these theories provide insights that can help people move toward the goals of greater competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, these theories cannot lead to realization of what is widely considered the most fundamental goal of humanity: underlying contentment. In this article, a Zen Buddhist perspective is presented that illuminates some problematic aspects of current theories of motivation. The article also presents the way in which Zen Buddhism avoids these problems and points toward contentment (whether linked to Buddhist doctrine or not). The article closes with educational implications of a Zen Buddhist perspective.
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The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology. The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity.
Article
The constructs of horizontal (H) and vertical (V) individualism (I) and collectivism (C) were theoretically defined and emperically supported. Study 1 confirmed, via factor analysis, that the 4 constructs, HI, VI, HC, and VC, which were previously found in the United States, which has an individualist culture, also were found in Korea, which has a collectivist culture. Study 2 investigated multimethod-multitrait matrices measuring the constructs and generally supported their convergent and divergent validity. Study 3 showed how these 4 constructs relate to previously identified components by H. C. Triandis and colleagues. Study 4 showed the relationships of the measurement of the 4 constructs to some of the measures used by other researchers.
Article
Why do girls tend to earn better grades in school than boys? Why are men still far more likely than women to earn degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? And why are men on average more likely to be injured in accidents and fights than women? These and many other questions are the subject of both informal investigation in the media and formal investigation in academic and scientific circles. In his landmark book "Male, Female: The Evolution of Human Sex Differences", author David Geary provided the first comprehensive evolutionary model to explain human sex differences. Using the principles of sexual selection such as female choice and male-male competition, the author systematically reviewed and discussed the evolution of sex differences and their expression throughout the animal kingdom, as a means of not just describing but explaining the same process in Homo sapiens. Now, over ten years since the first edition, Geary has completed a massive update, expansion and theoretical revision of his classic text. New findings in brain and genetic research inform a wealth of new material, including a new chapter on sex differences in patterns of life history development; expanded coverage of genetic research (e.g. DNA finger printing to determine paternity as related to male-male competition in primates); fatherhood in humans; cross-cultural patterns of sex differences in choosing and competing for mates; and, genetic, hormonal, and socio-cultural influences on the expression of sex differences. Finally, through his motivation to control framework (introduction in the first edition and expanded in "The Origin of Mind", 2005), Geary presents a theoretical bridge linking parenting, mate choices, and competition, with children's development and sex differences in brain and cognition. The result is an even better book than the original - a lively and nuanced application of Darwin's insight to help explain our heritage and our place in the natural world.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
Article
Previous research found that aspirations to financial success related inversely to self-actualization and that aspirations to community involvement related positively to self-actualization. We argue that diverse reasons can underlie both of these aspirations, leading to more complex predictions. In a sample of 246 participants, we assessed both self-determining and controlling reasons for each class of aspiration, along with endorsements of the aspirations themselves. Initial regression analyses replicated the earlier findings. Subsequent analyses found that endorsement of self-determining reasons for either class of aspiration related positively to self-actualization and that endorsement of controlling reasons for either class of aspiration related inversely to self-actualization. In the analysis involving community involvement, the aspiration itself no longer retained predictive power after the other variables were taken into account. In the analysis involving financial success, however, the aspiration retained an independent predictive role.
Article
Although goal theorists have speculated about the causes and consequences of making progress at personal goals, little longitudinal research has examined these issues. In the current prospective study, participants with stronger social and self-regulatory skills made more progress in their goals over the course of a semester. In turn, goal progress predicted increases in psychological well-being, both in short-term (5-day) increments and across the whole semester; At both short- and long-term levels of analysis, however, the amount that well-being increased depended on the "organismic congruence" of participants' goals. That is, participants benefited most from goal attainment when the goals that they pursued were consistent with inherent psychological needs. We conclude that a fuller understanding of the relations between goals, performance, and psychological well-being requires recourse to both cybernetic and organismic theories of motivation.
Article
Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The response latencies of college students to computer-displayed emotionally arousing or emotionally neutral self-report statement were investigated. Arousing and neutral statements were matched for word and character length to control for reading time. Subjects responded to statements by pressing T (for true), F (for false), or the space bar (for cannot say) keys on the keyboard, and the computer recorded the elapsed time from the onset of each statement's display until the subject's response. Results indicated that response latencies were significantly longer for the arousing items. The findings suggest that the recording of response latencies in computerized personality inventories may help identify item content areas that individuals find emotionally arousing. Other possible clinical and research uses for response latencies in computerized inventories are discussed.
Article
Reflects the faith that there is such a thing as personality (loosely defined in terms of regularities in feeling, thought, and action that are characteristic of an individual), that there is such a thing as social behavior (referring to those domains of thought, feeling, and action concerned with people and events in their social worlds), and that the two are linked, both in theory and in practice, such that personality can tell us something important about social behavior, and that social behavior can tell us something important about personality. Topics of discussion include: shared motivational concerns of personality and social psychology; the functionalist strategy for personality and social behavior; the functionalist strategy in action: three case examples; features and meta-features of the functionalist strategy; and the functionalist strategy in context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the subfield of culture and personality is the oldest of cross-cultural psychology / many writers prescribed how culture and personality studies should be done, but almost no one has followed these prescriptions, because they are too demanding / J. G. Draguns has suggested that the strategy should consist of an examination of dimensions of personality across cultures / this is the strategy that is described in this chapter / discuss dimensions of cultural variation, dimensions of social behavior, and dimensions of personality variation, and suggest how the 3 sets of dimensions can be placed into an integrated theoretical framework / discuss some preliminary major differences of opinion among specialists in this field and some methodological issues (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Current theories of motivation provide insightful discussions of why people behave as they do. In addition, the research studies surrounding these theories provide insights that can help people move toward the goals of greater competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, these theories cannot lead to realization of what is widely considered the most fundamental goal of humanity: underlying contentment. In this article, a Zen Buddhist perspective is presented that illuminates some problematic aspects of current theories of motivation. The article also presents the way in which Zen Buddhism avoids these problems and points toward contentment (whether linked to Buddhist doctrine or not). The article closes with educational implications of a Zen Buddhist perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The tit-for-tat strategy is known for its ability to train cooperation during an iterated 2-person prisoner's dilemma. In this research, a repeated measures design was used to assess the nature and long-term persistence of such training. One month after playing against a programmed tit-for-tat strategy, participants returned to the lab to play a randomly matched other participant. Participants increased their levels of cooperative behavior, both during the 1st sequence and in the 2nd sequence compared with the first. Dispositional competitors increased the most from the 1st to the 2nd sequence and also gained the most new respect for opponents' self-interestedness following the 1st sequence. This suggests that competitors may be individualists at heart and that the "punitive" feature of tit-for-tat (R. Axelrod, 1984) is important for eliciting enhanced cooperation from such opponents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The mechanistic view of Newtonian science was interpreted by German holism to consist of barren facts and purposeless theories. The assumption that the whole determines the operation of its parts enables holism to provide moral value and existential meaning to human existence. Whereas a positivist view of science assumes that facts cannot logically yield moral values that are right for humankind, holism contends that human values can be revealed in a scientific manner. The same epistemological process that allows holism and humanistic psychology to generate a psychologically demanded morality has also justified Nazi and Communist ideology. The logic of the fact/value dichotomy and the inevitable ascendancy of moral pluralism prevent scientific psychology from serving a democratic society as a pipeline to moral truth or to a positive conception of mental health. Psychological research can estimate the consequences of competing social policies and thus assist a democracy in making informed choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Organismic theories and recent research suggest that environments that do not support growth and self-expression are associated with valuing financial success relatively more than affiliation, community feeling, and self-acceptance. This prediction was investigated in a heterogenous sample of 18-yr-olds using a variety of methods and informants. Teenagers who rated the importance of financial success aspirations relatively high compared to other values were found to have mothers who were less nurturant. Further, materially oriented teenagers grew up in less advantageous socioeconomic circumstances and were raised by mothers who especially valued the teens' financial success. Discussion focuses on explicating the different ways values are acquired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors propose that a full understanding of the relationship between optimal functioning and personal goals depends on understanding how goals relate to basic psychological needs. Results from two samples of US college students show that well-being outcomes are differentially associated with a focus on extrinsic aspirations (financial success, social recognition, and appearance) versus intrinsic aspirations (self-acceptance, affiliation, and community feeling). Across ratings of the importance, likelihood of attainment, and current attainment of goals, findings suggest that a relative focus on extrinsic goals is either negatively or neutrally related to well-being, whereas a focus on intrinsic goals is associated with greater well-being. Extrinsic goals are further shown to be associated with lower self-esteem and more television consumption (Sample 1) and greater drug use and a lower quality of relationships with friends and romantic partners (Sample 2). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Self-regulatory models of personality emphasize the system of goals that make up the self, the relationships among goals at different levels of abstraction, and the processes by which people try to move toward goals and away from threats. Our view is that actions are managed by one set of feedback processes, and that feelings arise from a different set of feedback processes. Another element in this view is that when people encounter obstacles to goal attainment, their expectancies of success help determine whether they continue to try, or disengage from further effort. Disengaging can create problems for people, but giving up the unattainable is an important part of life. The view discussed here also assumes that people's aspirations tend to recalibrate over experience, such that successes tend to promote higher goals and failures tend to promote lowering of goals. Sometimes goals conflict, so that trying to attain one means suppressing another. This effort sometimes backfires, though, bringing the suppressed desire even more into awareness. Efforts to suppress also sometimes fail, producing a loss of self-control. Finally, the self-regulatory models discussed here continue to grow. One direction for growth is provided by ideas in recently emerging bodies of thought known as dynamic systems theory and connectionism. Keywords: attractors; connectionism; disengagement; dynamic systems; expectancies; feedback; goals; self-regulation
Article
Evolutionary psychology seeks to understand the functional design underlying psychological processes and behavior. Theories of selection pressures developed within evolutionary biology are key components of this understanding. Because past selection pressures responsible for current design cannot be directly observed, theoretical understandings of the psychological processes and behavior must be inferred. The most important epistemological concept within evolutionary psychology is that of special design-evidence that a feature exhibits specificity, efficiency, and economy for producing a particular beneficial effect. A variety of sexual-selection processes have been proposed to account for aspects of human mating. These processes are not mutually exclusive. More than one may account for aspects of human mating. A core task of evolutionary psychology within this domain is to identify which processes account for which phenomena. I have attempted to illustrate how the search for special design is central to this endeavor.
Article
Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people's longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents' emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being will both help us better understand SWB indictors and group differences in well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people's well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
Chapter
Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people’s longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents’ emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people’s well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
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In two closely related experiments, college student subjects were instructed to choose between a drug that allegedly interfered with performance and a drug that allegedly enhanced performance. This choice was the main dependent measure of the experiment. The drug choice intervened between work on soluble or insoluble problems and a promised retest on similar problems. In Experiment 1, all subjects received success feedback after their initial problem-solving attempts, thus creating one condition in which the success appeared to be accidental (noncontingent on performance) and one in which the success appeared to be contingent on appropriate knowledge. Males in the noncontingent-success condition were alone in preferring the performance-inhibiting drug, presumably because they wished to externalize probable failure on the retest. The predicted effect, however, did not hold for female subjects. Experiment 2 replicated the unique preference shown by males after noncontingent success and showed the critical importance of success feedback.