Recommendations for using opioids in chronic non-cancer pain

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
European Journal of Pain (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2003; 7(5):381-6. DOI: 10.1016/S1090-3801(02)00143-X
Source: PubMed


1. The management of chronic pain should be directed by the underlying cause of the pain. Whatever the cause, the primary goal of patient care should be symptom control. 2. Opioid treatment should be considered for both continuous neuropathic and nociceptive pain if other reasonable therapies fail to provide adequate analgesia within a reasonable timeframe. 3. The aim of opioid treatment is to relieve pain and improve the patient's quality of life. Both of these should be assessed during a trial period. 4. The prescribing physician should be familiar with the patient's psychosocial status. 5. The use of sustained-release opioids administered at regular intervals is recommended. 6. Treatment should be monitored. 7. A contract setting out the patient's rights and responsibilities may help to emphasize the importance of patient involvement. 8. Opioid treatment should not be considered a lifelong treatment.

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Available from: Michael Zenz
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    • "The problem of poorly controlled pain is still considerable: in Europe 19% of adults suffer from continuous pain that seriously compromises the quality of their emotional, social, and working life [1]. Opioids represent an important option for pain management; while there is agreement on their use in acute and cancer pain, long-term use for noncancer chronic pain remains controversial [2]. Indeed, some patients benefit from such treatment in terms of pain reduction and improvement in quality of life, while others do not [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Opioid therapy in patients with chronic noncancer pain must be preceded by evaluation of the risk of opioid misuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Italian translation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) and of the Diagnosis Intractability Risk and Efficacy Score (DIRE) in chronic pain patients. Design. 75 chronic noncancer pain patients treated with opioids were enrolled and followed longitudinally. Risk of opioid misuse was evaluated through PMQ, DIRE, and the physician's clinical evaluation. Pain experience and psychological characteristics were assessed through specific self-report instruments. At follow-ups, pain intensity, aberrant drug behaviors, and presence of the prescribed opioid and of illegal substances in urine were also checked. Results. PMQ demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86). Significant correlations were found between higher PMQ scores and the number of aberrant drug behaviors detected at 2-, 4-, and 6-month follow-ups (P < 0.01). Also the DIRE demonstrated good predictive validity. Conclusions. The results obtained with specific tools are more reliable than the clinician's evaluation alone in predicting the risk of opioid misuse; regular monitoring and psychological intervention will contribute to improving compliance and outcome of long-term opioid use.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Pain Research and Treatment
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    • "Strong centrally acting analgesics (e.g., opioids) are gaining acceptance for use in the management of non-malignant, chronic pain [1–3]. In addition to relieving pain, goals of long-term analgesic therapy are to allow patients to maintain their independence and stay active [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Strong centrally acting analgesics, including tapentadol prolonged release (PR), have demonstrated efficacy for the management of non-malignant, chronic pain. Maintaining patient independence, including the ability to drive safely, is a key goal of long-term analgesic therapy. This multicenter, open-label, phase 3b trial evaluated the effects of tapentadol PR on driving ability. Methods: This study included patients who had completed previous tapentadol PR trials for severe low back or osteoarthritis pain. After at least 6 weeks of dose stability, patients continued taking tapentadol PR (50-250 mg twice daily) and could take supplemental immediate-release tapentadol 50 mg, except on the day before or day of the driving test (before the test). Pain intensity was assessed using an 11-point numerical rating scale. The Vienna Test System-Traffic Plus was used to assess cognitive and psychomotor function. The key surrogate parameter for driving ability was a global judgment based on 6 battery tests. Results: Thirty-eight patients enrolled and completed the trial, and 35 patients completed all 6 tests. Pain scores remained unchanged from enrollment to final visit [mean (standard deviation) change, -0.2 (1.0)]. Approximately two-thirds [65.7% (23/35)] of patients were classified as fit to drive based on the global judgment of driving-specific ability [34.3% (12/35) not fit to drive]. Total daily tapentadol PR dose (>200 vs. ≤200 mg/day) did not affect global judgment of driving ability (P = 0.4885). Two adverse events (considered unrelated to study drug) were reported. Conclusion: Results suggest that most patients receiving a stable dose of tapentadol PR for severe, chronic pain would be able to drive, consistent with earlier studies evaluating stable treatment with strong opioids. Study design limitations and needs for individual patient assessment must be considered in clinical practice.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    • "Additionally, chronic opiates induced sedation; constipation and respiratory depression are some more side effects that lower quality of life in individuals with chronic pain. One of the major side effects associated with chronic use of opiates in chronic pains, is the incidence of drug dependence that adds another shocking aspect to chronic opiates usage [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Moreover, at least five percent of overall community has genetic *Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan; Tel: +92-9216750; E-mail:; "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Chronic pains management costs billions of dollars in medical exchequer to the world population. Additionally, 77% of people with chronic pains also have a degree of medically treatable depression. Opioids have a narrower safety index due to their side effects associated with its tolerance, hyperalgesia and subsequent dependence. Likewise, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants, also have limited safety and tolerability profile in the management of chronic pains. Bacopa monnieri, a renowned ayurvedic medicine has a strong antidepressant effect and significant antinociceptive effect, which is comparable to the effect of morphine via adenosinergic, opioidergic, and adrenergic mechanisms. BM has been also reported to be effective in neuropathic pains. Additionally, it has a strong anti-inflammatory effect mediated via COX-2 inhibitory mechanism. Apart from its effect of augmenting morphine analgesia, BM also inhibits opioid-withdrawal induced hyperalgesia, and acquisition and expression of morphine tolerance. BM is reported to have a strong protective effect against toxic effects of opiates on major organs like brain kidneys and heart. BM is well documented to be safe and well tolerated herbal therapy in multiple clinical trials including various age groups. This minireview evaluated the preclinical data that highlights potential of BM as a future candidate for clinical management of chronic pains.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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