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Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

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... Apelsinų sultyse yra didelė askorbo rūgšties ir kitų bioaktyvių komponentų, tokių kaip fenolinės rūgštys, flavonoidai, karotinoidai ir skaidulinių medžiagų. Epidemiologiniai tyrimai parodė, kad fenolinių junginių vartojimas turi reikšmingą poveikį mažinant lėtinių ligų, vėžinių susirgimų, kraujotakos sutrikimų, diabeto, virusinių infekcijų, uždegiminių susirgimų ir net Alzheimerio ligos riziką [2]. Žmonės, kurie vartoja daug vaisių ir daržovių, dėl juose esančių antioksidantų, vitamino C, E ir beta karoteno yra mažiau linkę sirgti širdies ir kraujagyslių ligomis [2]. ...
... Epidemiologiniai tyrimai parodė, kad fenolinių junginių vartojimas turi reikšmingą poveikį mažinant lėtinių ligų, vėžinių susirgimų, kraujotakos sutrikimų, diabeto, virusinių infekcijų, uždegiminių susirgimų ir net Alzheimerio ligos riziką [2]. Žmonės, kurie vartoja daug vaisių ir daržovių, dėl juose esančių antioksidantų, vitamino C, E ir beta karoteno yra mažiau linkę sirgti širdies ir kraujagyslių ligomis [2]. Apelsinų sultyse randami 6 flavanonai -naringeninas, naringinas, neohesperidinas, hesperidinas, neoeriocitrinas ir eriocitrinas. ...
Article
Citrusinių vaisių vartojimas plačiai paplitęs pasaulyje ne tik dėl jų gero skonio, bet ir dėl sudėtyje esančių nau­dingų maistinių medžiagų. Apelsinų sultys yra puikus vitaminų – askorbo rūgšties, retinolio, timino, piridok­sino, pantenono rūgšties, riboflavino ir mineralų – ka­lio, kalcio, fosforo, magnio, geležies ir cinko šaltinis. Antioksidantai, esantys apelsinuose, neutralizuoja lais­vuosius radikalus ir taip apsaugo organizmo ląsteles nuo oksidacinės pažaidos bei stabdo organizmo senėjimo procesus. Apelsinų šulčių sudėtyje yra fitokomponentų, kurių poveikis gali sumažinti riziką sirgti įvairiomis li­gomis, tarp kurių − širdies ir kraujagyslių sistemos bei vėžinės ligos. Apelsinų sulčių suvartojimas pasaulyje auga. Vartotojai vis dažniau renkasi pramoniniu būdu pagamintas sultys dėl patogumo ir galimybės iš karto jas naudoti kai tik atidaroma pakuotė. Kyla klausimas: ar pramoniniu būdu pagamintos sultys išlaiko tokį pat kiekį antioksidantų, kaip ir šviežiai spaustos sultys? Šio tyrimo tikslas nustatyti fenolinių junginių kiekį ir antiok­sidacinį aktyvumą šviežiai spaustose ir pramoniniu būtu pagamintose sultyse. Tyrimo rezultatai parodė, kad visose tirtose apelsinų sultyse yra antioksidantų, tačiau jų aktyvumas yra skir­tingas. Šviežiai spaustos apelsinų sultys pasižymėjo sti­presniu antioksidaciniu poveikiu nei pramoniniu būdu pagamintos apelsinų sultys.
... Because of the dark red color of the flesh and peel of Maypole apples, they are expected to contain a considerable amount of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals have been reported to have different benefits for human health, such as controlling immune and inflammatory responses, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and preventing lipid oxidation [3][4][5]. This work focuses on the extraction of phytochemicals such as procyanidin B2 (PB2), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5CQA), and epicatechin from Maypole apples. ...
... f (x, y) = 0.96307 − 0.02382 x + 0.06762 y − 0.00038xy + 0.00013x 2 − 0.00039y 2 (4) f (x, y) = 1.47682 − 0.02431 x + 0.02674 y − 0.00014xy + 0.0001x 2 − 0.00029y 2 (5) Therefore, it is considered that different phytochemicals can be obtained from different parts of Maypole apples. In addition, the temperature ( • C) of the subcritical water is expected to be a more important factor than the extraction time (min). ...
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The Maypole apple is a new, promising species of small apples with a prominent flavor and deep red flesh and peel. This study divided Maypole apples into outer flesh, inner flesh, and peel, and used subcritical water at 100–175 °C for 10–30 min to extract various phytochemicals (procyanidin B2 (PB2), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5CQA), and epicatechin). The obtained Maypole apple extracts and extraction residues in this work were analyzed using a SEM, HPLC, FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Under different subcritical water extraction conditions, this work found the highest extraction rate: to be PB2 from the peel (4.167 mg/mL), 5CQA (2.296 mg/mL) and epicatechin (1.044 mg/mL) from the inner flesh. In addition, this work regressed the quadratic equations of the specific yield through ANOVA and found that temperature is a more significant affecting factor than extraction time. This aspect of the study suggests that phytochemicals could be obtained from the Maypole apple using the new extraction method of subcritical water.
... Surgery, combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, is the main CRC therapy strategy, which is efficient in the early stage of CRC; however, it is poorly efficient in the advanced stage of CRC with metastasis (6). There are several pathological factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be mitogenic, capable of tumor promotion (7)(8)(9)(10), and involved in the process of cancer initiation and progression (11)(12)(13)(14)(15). Note that, hypermethylation of the gene promoter regions and oxidative damage to nuclear DNA are the main mechanisms in the initial stages of colorectal carcinogenesis (10,11). ...
... It reflects an abnormal accumulation of ROS, which has long been associated with several disease processes, including cancer. Oxidants are integrated into numerous cellular processes by physiologically transporting signals, as a second messenger or pathologically oxidizing lipids, proteins, and DNA (12,16). Furthermore, oxidative stress is known to influence the response of these patients to therapy. ...
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Background: Blood oxidant profile affects tumor cell eradication in cancer patients undergoing thermotherapy. Objective: The study objectives were the determination of the blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in colorectal cancer (CRC) before and after the XELOX regimen combined with Bevacizumab, and also the effect of treatment on the oxidative stress markers during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Methods: In this case-control study, 50 healthy controls and 41 colorectal patients were recruited at Popular Hospital Establishment and Avicene Medical Clinic (Maghnia city, Algeria) during 2019. Blood samples were collected from participants before and after treatment. To determine the fluctuations of redox status vis-a-vis of treatment, levels of oxidant and antioxidant parameters were measured using spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: The obtained results highlighted the presence of oxidative stress in CRC cases compared to controls. In CRC, high levels in malondialdehyde (3.06±0.65 μmol/L, p=0.090), superoxide anion (8.38±0.21 μmol /L, p=0.478), carbonyl proteins (0.453±0.11 nmol/mg protein; p=0.292), and peroxynitrite (12.8±4.27 μmol/mL, p=0.093) with significant difference in nitric oxide value (26.07±5.50μmol /L; p=0.0001) were depicted before treatment and, and low total activities of superoxide dismutase (37.81±0.07 U/gHb; p=0.0001) and catalase (29.33±4.99 U/gHb; p=0.0001) with a decrease of glutathione (2.92±0.9 mmol/ L; p=0.0001) concentration were recorded. After treatment, malondialdehyde (1.59±0.11 μmol/L; p=0.003), superoxide anion (7.68±0.17 μmol/L; p=0.003), and carbonyl proteins (0.311±0.02 nmol/mg protein; p=0.024) rates decreased at the opposite of nitric oxide (57.46±9.69 μmol/L; p=0.001) and peroxynitrite (20±3.82 μmol/mL; p=0.002) levels, which increased markedly alike the activities of superoxide dismutase (379.54±0.66 U/gHb; p=0.05) and catalase (131.92±5.83 U/gHb; p=0.0001), and reduced glutathione level (16.11±0.57 mmol/L; p=0.0001) raised significantly. Conclusion: Limiting the efficiency of drug treatment inhibits the eradicating effect of high blood levels of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite for tumor cells, where cancer patients are nonresponsive to chemotherapeutic treatment. Blood oxidant/antioxidant levels should be an effective guideline for directing the response to cancer treatments, especially the risk of resistance to anti-tumor drugs. Redox homeostasis, which is linked to nutritional profile and lifestyle, should be included in medical check-ups to achieve a better prediction of treatment response. Keywords: Antioxidants; Oxidative stress; Colorectal cancer; Chemotherapy. Abbreviations / Acronyms: ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species CRC: Colorectal Cancer; MDA: Malondialdehyde; O2°: Superoxide Anion; CP: Carbonyl Proteins; NO°: Nitric Oxide; ONOO-: Peroxynitrite; SOD: Superoxide Dismutase; CAT: Catalase; GSH: Reduced Glutathione; BEVA: Bevacisumab; BT: Before Treatment; AT: After Treatment.
... Whole foods in humans decrease inflammation and risk for various diseases as well as increase weight loss and immune function (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Phytonutrients that exist in whole fruits, vegetables, and grains have been identified as the bioactive compounds responsible for some of these benefits (2,3). ...
... Whole foods in humans decrease inflammation and risk for various diseases as well as increase weight loss and immune function (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Phytonutrients that exist in whole fruits, vegetables, and grains have been identified as the bioactive compounds responsible for some of these benefits (2,3). Moreover, carotenoids, such as β-carotene, and flavonoids activate and support the immune system (5,(10)(11)(12). ...
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Whole foods in humans decrease inflammation and risk for various diseases, as well as increase weight loss and immune function. Nutrition has been shown to be an integral component in the management of various diseases in dogs but the immunologic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole food diets have not been explored. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effect of feeding a whole food diet on immune function and inflammatory phenotype in healthy dogs. A prospective, randomized, open-labeled, cross-over clinical trial was performed. Sixteen healthy client-owned dogs were fed either a whole food or an extruded dry diet, and after 67 days, they were fed the alternate diet for an additional 67 days. Blood samples were obtained at the completion of each treatment arm (i.e., days 67 and 134). Serum c-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), and serum amyloid-A (SAA) were measured with ELISA assays. Whole blood cultures were performed with exposure to a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). A canine specific multiplex bead-based assay was then used to measure tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-2, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 concentrations. Granulocyte/monocyte (GM) phagocytosis and oxidative burst associated with Escherichia coli were evaluated via flow cytometry. Dogs fed a whole food diet had significantly lower TNF-α-to-IL-10 ratios ( P = 0.05) and higher production of IL-8 ( P = 0.03) with LTA-exposed leukocytes compared to dogs fed an extruded dry diet. There were no between-treatment differences in the remaining leukocyte cytokine responses, serum CRP, Hp, SAA concentrations, or GM phagocytic and oxidative burst capacities. Whole food diets could have immunomodulatory effects in dogs. Future studies in non-healthy dogs are warranted.
... Phenolics have been shown to have a remarkable range of biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, antidiabetics, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antiviral, anticancer and anti-allergic effects (Liu, 2003;Scalbert et al., 2005). The use of phenolic constituents in food and some therapeutic medication are due to their antioxidant and other health endorsing benefits (Ou et al 2002). ...
Article
Daucus carota Linn (carrot) seeds are medicinally useful in the management of diseases including diabetes mellitus. The present study investigates the in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical constituents of several fractions from aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota. D. carota seeds (78.8g) were pulverized and dissolved in 400 mL of distilled water for 24 hours. The crude extract obtained (16.4g, 20.8% yield) was partitioned in water/ethyl acetate (3:1) to yield ethyl acetate fraction (6.2g, 37.8% yield) and aqueous ethyl acetate fraction (7.6g, 46.3% yield) which was subjected to column chromatography. Thirteen (13) fractions obtained were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activities and screened for phytochemical constituents. The fractions exhibited in vitro antioxidant activities at 2 – 20 μg/mL with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities (IC50 = 1.38 - 22.96 μg/mL), total antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 1.17 - 3.13 μg/mL) and nitric oxide scavenging activities (IC50 = 3.20 - 20.72 μg/mL). Fractions 4 – 8 expressed promising in vitro hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) antioxidant activities with IC50 comparable with that of ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The phytochemical screening of fractions 4 – 8 revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolics, which could be responsible for the antioxidant activities. The results suggest that fractions obtained from Daucus carota L. seed extracts possess significant antioxidant potential.
... In addition, dietary fibre is a source of vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates, and it produce digested energy [130]. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, carotenoids, lignans, beta-glucan, and inulin are linked to dietary fibre [130,131]. It has the potential to protect the GI tract from oxidative stress [132]. ...
... Vitamins and minerals in medical foods are not bound to protein and other macronutrients, and thus absorption and utilization are lower than those bound to food sources [22,23]. Synthetic protein substitutes are devoid of phytonutrients and antioxidants, which work synergistically to prevent disease, and are often devoid of prebiotics and fiber as well [24]. Supplements have been shown to be less effective compared to ingestion of nutrients from whole foods, and evidence of this in the PKU population is the presence of micronutrient deficiencies despite adequate supplementation from synthetic medical food [5,25,26]. ...
Article
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Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder in which phenylalanine (Phe) is not correctly metabolized leading to an abnormally high plasma Phe concentration that causes profound neurologic damage if left untreated. The mainstay of treatment for PKU has centered around limiting natural protein in the diet while supplementing with medical foods in order to prevent neurologic injury while promoting growth. This review discusses several deleterious effects of the low Phe diet along with benefits that have been reported for patients with increased natural protein intake while maintaining plasma Phe levels within treatment guidelines.
... Further investigation about the dietary components revealed that the proximate composition of the plant samples as shown in Table 3 and Table 4 were very rich in carbohydrate, protein and crude fiber with a very low amount of fat. Regulation of intake of carbohydrates, protein, fluids and fibers and some other nutrients present in fruits and vegetables have been considered to be very important in the nutritional and functional decline associated with aging and may slow the progression of P.D (Liu, 2003;Mostafavi and Hosseini, 2015;and Michele et al., 2019,). The presence of fat content at low quantity in all the plants suggests that the fruits and the leaves of these species had more of carbohydrates and proteins than that of fats. ...
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Despite the fact that vegetables are consumed in large quantities in our environment, there is a dearth of literature that focused on the optimum benefits to man especially in the management of disease like Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Nicotine, the major phyto-constituent of Nicotiana tabacum of the family Solanaceae has been reported to be present in some other species of the family. This study investigated the nicotine content and the dietary components in the leaves and fruits of selected species of cultivated vegetable plants belonging to Solanaceae family. Edible plants from Solanaceae family were grown till the fruiting stage in the experimental farm of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, while Nicotiana tabacum was used as the control plant. Plants samples from mature leaves and fruits of each plant were harvested washed with de-ionized water, oven dried at 30°C. Powdered samples were analyzed for mineral and proximate components according to standard procedure and nicotine content were determined with GC-MS. Nicotine remained the major constituent of tobacco. Nicotyrine, a product of nicotine dehydrogenation was also detected in all the plant samples. Capsicum annum var. accuminatum fruit displayed the highest nicotine content (0.5543 mg/L) compared to the others with relatively lower quantities. Nicotyrine content was more available in the plant fruits than nicotine, with C. annum var abbreviatum displaying more of nicotyrine content (75.3456 mg/L). Solanum lycopersicum displayed the highest moisture contents (19.94 %), followed by tobacco leaf (11.88%). N. tabacum leaf displayed high quantity of protein (56.52%) than other members. The fruits of the solanaceae plant species were rich in carbohydrate, protein with very low amount of fat. This study revealed that the solanaceae plants contained more of nicotyrine than nicotine. In contrast to the previous studies, the nicotine content was higher in the eggplant leaves than the fruits. Eggplant and Capsicum species can be recommended for patient suffering from neurodegenerative diseases like PD.
... Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated the plant crude extracts obtained with the use of ultrasonic extraction consist of metabolites with antioxidant properties [4]. The presence of different groups of phytochemicals has an influence on the biological activities of the crude extracts, including the antioxidant activity, due to the interactions between the metabolites which can produce additive or synergistic effects on their ability to inhibit ROS [7]. However, it has been reported that these interactions can also produce antagonistic effects, causing a decrease in the antioxidant potential of these compounds [8]. ...
Article
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In this study, the fractions of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic (EE) crude extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were evaluated for their phytochemical composition, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activity. The two extracts were subjected to a fractionation by vacuum liquid chromatography, obtaining seven fractions for each extract. These fractions were evaluated for the presence of phenolic compounds by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (RP-HPLC-MS) analysis. Their cytotoxic activity was tested with a hemolysis assay. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydroxyl radical (–OH) scavenging assays. In addition, the effect of the fractions on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), from human erythrocytes, was evaluated. The phytochemical screening by RP-HPLC-MS mainly showed the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. The hemolysis assay exhibited a low cytotoxic activity by the fractions of the AE, but the fractions of the EE exhibited a hemolytic effect. The fractions of the AE and EE showed significant antioxidant activity to inhibit radicals in the three radical scavenging assays. Moreover, only some fractions of the AE showed a significant increase in the activity of the SOD enzyme, while the activity of CAT exhibited a significant increase by the fractions of the two extracts. The fractions of the AE and EE of P. hysterophorus have phytochemicals with antioxidant activity to inhibit radicals and increase the activity of in vitro antioxidant enzymes.
... In addition, dietary fibre is a source of vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates, and it produce digested energy [130]. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, carotenoids, lignans, beta-glucan, and inulin are linked to dietary fibre [130,131]. It has the potential to protect the GI tract from oxidative stress [132]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an abnormal growth that occurs in the rectum or rectal portion. In 2020, an anticipated 104,610 new cases of colon illness and 43,340 new cases of rectal abnormal growth were expected in the United States. Red and processed meat, body bloatedness, belly fatness, and binge drinking expands the occurrence of colorectal disease. Dietary fibres contribute to faecal bulking, but they are break down by gut bacteria and produce metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs are chemical compounds that are mostly made up of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Acetate and butyrate help to control mucus production and discharge, and thus, protect the gut mucosa. Reduced mucus secretion/increased bacterial catabolism, and fermentation of amino acids resulted in an increase of potentially detrimental metabolites such as branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, and N-nitroso complex components. Vital roles of fibres include reduction in the time that carcinogens encounter the intestinal lumen and promotion of healthy gut microbiota as well as modification of the host metabolism. The present review focuses on a brief introduction to various dietary fibres and specialised metabolites that can possess beneficial effect on CRC, as well as presenting our current, detailed understanding of various dietary fibres along with their potential effects on gut microbiota and its association with the colon cancer. A comprehensive discussion is also included, advocating the dietary fibre-enriched diet.
... Polyphenols are phytochemicals that are organically diverse compounds of fragrances that contain many hydroxyl groups [12]. These bioactive compounds not just promote good health but play a major role in the prevention of chronic diseases [13]. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites which produce by the plant and are not widely distributed in all developed stores, which have important properties such as protection from factory viruses and animal fury as well as reactions to colourful stresses, such as falls and ultraviolet radiation [14]. ...
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Objective: The aim of the study is to perform a computational study consisting of molecular docking for polyphenols subjected to in silico studies to identify a new lead for antimicrobial activity which has been reported yet or not been used yet. Methods: The Schrödinger Maestro 11.3 performed molecular docking of the enzyme FabH (β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III) (PDB ID: 5BNR) with polyphenol. The targeted compounds were docked against FabH enzyme and also evaluated for MM-GBSA and ADMET analysis. Results: The top hits shows remarkable results and good binding interactions with a pocket of the enzyme. The best binding score are as-8.6 (kcal/mol) of Geniestein,-8.579 (kcal/mol) of 4-naphthoquinone,-7.651(kcal/mol) of Pelargonidin. All the targeted compounds were found in the given limits of ADMET parameters. They also showed good free-binding energy. Conclusion: The computational study reveals that the targeted polyphenols show good binding interactions and are also compatible with ADMET parameters. So, with this, we can conclude that the reported polyphenols can be potent against bacterial infection. In the future, if we derivatized these polyphenols with different substitutions, it can also lead to a potential drug moiety against bacterial infection.
... Additionally, consuming whole foods is the safest way to access these benefits. In agreement with Liu [107], the delicate balance of these compounds in whole fruits and vegetables cannot be replicated in pill form. Aside from the benefits derived from eating a diet rich in all phytochemicals, two specific phytochemicals are of particular interest for reducing COVID-19 risk. ...
Article
This review shows that relatively simple changes to diet and lifestyle can significantly, and rapidly, reduce the risks associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in terms of infection risk, severity of disease, and even disease-related mortality. A wide range of interventions including regular exercise, adequate sleep, plant-based diets, maintenance of healthy weight, dietary supplementation, and time in nature have each been shown to have beneficial effects for supporting more positive health outcomes with COVID-19, in addition to promoting better overall health. This paper brings together literature from these areas and presents the argument that non-pharmaceutical approaches should not be overlooked in our response to COVID-19. It is noted that, in several cases, interventions discussed result in risk reductions equivalent to, or even greater than, those associated with currently available vaccines. Where the balance of evidence suggests benefits, and the risk is minimal to none, it is suggested that communicating the power of individual actions to the public becomes morally imperative. Further, many lives could be saved, and many harms from the vaccine mandates avoided, if we were willing to embrace this lifestyle-centred approach in our efforts to deal with COVID-19.
... Loquat can be consumed raw and has been widely used in processed foods such as jams and jellies [13]. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of fruit and vegetables has great health bene ts against chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes [17,18]. The health-promoting properties of fruit and vegetables are mainly due to the presence of various antioxidants, including phenolics [15]. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica L.) marmalade (LM) supplementation in probiotic yogurt and the viability of Bifidobacteria ssp and its effect on the quality characteristics of yogurt were also investigated. For this purpose, four types of yogurt, including plain yogurt, yogurt with %5 LM, 10% LM, and 15% LM, were prepared. physicochemical properties, microbial growth, and textural and sensory properties were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 during storage. The addition of LM to yogurt significantly affected total dry matter, fat, pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, water-holding capacity values, and color parameters (L*, a*, b*) during storage time. The addition of LM caused an increase in L* values, while an increase in a* value. Yogurts containing % 10 and % 15 LM demonstrated lower syneresis than the control sample during storage. The viability of bifidobacteria in yogurt was not affected by the LM addition. The highest overall acceptance sensory score was observed in the yogurts containing 15% LM.
... This was in line with the studies of Dos-Reis et al. 14 . This means it contains a significant number of bioactive substances, including polyphenols (flavonoids), which were recognized for their antioxidant properties 15,16 . This was in line with certain research showing that medicinal plants used in traditional and alternative medicine are high in antioxidants. ...
... The bioactive components in these natural products-dietary fiber and antioxidants, namely phenolic compounds, flavonoids, phenolic acids, etc.-are thought to be what give them their beneficial effects [7]. Therefore, there is presently a lot of interest in the numerous bioactive substances that may be found in food, especially food that comes from plants. ...
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ADME-Tox qualities should be considered while designing/engineering a novel medicine because they are the primary cause of failures for candidate molecules in drug design development. Early examination of these features during medication creation might save time and money. ADME has played an important part in the drug engineering/design process throughout the last five decades. The ADME characteristics of apple constituents were determined using SwissADME web servers. The ADME profiles of the compounds were assessed, and most of them were deemed to be appropriate for further research. In-silico ADMET analysis has been shown to be an effective approach in drug engineering/design development. As a result, all compounds were tested for ADMET prediction, and the phytochemical constituents were shown to be acceptable drug-like molecules. More in vitro and in vivo research with our possible phytochemical compounds will be conducted in the near future to find a solution to cure different diseases.
... Improvements in health conditions can also lead to faster growth in fish. In the present study, phytochemicals, such as flavonoids and polysaccharides in the diet provided to the striped catfish, are considered health-promoting by their antioxidant activity (capable of scavenging hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and lipid peroxyl radicals) and positive modulation of the cellular and tissue redox balance (Liu 2003), and their stimulation of immunity (specific and non-specific) by modulating the functions of the immune cells related to immunity expression genes, thereby increasing antibody production (Citarasu 2010;Chakraborty et al. 2014;Gabriel and González-Redondo 2021). Flavonoids also have vasodilatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions (Chakraborty and Hancz 2011). ...
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This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and effects of dietary supple-mentation with Citrus limon extract (CLE) (Nor-Spice AB®) on growth, hematological, and innate immunity parameters of striped catfish juveniles (Pangasius hypophthalmus). Chemical composition was detected using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrom-etry. Six diets with different levels of CLE-0.0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 g kg diet-1-were evaluated for 90 days, followed by 8 days of bacterial infection by Aero-monas hydrophila. CLE presented phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids) and polysac-charides as major constituents. Fish supplemented with 0.4 g CLE kg diet-1 showed final weight, weight gain, final biomass, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio higher than fish of the control group, or those supplemented with diets between 0.8 and 3.2 g CLE kg-1. Fish supplemented with 3.2 g CLE kg diet-1 showed plasma albumin levels, respiratory burst total thrombocytes, total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes significantly higher than fish supplemented with other diets. After bacterial infection, fish fed CLE maintained biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters similar to the control group, except for plasma total proteins and neutrophils levels that decreased as the concentration of CLE was increased in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 0.4 g CLE kg diet-1 is recommended for improving the growth and immune resistance of striped catfish in intensive culture.
... Phytochemicals, naturally occurring bioactive compounds in plant foods (3), have been associated with a reduction in the risks of developing non-communicable diseases [1,5,12,13]. According to the Functional food center (FF), functional foods are natural or processed foods that contain bio-active compounds, which in defined, effective, non-toxic amounts provide a clinically proven and documented health benefit utilizing specific biomarkers, to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases and manage symptoms [14]. ...
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Background: Plant foods, as functional foods, provide not only the essential nutrients needed to sustain life, but also bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) for health promotion and disease prevention. Objective of the study: The aim of this research was to screen phytochemicals in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Malawi. The effect of processing vegetables on phytochemicals was also evaluated.
... Phytochemicals, naturally occurring bioactive compounds in plant foods (3), have been associated with a reduction in the risks of developing non-communicable diseases [1,5,12,13]. According to the Functional food center (FF), functional foods are natural or processed foods that contain bio-active compounds, which in defined, effective, non-toxic amounts provide a clinically proven and documented health benefit utilizing specific biomarkers, to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases and manage symptoms [14]. ...
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Background: Plant foods, as functional foods, provide not only the essential nutrients needed to sustain life, but also bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) for health promotion and disease prevention.Objective of the study: The aim of this research was to screen phytochemicals in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Malawi. The effect of processing vegetables on phytochemicals was also evaluated.Methods: The potential of some commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in their raw and cooked forms as natural source of phytochemicals was evaluated in both aqueous and methanol extracts. These fruits and vegetables were screened for alkaloids, saponin, tannins, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides and anthocyanins, total flavonoids content (TFC) and total phenol content (TPC) using standard procedures. TPC and TFC were also analyzed using spectrophotometric methods.Results: Almost all the phytochemicals screened were found in some of the studied fruits and vegetables, with indigenous fruits and vegetables having the most, except for glycosides and anthocyanins. TPC in fruits ranged from 715.08mgGAE/g to 21,119.66mgGAE/g, while TFC ranged from 44.10mgQE/g to 434.74mgQE/g in vegetables. TPC of uncooked vegetables ranged from 522.22 mgGAE/g (pumpkin leaves) to 33, 684.66 mgGAE/g (ntoriro), while in cooked vegetables it ranged from 135.93 mgQE/g (bonongwe) to 6817.86 mgQE/g (chisoso). Overall, indigenous vegetables showed higher TPC values in comparison to exotic vegetables. It was also observed that processing of vegetables affected total phenolic compounds differently. In some vegetables, TPC values increased with cooking (pumpkin leaves, bonongwe and chisoso), while in others (cabbage, Chinese and rape) it decreased.Conclusions: The results show that fruits and vegetables can serve as a cheap source of natural antioxidants that could help fight non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. As might be expected, a single fruit or vegetable doesn’t contain all the necessary phytochemicals. Therefore, an intake of a mixture of fruits and vegetables is recommended for maximum benefit as functional foods.Keywords: Phytochemicals, fruits, vegetables, total phenolic content, non-communicable diseases
... Compounds from plants are usually less toxic to normal cells than their synthetic counterparts and have alternative mechanisms to promote cancer cell death. Moreover, it is reported that the photochemical mixtures found in various balanced diets play a synergistic role, leading to enhanced anti-cancer biological activity and health benefits, which cannot be achieved with the intake of single active compounds [5,6]. The availability of bioactive anti-cancer compounds in plants has sparked an unprecedented interest in their study by researchers [7]. ...
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Knoxia roxburghii (Spreng.) M. A. Rau (KR) is a plant clinically used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cancer. The study objectives were to examine the effects of KR extracts, petroleum ether (PET), ethyl acetate (EtoAc), butanol (n-BuOH), and H2O-soluble fractions (HSF) of the 75% EtOH extraction on A549 (non-small cell lung cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and L02 (normal hepatocyte) cells. It was found that HSF exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells, and was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential, increased levels of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated caspases, and upregulated pro-apoptotic and downregulated anti-apoptotic proteins. LC-MS analysis further showed that HSF primarily consisted of calycosin, aloe emodin, rein, maackiain, asperuloside, orientin, vicenin-2, and kaempferide, which have been mostly reported for anti-tumor activity in previous studies. In summary, the current study illustrated the effect, mechanism, and the potential major active components of KR against breast cancer.
... Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a phytochemical known to exert diverse biological and pharmacological activities [20] that render this molecule very promising in a wide spectrum of applications, including medical and agrochemical fields as well as the cosmetic industry [21][22][23][24]. Coumarin is characterized by anti-inflammatory [25], antioxidant [26], hepatoprotective [27], anxiolytic [28], antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties [29]. ...
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Coumarin is an effective treatment for primary lymphoedema, as well as lymphoedema related to breast cancer radiotherapy or surgery. However, its clinical use is limited in several countries due to the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, mainly in the form of mild to moderate transaminase elevation. Noteworthy, only few cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been described in literature, with no reported cases of liver failure. Data available on coumarin absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion have been reviewed, focusing on hepatotoxicity studies carried out in vitro and in vivo. Finally, safety and tolerability data from clinical trials have been thoroughly discussed. On the basis of these data, coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be restricted to a small subset of patients, probably due to the expression of specific alleles of CYP450 isoform not yet well characterized. In summary, more research is needed in order to identify patients at risk of developing hepatotoxicity following coumarin treatment, in order to improve the risk/benefit ratio of the product and allow more patients to benefit from its therapeutic properties.
... Consumption of fruit juices has become a dietary concern worldwide, it retains the physicochemical and organoleptical characteristics of fruits from which they are produced; therefore, their intake also should contribute to maintain health (Takebayashi et al., 2013). Health benefits of fruit juices are attributed to a large number of compounds with biological activity include radical scavenging activity, protecting proteins, lipids, and DNA from oxidative damage Liu (2003). The major bioactive antioxidant compounds of fruit and fruit juices are vitamin C and phenolic compounds Perales et al. (2008), as well as carotenoids. ...
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Prickly pear juice has received renewed attention with regard to the effects of processing and preservation on its qualities. Therefore, the present study carried out on different fruit juice blends were prepared as prickly pear with guava or mandarin juice in 25: 75; 50:50 and 75:25 ratios to improve its quality and flavor. These blends were packaged in 200 ml. colorless glass bottles and tested for physico-chemical, sensory evaluation and flavor compounds. Chemical composition and minerals content were carried out unblended juices. The total solids, total solids (TS) pH, total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity, color analysis, ascorbic acid and viscosity were determined. The blend of prickly pear and mandarin juices at ratio (1:3) received the highest scores in overall acceptability. Therefore, it was subjected to evaluate polyphenol content which determined using Folin-Ciocalteu, antioxidant activity was measured using two in vitro assays 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and metal chelating assays and volatile evaluation. 27 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; including 7 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 5 esters, 2 hydrocarbons, 8 terpenes-hydrocarbon and two ketons.
... Plant metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and terpenoids possess anti-inflammatory effects. [34][35][36][37][38] Tannins, alkaloids glycosides, and flavonoids have been reported to possess anti-diabetic activity. 39,40 Saponins and terpenoids were also effective to reduce the blood sugar level. ...
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Kandelia candel Druce (Rhizophoraceae) is one of the true mangrove species found in South- East Asian mangrove communities, and it is reported that the bark of the plant along with pepper or dried ginger and rose water is found beneficial for the treatment of diabetes. Our aim and objective of the present work was to study pharmacognostic and physio-chemical standards for the bark of the plant Kandelia candel. It includes the macroscopy, microscopy, and powder microscopic characteristics of the bark which provide valuable information for the identification of bark. The barks show greyish to reddishbrown colour, it is slightly curved, and sometimes recurved inner the surface shows slightly yellowish red. The histological section of the bark shows the epidermal layer and mostly it is broken and shows periderm, periderm consists of suberise dead phellem cells, several layers of circular cells found in the cortical region, the interior of the bark shows wide radially oblong aerenchyma tissues, calcium oxalate crystals are very common in the bark which is found as druces and prismatic type crystal forms. Powdered drugs showed the presence of fragments of periderm, cortical parenchyma cells, calcium oxalate crystals, and fibres. Physiochemical constants like ash values, extractive values, foaming, swelling indexes, and fluorescent analysis were performed on the powdered drug which is fairly constant for crude drugs it helps to ascertain the purity of the drug. Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed and it reveals the presence of steroids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, and flavonoids which may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of the bark of Kandelia candel, the results of the study help in setting the standards for the bark of Kandelia candel which can be useful for the identification and authentication of drugs in future.
... In addition, identification of the functional group helps to evaluate their structure-activity relationships. A study (13) reported that FTIR spectral analysis of lemongrass showed the presence of phytochemicals carrying hydrogen bonded -OH functional group which is a fundamental part of most of the phenolic phytochemicals such as flavonoids and tannins. FTIR is one of the most widely used methods to identify the chemical constituents and elucidate the compounds structures (14). ...
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Lemongrass leaves are widely used for tea and the treatment of malaria. In the present study, Soxhlet extraction was carried out with aqueous ethanol (v/v). Fresh and dried leaves of selected ten lemongrasses (Cymbopogon citratus) accessions from different geographical regions in Nigeria were examined for total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. Aqueous methanol extraction was carried out and further partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol to obtain fractions according to their polarities and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to identify the functional groups that may be present. Among the ten accessions, the leaf extracts at five different concentrations exhibited increasing antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test, stronger activities for dried leaves (71.15 ± 0.14-89.79 ± 0.16µg/ml) than fresh leaves (71.65 ± 0.45-81.94 ± 0.84 µg/ml) at 100 µg/ml of sample extract. The total phenolic contents of dried leaf extracts, revealed higher amounts in all lines ranging from 19.57±0.57 to 43.17±0.67mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g DW when compared with fresh leaf extracts, where the values ranged from 9.68 ± 2.20 to 28.5 ± 3.90 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g fresh weight except for two lines which showed greater total phenolic contents than in the dried leaves. High total phenolic content may help contribute to the overall high antioxidant activity of the plant. FTIR identified the presence of major active functional groups including alcohol, ester, amide, alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acid, ketones and aldehyde in four partitioning solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and methanol) leaf extracts of lemongrass samples.
... From the reviewed studies, it was found that the artificially ripened fruits with CaC 2 have the highest moisture content compared to untreated ones. This condition could expose the treated fruits to faster decomposition [28,29]. According to Nuhu, Rabi and Tukur [30], increased moisture content in artificially treated fruit with CaC 2 could be an indication that the ripening agent weakens the fiber of the peel so that moisture is easily absorbed. ...
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Aims: To provide a comprehensive summary of what has been published about the effects of calcium carbide (CaC2) as a fruit-ripening agent and to determine the necessity or not to develop awareness among government agencies, policymakers, farmers, vendors, and scientists in order to best address different aspects of artificial fruit ripening issues and to provide more profitable solutions for global health preservation. Methodology: Scientific information about the effects of CaC2 published elsewhere was reviewed. Online databases of scientific journals which include Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, PubMed, CAS, CABI, AJOL and Google Scholar were used to select valuable studies. Results: Most studies have reported the hazardous potential of CaC2 as a ripening agent. Among other potential effects that were discovered through laboratory investigations are the adulteration of nutritional values of ripened fruits and direct or indirect toxicity in studied living systems such as genotoxicity and cytotoxicity to dividing cells, increase of the cellular oxidative stress, disturbance of the redox balance of the cell, estrogenic disruptions, increase of the white blood cells and Lymphocytes, alteration of hematopoiesis, alteration of sperm cells, a decrease of the fertility rate, weakness of the immune system, etc.). Conclusion: Overall, this review provides comprehensive information on what is known about the effects of CaC2 and showed the necessity to discourage its application as an artificial fruit ripening agent through the establishment of laws and regulations for better control of its use in most developing countries.
... The most important of these bioactive compounds of plants are alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds (Altemimi et al., 2017, Teiten et al., 2013Edeoga et al., 2005). It is estimated that more than 8,000 phenolics, 25,000 terpenoids and 12,000 alkaloids have been identified in plants (Saeed et al., 2005), but most of them still remain unknown and need to be qualified for health benefits (Liu, 2003). These compounds were known to possess various bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antivirus and anticancer. ...
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All parts of plantain plant (Musa paradisiaca) claims to have a lot of economic value such as medicinal and nutritional values. The aim of this research work is to establish the extractive value of solvents for bioactive ingredients and investigate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of plantain flower and its solvent extracts. The plantain flower was obtained washed, rinsed, air-dried, ground, sieved and extracted using six solvents and the extractive values of each solvent were calculated. The highest extractive value (16.026±0.007%) was obtained in water extract, followed by ethyl acetate extract with 13.850±0.005% while the least extractive values (1.347±0.000%) was obtained in chloroform extract. Alkaloid and terpenoid were present in all the solvent extracts. Cardiac glycoside, tannin, phenol and phlobotannin were not present in all the solvent extracts. Flavonoid was found in methanol extract while reducing sugar was detected in acetone, chloroform and water extracts. Quinone and volatile oil were found in ethyl acetate and acetone extract respectively. Steroid was present in acetone, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. The total flavonoids (mg/100g) in raw sample, ethyl acetate and water extracts of plantain flower were 0.045±0.001, 0.034±0.000 and 0.047±0.002 respectively. The total phenol (mg/100g) in raw sample, ethyl acetate and water extracts of plantain flower were 0.097±0.002, 0.065±0.001 and 0.043±0.001 accordingly. The DPPH (%) were 88.35±0.21, 86.71±0.30 and 65.81±0.17 in raw sample, ethyl acetate and water extracts of plantain flower. The iron chelating (%) were 24.75±0.12, 22.55±0.09, 22.56±0.07 in raw sample, ethyl acetate and water extracts of plantain flower. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (Garlic Acid Equivalent) in raw sample, ethyl acetate and water extracts of plantain flower were 0.29±0.01, 0.47±0.00 and 0.22±0.02. The plant raw sample and its extracts possess reasonable results that can make it serve as a source of natural antioxidants that have great potential in health-related area by preventing or treating diseases caused by the oxidative stress and might be extensively used for the treatment of degenerative diseases.
... Also, the role of oxidative processes has received increasing attention due to their links with obesity complications [54,55]. Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might contribute to reduced oxidation by scavenging free radicals and enhancing the availability of TAC in the plasma circulation [56,57]. In both cross-sectional and randomized intervention trials, a higher intake of TAC has been linked to decreased inflammation and improved circulating antioxidants [23,58]. ...
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Background Although several studies evaluated the relationship between individual dietary antioxidants and metabolic health conditions, data on the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity and metabolic health among children and adolescents is limited. This study investigated the relationship between dietary total antioxidant capacity and metabolic health status in Iranian overweight/obese adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 203 overweight/obese adolescents. Dietary intakes were evaluated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Ferric Reducing-Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was considered to indicate dietary total antioxidant capacity. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure status were measured. Fasting blood samples were obtained to determine circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid profile. Two different methods (modified International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and IDF criteria along with insulin resistance) were applied to classify participants as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Results According to IDF and IDF/HOMA definitions, a total of 79 (38.9%) and 67 (33.0%) adolescents were respectively defined as MUO. Considering IDF criteria, the highest tertile of FRAP was related to lower odds of being MUO in the maximally-adjusted model (OR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.16–0.96), compared to the lowest tertile. However, based on the IDF/HOMA-IR criteria, no significant relation was found between FRAP and odds of MUO (OR: 0.49; 95%CI: 0.19–1.23) after considering all possible confounders. Conclusions Adolescents with higher intakes of dietary antioxidants have a lower possibility of being MUO based on IDF criteria. However, no substantial relation was found considering HOMA-IR/IDF definition. Further prospective cohort studies need to be done to confirm these findings.
... Natural supplements are obtained from different food sources in different ways, such as extraction, concentration and so on, whilst synthetic supplements are obtained by chemical synthesis in the laboratory. Natural supplements/nutrients include complex mixtures of phytochemicals that exert additive and synergistic effects resulting in health benefits [204]. Numerous metabolic pathways in which micronutrients are needed are affected by exercise during training and result in muscle biochemical adaptations that increase the need for micronutrients [205]. ...
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Advanced nutritional interventions are one of the key components of elite sports performance in general. Combat sports require a high percentage of muscle mass with minimum body weight to generate the maximum power possible. An adequate level of nutrition knowledge, particularly with respect to identifying energy needs while avoiding confusion over dietary supplements and false perceptions of steroid requirement, which may compromise the health condition, is of crucial importance. In this context, the aim of our work is to highlight nutritional require-ments/nutritional assessment, the importance of daily dietary intake in combat players, which increasingly includes a broad range of sports nutrition supplements, and the roles of vitamins, minerals and proteins, combined with antioxidants and strength training, in muscular performance. The main nutrients required in the daily diet of combat players, the mechanisms of action, the main outcomes and possible side effects are summarized. Special attention is paid to natural supplements and their importance and advantages over synthetic ones, along with future trends of development.
... Consideration of bioavailability and dose is also required and can change depending on characteristics or disease status of the patient. Furthermore, it is likely that combinations of bioactive compounds in foods, rather than compounds in isolation, affect COVID-19 prognosis [510]. Given this, much of the literature evidence is qualitative rather than quantitative, impacting our ability to demonstrate "how much" of certain types of foods affect the KERs discussed here. ...
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Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events starting from an initial interaction of a stressor with the organism and the progress through key biological events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
... Natural bioactive molecules present in vegetables, fruits, spices, cereals, and other plant products are phytochemicals. 3 Traditional medicines have long employed phytochemicals to maintain health and prevent diseases, particularly Cancer. [4][5] Many phytochemicals have been studied for cancer treatment over the last few decades all around the world. ...
... Some foods have shown promise in lowering the incidence of Parkinson's disease in recent epidemiological research [11]. The health advantages linked with the consumption of phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables result in less functional loss as people age, which may help to halt the onset of Parkinson's disease [12]. High consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fish was found to be inversely related to the risk of Parkinson's disease in epidemiological research [13,14]. ...
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The current pharmacological treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is focused on symptom alleviation rather than disease prevention. In this study, we look at a new strategy to neuroprotection that focuses on nutrition, by a supplementation with Açai berry in an experimental models of PD. Daily orally supplementation with Açai berry dissolved in saline at the dose of 500 mg/kg considerably reduced motor and non-motor symptom and neuronal cell death of the dopaminergic tract induced by 4 injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Furthermore, Açai berry administration reduced α-synuclein aggregation in neurons, enhanced tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter activities, and avoided dopamine depletion. Moreover, Açai berry administration was able to reduce astrogliosis and microgliosis as well as neuronal death. Its beneficial effects could be due to its bioactive phytochemical components that are able to stimulate nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) by counteracting the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation that are the basis of this neurodegenerative disease.
... Recently, the trend of fruit juice consumption has been on the rise over the last few decades due to their diverse health benefits. They are excellent sources of minerals and vitamins which catalyze chemical reactions in human body (Liu, 2003). Orange juice (OJ) contains adequate quantity of vitamin C that strengthens the immune system, helps to reduce both bad cholesterol as well as blood pressure level and improves appetite (Siddiqui, 2019). ...
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The effect of the UV-C treatment on the physico-chemical characteristics, pectin methylesterase activity (PME) as well as microbial quality of orange juice, compared to fresh juice, was studied. The juice samples were UV-C (254 nm) irradiated for different exposure times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 30 days. UV-C treatment didn’t significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) affect pH values, titratable acidity, TSS (%), ascorbic acid content and PME activity in both fresh and stored samples. Increasing the exposure time from 5 to 60 min. showed no significant effect ( p ≤ 0.05) on L* and a* values for both the fresh and the stored samples. On the contrary, negative relationship was observed between UV-C exposure time and b* values. Total bacterial counts were significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) reduced from 2.69 to 0.93 log 10 CFU ml ⁻¹ when the exposure time was increased from 0 to 60 min. The UV-C treatment showed similar trend on yeast and mold counts but to a lesser extend due to their resistance to UV. The sensory characteristics, i.e. odour, colour, taste, consistency and overall acceptability didn’t change ( p ≤ 0.05) as a result of UV-C treatment at any tested exposure times.
... Compounds biological activities, involving the high anti-oxidant activity, are on the basis of glycosylation patterns and structural differences (19) . Some researches showing that the secondary metabolites with phenolic nature involving flavonoids were accountable for many pharmacological activities like having anti cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation activities, along with protective effects against cardiovascular diseases (20) . ...
... Available reports tend to show that secondary metabolites of phenolic nature including flavonoids are responsible for the variety of pharmacological activities such as they possess anti-oxidation, antiinflammatory antitumor and anti-cancer activities and protective effects against cardiovascular diseases (61).  Inhibition of enzymes that generate ROS such as cyclooxygenase, xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase, monooxygenase. ...
... Consideration of bioavailability and dose is also required and can change depending on characteristics or disease status of the patient. Furthermore, it is likely that combinations of bioactive compounds in foods, rather than compounds in isolation, affect COVID-19 prognosis [511]. Given this, much of the literature evidence is qualitative rather than quantitative, impacting our ability to demonstrate "how much" of certain types of foods affect the KERs discussed here. ...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors (age, sex, genetic factors, lipid disorders, heart failure, gut dysbiosis, diet, vitamin D deficiency, air pollution and exposure to chemicals) influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP), which is well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how those eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
... Phytochemicals provide protection against many chronic conditions like cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These phytochemicals help to protect cellular systems from oxidative damage and lower the risk of chronic diseases [2] . ...
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Introduction: The dietary patterns of adolescents and youth has changed with time. Due to lack of diversity in their diets, adolescents miss out on various essential nutrients and phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are bioactive non nutrient chemicals found in plant sources but monitoring the intake is impractical and expensive and hence McCarty has proposed the concept of phytochemical Index (PI). According to the reviews, the best PI score is 100 that is achieved through a vegan diet. Objective: To study the nutrient pattern of adolescents and youth in correlation with the recommended dietary intake and to assess the dietary phytochemical index score of their diets. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Mumbai on 239 subjects aged 17years to 25 years with the mean age of 19 years. Sample included 75% (n=178) of females and 25% (n=61) of male subjects. The tool used was a questionnaire that included Demographic, Anthropometric details and one day 24 hours diet record. 22 nutrients and dietary PI was calculated according to gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Student t-test and ANOVA was used to study the data. The data is expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results and Discussion: The carbohydrate consumption was found to be higher among the younger subjects i.e aged less than 20years (p= 0.06). The consumption of alpha tocopherol and magnesium was higher among the older subjects i.e aged more than 20years with a high standard statistical significant difference (p= 0.001, p= 0.01). The dietary PI score was better among the older subjects (mean PI of females was 51.9 and of males was 47.1) than the younger subjects (mean PI of females was 46.1 and of males was 45.5). The consumption of nuts and seeds was seen to be high among the older with a high statistically significant difference (p = 0.017). Conclusion: The macro nutrient pattern across age group was found to be better among the younger subjects and the pattern of micro nutrients was seen to be better in the older subjects. The dietary PI score was found to be lower, almost 50% of the best score considered among all the subjects. The PI score improves with age and a better score was found in the older subjects.
... Some crops, fruits and vegetables such as millets, citrus fruits, grapes, pomegranates, apples, dates, green and yellow vegetables (peppers), cabbage, carrots, dark leafy greens, and banana, have been known worldwide to contain antioxidants [23,24]. Besides the beneficial antioxidant and medicinal properties of individual phytochemicals, it is being recognized that their combinations, as found in fruits and vegetables, contribute significantly to their nutrition and health benefits [25]. In a representative study, Wang et al. [26] used four different assays and reported on the synergistic antioxidant potential of combinations of-fruit and legume; and, raspberry and adzuki bean. ...
Article
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Phenolic compounds include a broad variety of antioxidant plant substances such as flavonoids that have in common an aromatic ring with one or more hydroxyl groups. Nutraceuticals and health food supplements are designed from flavonoids as well as pure phytochemicals, often in isolation. However, studies on synergistic and antagonistic effects of such compounds are relatively few. In the current study, dual combinations prepared from five phenolic compounds (flavonoid and non-flavonoid) including rutin hydrate, quercetin dihydrate, hydroquinone, kaempferol, and resveratrol were tested for their antioxidant activities using DPPH · radical scavenging assay. The synergistic antioxidant interactions among these phenolics were evaluated by comparing their individual antioxidant effect with that obtained by a mixture of two compounds in various ratios. Quercetin dihydrate showed the highest antioxidant activity. Many combinations were found statistically synergistic in particular ratios. Rutin hydrate and resveratrol showed maximum synergy (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 ratio). Antagonistic interactions were also identified. The results of this study could be used by industries to develop more potent nutraceutical supplements or guide the researchers for further bioactivity validation using in vivo assays.
... A large array of antioxidant molecules, including flavonoids, carotenoids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and organosulfur compounds, can be found in whole grains, veggies, and fruits [4]. Dietary antioxidants work primarily by scavenging free radicals [5]. Studies have shown that dietary antioxidant intake and the onset of cardiovascular illnesses are inversely related [6,7,8]. ...
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Aims: To screen for the presence of bioactive antioxidant phytochemicals and determine the antioxidant activity of Detarium Senegalense root bark. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, between April 2018 and December 2018. Methodology: Two solvents, water mixed with chloroform (70:30) was used for extraction. The plant extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals by standard qualitative analysis and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity by determining the reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity in comparison with ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Results: The reducing power and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extract increased in a concentration/dose dependent manner and was significantly (P<.05) lower when compared to ascorbic acid and gallic acid at all concentrations tested. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extract also increased as the concentration increased. Interestingly, at 1000µg/ml, the extract (201.45±0.95) was found to be significantly higher (p<.05) than that of ascorbic acid (198.36±0.83), although lower than gallic acid (266.50±0.84). The % DPPH inhibition of the extract was also significantly lower when compared to ascorbic acid and gallic acid at all concenterations tested. Overall, the results showed the extract was able to scavenge free radicals in a dose dependant manner and revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins and phenols whose synergistic effect may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the extract. Conclusion: From the study, it is concluded that the aqueous extract of Detarium Senegalense root bark possess appreciable/considerable antioxidant properties and could be exploited as source of antioxidant additives or supplements. However, there is need for further work to clarify and isolate the different classes of phytochemical constituents and also to investigate it’s in vivo potential.
... [10] It has been reported in many investigations that bioactive fractions of different medicinal plants having free radical scavenging and antioxidant are used in many diseases such as cancer, tissue inflammatory, and cardiovascular disease. [11][12][13][14] Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antidiabetic and in vitro free radical scavenging effects of hydroalcoholic extract of GK seeds (HAEGS) in a dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemic rat model. ...
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Background: In traditional medicine, the maceration of seeds of Garcinia kola (GK) is used to treat various diseases including diabetes. In traditional pharmacopoeia, GK seeds are used to strengthen the immune system and as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic free radical scavenging effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of GK seeds (HAEGS) in a dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemic (DexIH) rat model. Settings and design: This study was an interventional study. Subjects and methods: Here using in vivo model, we assessed some pharmacological properties of HAEGS in DexIH rat. Hypoglycemia, antihyperglycemia, spasmolytic and laxative activities were also evaluated in DexIH. In vitro study assessed antiradical activity. The HAEGS was obtained by decoction introducing 250 g with water-ethanol mixture (30:70). The plant extract was administered to the animals at doses of 50 (GK50) and 100 (GK100) mg/kg body weight. All animal experiments were in accordance with ARRIVE guidelines and were performed in accordance with the scientific procedures of UK Animals. Antiradical activity of GK was assessed in vitro by inhibition of the activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software, and P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At doses 50 and 100 mg/kg, GK significantly (P < 0.001) regulated DexIH after two weeks of treatment compared to the normoglycemic control and hyperglycemic rats. The extract at both doses significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the spasmolytic activity in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats compared to Imodium®. In rats DexIH rats, only dose 100 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) increased laxative effects when compared to the negative control. In vitro antiradical activity of GK revealed vitamin C-like antiradical activity. Conclusions: This study justifies the traditional use of GK seeds as an antidiabetic.
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Protein and amino acid oxidation in food products produce many new compounds, of which the reactive and toxic compound dityrosine, derived from oxidized tyrosine, is the most widely studied. The high reactivity of dityrosine enables this compound to induce oxidative stress and disrupt thyroid hormone function, contributing to the pathological processes of several diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cognitive dysfunction, aging, and age‐related diseases. From the perspective of food safety and human health, protein‐oxidation products in food are the main concern of consumers, health management departments, and the food industry. This review highlights the latest research on the formation pathways, toxicity, detection methods, occurrence in food, and mitigation strategies for dityrosine. Furthermore, the control of dityrosine in family cooking and food‐processing industry has been discussed. Food‐derived dityrosine primarily originates from high‐protein foods, such as meat and dairy products. Considering its toxicity, combining rapid high sensitivity dityrosine detection techniques with feasible control methods could be an effective strategy to ensure food safety and maintain human health. However, the current dityrosine detection and mitigation strategies exhibit some inherent characteristics and limitations. Therefore, developing technologies for rapid and effective dityrosine detection and control at the industrial level is necessary.
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Introduction The cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of two extracts of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia alba Turra plants individually and in combination with mitomycin C (MMC), were evaluated. Methods Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Cytotoxicity of the treatments was investigated using MTT assay, and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry in SW-480 colon cancer cells and human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Results A. vulgaris extracts were richer sources of total flavonoids and phenolic acids, than A. alba. Acetone extract of A. vulgaris exhibited a weak cytotoxic activity in SW-480 cells, while a remarkable effect was detected after cells exposure to A. alba extract (IC50 value was 240.12 ± 25.49 for A. vulgaris vs. 3.89 ± 1.47 µg/mL for A. alba). Both aqueous extracts did not affect SW-480 cells viability. In MMC combination treatment, A. alba acetone extract exhibited significant activity in SW-480 cells (IC50 values were 4.94 ± 1.93 µg/mL for 24 h and <1 µg/mL for 72 h). Both extracts of A. vulgaris and aqueous extract of A. alba showed cytotoxic activity only after long-term exposure (IC50 < 1). The cytotoxic activity in PBLS cells was not detected. The tested extracts concentrations (10 and 100 µg/mL) induced apoptosis in SW-480 cells. Higher levels of apoptotic cells were detected in combined treatments of extracts with MMC compared to individual extract treatments. Conclusion Investigated Artemisia species could be used as a potential source of anticancer agents for colon cancer therapy.
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Coconut water is a powerhouse of nutrition and its wide application is greatly due to its unique chemical composition providing phytohormones, enzymes, antioxidant compounds, vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds etc., which are closely associated with its biological activities and pharmacological effects. Coconut water offers numerous medicinal properties. It has anti-microbial, anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, rejuvenation, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and diuretic properties. Coconut water has therapeutic effect on gastric dysfunction, dysentery and child malnutrition and provides control over hypertension. Results of many medical researches indicate that coconut water can aid in exercise performance, reduce swelling, dissolve kidney stones and improve kidney function, improve digestion, relieve constipation, reduce risk of heart disease, lower high blood pressure, and improve cholesterol levels. Consumption of tender coconut water reduces the risk of heart disease, helps to prevent AD pathologies, and prevent osteoporosis in experimental animals. The unique nutritional profile of coconut water also gives it the power to balance body chemistry, fight cancer etc. This chapter elaborates the health benefits of both tender and mature coconut water and their role in reducing the occurrence of life style diseases and providing a healthy life.
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Background: Plant foods, as functional foods, provide not only the essential nutrients needed to sustain life but also low-energy foods for health promotion and disease prevention, the burger, made of several types of meat, contains soy and oats in varying proportions to enhance its chemical and physical properties, as well as to test the efficacy of soy and oat flour as fat alternatives.Objective: The goal of this study was to conduct chemical and physical analyses to Calculation of proportions to determine whether use this type of hamburger Fast food energy reduction might be used for the manufacturing of low- fat beef burgers, the treatment of obesity and autism,Materials and Methods: For both oats and soybeans, there were three burger treatments made of beef, chicken, and lamb, with a ratio of 5, 10, and 15% of each utilized to construct the model items. The meat fillers and fine fat were blended in a grinder. The Burger sample weight was 75 g and kept chilled on 40C for 24 hours.Results: The burger fillers which contain 10% oats and 10% soy and 5%, 15% ratios, respectively, made improvement in the chemical qualities notably with beef and lamb, respectively, while improving physical properties especially with beef and lamb.Conclusion: Low fat and high fiber kofta meat can be made using oat flour with an 8.0% oat flour and 0.5% carrageenan, with little negative impact on its physicochemical and sensory properties.Keywords: Meat, chemical, physical, Burgers, Oats, Soybean, functional foods.
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Background:cell lines derived from cancer cells are frequently used in research, including use as a model to understand cancer and to identify potential new treatments. The aim of this study has been
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Urological cancers include bladder, prostate and renal cancers that can cause death in males and females. Patients with urological cancers are mainly diagnosed at an advanced disease stage when they also develop resistance to therapy or poor response. The use of natural products in the treatment of urological cancers has shown a significant increase. Curcumin has been widely used in cancer treatment due to its ability to trigger cell death and suppress metastasis. The beneficial effects of curcumin in the treatment of urological cancers is the focus of current review. Curcumin can induce apoptosis in the three types of urological cancers limiting their proliferative potential. Furthermore, curcumin can suppress invasion of urological cancers through EMT inhibition. Notably, curcumin decreases the expression of MMPs, therefore interfering with urological cancer metastasis. When used in combination with chemotherapy agents, curcumin displays synergistic effects in suppressing cancer progression. It can also be used as a chemosensitizer. Based on pre-clinical studies, curcumin administration is beneficial in the treatment of urological cancers and future clinical applications might be considered upon solving problems related to the poor bioavailability of the compound. To improve the bioavailability of curcumin and increase its therapeutic index in urological cancer suppression, nanostructures have been developed to favor targeted delivery.
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The phytochemical constituents of medicinal plants and their antibacterial activities are proof of their therapeutic value in treating bacterial infections. Records of phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of medicinal plants are very significant because such documentation can be used for further investigations to obtain novel therapies that can combat bacterial infections. Therefore, this survey evaluates data from extant literature on 45 selected traditional medicinal plants used by the Malays for treating infections, their phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities. The objective is to bridge existing research gaps, make recommendations based on existing knowledge on benefits derived from medicinal plants, suggest further scientific investigations for novel antibacterial therapies and consider present and past values of traditional medicinal plants as bioactive natural compounds. All the species of plants listed in this review have medicinal properties, thus, authenticating their usages in folk medicine.
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Our daily diet not only provides essential nutrients needed for survival and growth but also supplies bioactive ingredients to promote health and prevent disease. Recent studies have shown that exogenous microRNAs (miRNAs), xenomiRs, may enter the consumer's body through dietary intake and regulate gene expression. This fascinating phenomenon suggests that xenomiRs can act as a new class of bioactive substances associated with mammalian systems. In contrast, several studies have failed to detect xenomiRs in consumers and reported that the observed diet-derived miRNAs in the previous studies can be related to the false positive effects of experiments. This discrepancy can be attributed to the potential artifacts related to the process of experiments, small sample size, and inefficient bioinformatics pipeline. Since this hypothesis is not generally accepted yet, more studies are required. Here, a stringent and reliable bioinformatics pipeline was used to analyze 133 miRNA sequencing data from seven different studies to investigate this phenomenon. Generally, our results do not support the transfer of diet-derived miRNAs into the animal/human tissues in every situation. Briefly, xenomiRs were absent from most samples, and also, their expressions were very low in the samples where they were present, which is unlikely to be sufficient to regulate cell transcripts. Furthermore, this study showed that the possibility of miRNAs being absorbed through animals' diets and thus influencing gene expression during specific periods of biological development is not inconceivable. In this context, our results were in agreement with the theory of the transfer of small RNAs under certain conditions and periods as xenomiRs were found in colostrum which may modulate infants' immune systems via post-transcriptional regulation. These findings provide evidence for the selective absorption of diet-derived small RNAs, which need to be investigated in future studies to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the transference of diet-derived miRNAs.
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Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains contain a wide variety of phytochemicals that have the potential to modulate cancer development. There are many biologically plausible reasons why consumption of plant foods might slow or prevent the appearance of cancer. These include the presence in plant foods of such potentially anticarcinogenic substances as carotenoids, chlorophyll, flavonoids, indole, isothiocyanate, polyphenolic compounds, protease inhibitors, sulfides, and terpens. The specific mechanisms of action of most phytochemicals in cancer prevention are not yet clear but appear to be varied. Considering the large number and variety of dietary phytochemicals, their interactive effects on cancer risk may be extremely difficult to assess. Phytochemicals can inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting phase I enzymes, and induction of phase II enzymes, scavenge DNA reactive agents, suppress the abnormal proliferation of early, preneoplastic lesions, and inhibit certain properties of the cancer cell.
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Lung cancer and cardiovascular disease are major causes of death in the United States. It has been proposed that carotenoids and retinoids are agents that may prevent these disorders. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial -- the Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial -- involving a total of 18,314 smokers, former smokers, and workers exposed to asbestos. The effects of a combination of 30 mg of beta carotene per day and 25,000 IU of retinol (vitamin A) in the form of retinyl palmitate per day on the primary end point, the incidence of lung cancer, were compared with those of placebo. A total of 388 new cases of lung cancer were diagnosed during the 73,135 person-years of follow-up (mean length of follow-up, 4.0 years). The active-treatment group had a relative risk of lung cancer of 1.28 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.57; P=0.02), as compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in the risks of other types of cancer. In the active-treatment group, the relative risk of death from any cause was 1.17 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.33); of death from lung cancer, 1.46 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.00); and of death from cardiovascular disease, 1.26 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.61). On the basis of these findings, the randomized trial was stopped 21 months earlier than planned; follow-up will continue for another 5 years. After an average of four years of supplementation, the combination of beta carotene and vitamin A had no benefit and may have had an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer and on the risk of death from lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and any cause in smokers and workers exposed to asbestos.
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Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and, in theory, may provide protection against cancer, although direct human evidence of this is scarce. The relation between the intake of antioxidant flavonoids and subsequent risk of cancer was studied among 9,959 Finnish men and women aged 15-99 years and initially cancer free. Food consumption was estimated by the dietary history method, covering the total habitual diet during the previous year. During a follow-up in 1967-1991, 997 cancer cases and 151 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. An inverse association was observed between the intake of flavonoids and incidence of all sites of cancer combined. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of all sites of cancer combined between the highest and lowest quartiles of flavonoid intake was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.96). This association was mainly a result of lung cancer, which presented a corresponding relative risk of 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.87). The association between flavonoid intake and lung cancer incidence was not due to the intake of antioxidant vitamins or other potential confounding factors, as adjustment for factors such as smoking and intakes of energy, vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene did not materially alter the results. The association was strongest in persons under 50 years of age and in nonsmokers with relative risks of 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.77) and 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.58), respectively. Of the major dietary flavonoid sources, the consumption of apples showed an inverse association with lung cancer incidence, with a relative risk of 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.76) after adjustment for the intake of other fruits and vegetables. The results are in line with the hypothesis that flavonoid intake in some circumstances may be involved in the cancer process, resulting in lowered risks.
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Vitamin C is marketed as a dietary supplement, partly because of its `antioxidant' properties. However, we report here that vitamin C administered as a dietary supplement to healthy humans exhibits a pro-oxidant, as well as an antioxidant, effect in vivo.
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Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains contain a wide variety of phytochemicals that have the potential to modulate cancer development. There are many biologically plausible reasons why consumption of plant foods might slow or prevent the appearance of cancer. These include the presence in plant foods of such potentially anticarcinogenic substances as carotenoids, chlorophyll, flavonoids, indole, isothiocyanate, polyphenolic compounds, protease inhibitors, sulfides, and terpens. The specific mechanisms of action of most phytochemicals in cancer prevention are not yet clear but appear to be varied. Considering the large number and variety of dietary phytochemicals, their interactive effects on cancer risk may be extremely difficult to assess. Phytochemicals can inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting phase I enzymes, and induction of phase II enzymes, scavenge DNA reactive agents, suppress the abnormal proliferation of early, preneoplastic lesions, and inhibit certain properties of the cancer cell.
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It is widely believed that antioxidant micronutrients obtained from fruit and vegetables afford significant protection against cancer and heart disease, as well as ageing. Flavonoids are potential antioxidants found in foods such as onions; information on their effectiveness in vivo is so far lacking. To determine uptake as well as in vivo antioxidant effects of flavonoids from foods. Six healthy non-obese normocholesterolaemic female volunteers in the age range 20-44 years participated in a randomised two-phase crossover supplementation trial to compare the antioxidant effects associated with (a) a meal of fried onions and (b) a meal of fried onions and fresh cherry tomatoes. Plasma flavonoids, lymphocyte DNA damage, plasma ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids, urinary malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were determined to assess flavonoid absorption and antioxidant efficacy. Flavonoid glucosides (quercetin-3-glucoside and isorhamnetin-4-glucoside) were significantly elevated in plasma following ingestion of the onion meal and the increases were associated with an increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to DNA strand breakage. A significant decrease in the level of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was evident at 4 h following ingestion of the onion meal. After the combined tomato and onion meal, only quercetin was detected in plasma. Endogenous base oxidation was decreased but resistance to strand breakage was unchanged. There was no significant change in the excretion of urinary malondialdehyde following either meal. Both meals--onions, and onions together with tomatoes--led to transient decreases in biomarkers of oxidative stress, although the particular biomarkers affected differ. It is possible that the differences in patterns of response reflect the different uptakes of flavonoids but the underlying mechanism is not understood.
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Many constituents of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk for coronary heart disease, but data on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk for coronary heart disease are sparse. To evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk for coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort study. The Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study. 84 251 women 34 to 59 years of age who were followed for 14 years and 42 148 men 40 to 75 years who were followed for 8 years. All were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline. The main outcome measure was incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease (1127 cases in women and 1063 cases in men). Diet was assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires. After adjustment for standard cardiovascular risk factors, persons in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake had a relative risk for coronary heart disease of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.93) compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake. Each 1-serving/d increase in intake of fruits or vegetables was associated with a 4% lower risk for coronary heart disease (relative risk, 0.96 [CI, 0.94 to 0.99]; P = 0.01, test for trend). Green leafy vegetables (relative risk with 1-serving/d increase, 0.77 [CI, 0.64 to 0.93]), and vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables (relative risk with 1-serving/d increase, 0.94 [CI, 0.88 to 0.99]) contributed most to the apparent protective effect of total fruit and vegetable intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly green leafy vegetables and vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables, appears to have a protective effect against coronary heart disease.
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Fruits, vegetables, and common beverages as well as several herbs and plants, each having a variety of pharmacological properties, have been shown to be rich sources of microchemicals with the potential to prevent human cancers. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that microchemicals present in our diet could be the most desirable agents for the prevention and/or intervention of human cancer incidence and mortality due to stomach, colon, breast, esophagus, lung, bladder, and prostate cancer. Also, the consumption of vegetables and fruits often is lower in those who subsequently develop cancer. There are many biologically plausible reasons why consumption of plant foods might slow or prevent the appearance of cancer. The specific mechanisms of action of most phytochemicals in cancer prevention are not yet clear, but appear to be varied. Phytochemicals can inhibit carcinogenesis by induction of phase II enzymes and inhibiting phase I enzymes, scavenge DNA reactive agents, suppress the abnormal proliferation of early preneoplastic lesions, and inhibit certain properties of the cancer cell.
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Background: To investigate the possible relationship between intake of flavonoids-powerful dietary antioxidants that may also inhibit P450 enzymes-and lung cancer risk, we conducted a population-based, case-control study in Hawaii. Methods: An in-person interview assessed smoking history and usual intake of 242 food items for 582 patients with incident lung cancer and 582 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects. Subjects who donated a blood sample were genotyped for the P450 enzyme variant allele CYP1A1 * 2 by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All P values are two-sided. Results: After adjusting for smoking and intakes of saturated fat and β-carotene, we found statistically significant inverse associations between lung cancer risk and the main food sources of the flavonoids quercetin (onions and apples) and naringin (white grapefruit). The lung cancer OR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake was 0.5 (95% CI = 0.3-0.9) for onions (P for trend =.001) and 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-1.0) for apples (P for trend =.03). The OR for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of intake for white grapefruit was 0.5 (95% CI = 0.2-0.9) (P for trend =.02). No association was found for important food sources of other flavonoids. Using published food-composition data for flavonoids, we found an inverse association between intake of quercetin and risk of lung cancer (P for trend =.07) that appears consistent with associations for its food sources. The effect of onions was particularly strong against squamous cell carcinoma (a cell type specifically associated with CYP1A1 * 2 in our study) and was modified by the CYP1A1 genotype, suggesting that CYP1A1 may play a role in this association. Conclusion: If replicated, particularly in prospective studies, these findings would suggest that foods rich in certain flavonoids may protect against certain forms of lung cancer and that decreased bioactivation of carcinogens by inhibition of CYP1A1 should be explored as underlying mechanisms.
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Background: Both C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are elevated in persons at risk for cardiovascular events. However, population-based data directly comparing these two biologic markers are not available. Methods: C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol were measured at base line in 27,939 apparently healthy American women, who were then followed for a mean of eight years for the occurrence of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. We assessed the value of these two measurements in predicting the risk of cardiovascular events in the study population. Results: Although C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol were minimally correlated (r=0.08), base-line levels of each had a strong linear relation with the incidence of cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, smoking status, the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, categorical levels of blood pressure, and use or nonuse of hormone-replacement therapy, the relative risks of first cardiovascular events according to increasing quartiles of C-reactive protein, as compared with the women in the lowest quintile, were 1.4, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.3 (P<0.001), whereas the corresponding relative risks in increasing quintiles of LDL cholesterol, as compared with the lowest, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 (P<0.001). Similar effects were observed in separate analyses of each component of the composite end point and among users and nonusers of hormone-replacement therapy. Overall, 77 percent of all events occurred among women with LDL cholesterol levels below 160 mg per deciliter (4.14 mmol per liter), and 46 percent occurred among those with LDL cholesterol levels below 130 mg per deciliter (3.36 mmol per liter). By contrast, because C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol measurements tended to identify different high-risk groups, screening for both biologic markers provided better prognostic information than screening for either alone. Independent effects were also observed for C-reactive protein in analyses adjusted for all components of the Framingham risk score. Conclusions: These data suggest that the C-reactive protein level is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than the LDL cholesterol level and that it adds prognostic information to that conveyed by the Framingham risk score.
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Reactive oxygen species are widely believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases as indicated by the signs of oxidative stress seen in those diseases. Conversely, antioxidants are believed to be protective. An important part of the supporting evidence is the consistently-seen inverse association between, on the one hand, intake of β-carotene and vitamin C and of fruit and vegetables, and, on the other hand, risk of cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the failure of supplemental β-carotene to prevent these diseases in intervention trials suggests that the associations for that nutrient reflect confounding rather than cause and effect. With respect to other antioxidants there is inconsistent evidence that supplements of vitamin E may have some ability to prevent cancer and CHD while selenium may prevent cancer. Overall, the role of oxidative stress in disease, especially cancer and CHD, has probably been overstated; other components of the diet (other nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber) likely play a significantly greater role. The possible benefits of supplements are discussed.
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Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may be important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have reported that specific polyphenols play a role as antioxidants inhibiting lipid peroxidation, LDL oxidation and scavenging oxygen radicals. To investigate the mechanism by which dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative damage of lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein oxidizability indexes were studied to measure the antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols and a modification in the CLT50 parameter was proposed. This parameter measure the concentration of antioxidant that increase the Lag time to 50% greater than that of the control, and the proposed modification eliminate the effects of the LDL status in the oxidation induced with Cu2+. The lower the CLT50, the higher antioxidant activity in the inhibition of LDL oxidation. Polyphenols with different structures such as condensed tannins (tannin acid), flavonols (catechin, quercetin, rutin), cinnamic acids (caffeic and ferulic acid), stilbenes (resveratrol), benzoic acids (gallic acid), anthocyanidins (malvidin); a synthetic phenol (3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, BHA) and two vitamins (ascorbic acid - vitamin C- and DL-α-tocopherol -vitamin E-) were studied. All antioxidants tested showed dose-dependent inhibition of LDL oxidation. In general, it was suggested that dietary polyphenols are better antioxidants than other common antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E. An adequate study of the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability indexes could determine the serum antioxidant status within different subjects, and/or evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different antioxidants in the inhibition of human LDL oxidation.
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Beta carotene has been associated with a decreased risk of human cancer in many studies employing dietary questionnaires or blood measurements, and it has had protective effects in some animal models of carcinogenesis. We tested the possible cancer-preventing effects of beta carotene by randomly assigning 1805 patients who had had a recent nonmelanoma skin cancer to receive either 50 mg of beta carotene or placebo per day and by conducting annual skin examinations to determine the occurrence of new nonmelanoma skin cancer. Adherence to the prescribed treatment was good, and after one year the actively treated group's median plasma beta carotene level (3021 nmol per liter) was much higher than that of the control group (354 nmol per liter). After five years of follow-up, however, there was no difference between the groups in the rate of occurrence of the first new nonmelanoma skin cancer (relative rate, 1.05; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.22). In subgroup analyses, active treatment showed no efficacy either in the patients whose initial plasma beta carotene level was in the lowest quartile or in those who currently smoked. There was also no significant difference between treated and control groups in the mean number of new nonmelanoma skin cancers per patient-year. In persons with a previous nonmelanoma skin cancer, treatment with beta carotene does not reduce the occurrence of new skin cancers over a five-year period of treatment and observation.
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Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants from fresh fruit could be more effective than a dietary supplement.
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A very large oxidative damage rate to DNA occurs as part of normal metabolism. In each rat cell the steady-state level is estimated to be about 10(6) oxidative adducts and about 10(5) new adducts are formed daily. It is argued that this endogenous DNA damage is a major contributor to aging and the degenerative diseases of aging, such as cancer. The oxidative damage rate in mammalian species with a high metabolic rate, short life span, and high age-specific cancer rate is much higher than the rate in humans, a long-lived creature with a lower metabolic rate and a lower age-specific cancer rate. It is argued that deficiency of micronutrients, such as dietary antioxidants or folate, is a major contributor to human cancer and degenerative diseases. Understanding the role of mitogenesis in mutagenesis is critical for clarifying the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and interpreting high-dose animal cancer tests. High-dose animal cancer tests have been done mainly on synthetic industrial chemicals, yet almost all of the chemicals humans are exposed to are natural. About half of natural chemicals tested in high-dose animal cancer tests are rodent carcinogens, a finding that is consistent with the view that high-dose tests frequently increase mitogenesis rates. Animals have numerous defenses against toxins that make them very well buffered against low doses of almost all toxins, whether synthetic or natural.
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Several human cancers are associated with chronic bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Nitric oxide, which is a short-lived free radical produced by many types of cells for a number of important physiological functions, is elevated in these infections. Long-term exposure to elevated NO. in cells could have potential genotoxic effects on hosts. There are at least three mechanisms by which intracellular elevated NO. could exert genotoxic affects after reacting with O2. These include formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, direct deamination of DNA bases, and oxidation of DNA after formation of peroxynitrite and/or hydroxyl radicals. One or more of these mechanisms could, theoretically, explain why chronic infection increases the risk of certain cancers.
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DNA lesions that escape repair have a certain probability of giving rise to mutations when the cell divides. Endogenous DNA damage is high: 10(6) oxidative lesions are present per rat cell. An exogenous mutagen produces an increment in lesions over the background rate of endogenous lesions. The effectiveness of a particular lesion depends on whether it is excised by a DNA repair system and the probability that it gives rise to a mutation when the cell divides. When the cell divides, an unrepaired DNA lesion has a certain probability of giving rise to a mutation. Thus, an important factor in the mutagenic effect of an exogenous agent whether it is genotoxic or non-genotoxic, is the increment it causes over the background cell division rate (mitogenesis) in cells that appear to matter most in cancer, the stem cells, which are not on their way to being discarded. Increasing their cell division rate increases mutation and therefore cancer. There is little cancer from nondividing cells. Endogenous cell division rates can be influenced by hormone levels, decreased by calorie restriction, or increased by high doses of chemicals. If both the rate of DNA lesions and cell division are increased, then there will be a multiplicative effect on mutagenesis (and carcinogenesis), for example, by high doses of a mutagen that also increases mitogenesis through cell killing. The defense system against reactive electrophilic mutagens, such as the glutathione transferases, are also almost all inducible and buffer cells against increments in active forms of chemicals that can cause DNA lesions. A variety of DNA repair defense systems, almost all inducible, buffer the cell against any increment in DNA lesions. Therefore, the effect of a particular chemical insult depends on the level of each defense, which in turn depends on the past history of exposure. Exogenous agents can influence the induction and effectiveness of these defenses. Defenses can be partially disabled by lack of particular micronutrients in the diet (e.g., antioxidants).
Article
Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants naturally present in vegetables, fruits, and beverages such as tea and wine. In vitro, flavonoids inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and reduce thrombotic tendency, but their effects on atherosclerotic complications in human beings are unknown. We measured the content in various foods of the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin. We then assessed the flavonoid intake of 805 men aged 65-84 years in 1985 by a cross-check dietary history; the men were then followed up for 5 years. Mean baseline flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg daily. The major sources of intake were tea (61%), onions (13%), and apples (10%). Between 1985 and 1990, 43 men died of coronary heart disease. Fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction occurred in 38 of 693 men with no history of myocardial infarction at baseline. Flavonoid intake (analysed in tertiles) was significantly inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease (p for trend = 0.015) and showed an inverse relation with incidence of myocardial infarction, which was of borderline significance (p for trend = 0.08). The relative risk of coronary heart disease mortality in the highest versus the lowest tertile of flavonoid intake was 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.88). After adjustment for age, body-mass index, smoking, serum total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, coffee consumption, and intake of energy, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and dietary fibre, the risk was still significant (0.32 [0.15-0.71]). Intakes of tea, onions, and apples were also inversely related to coronary heart disease mortality, but these associations were weaker. Flavonoids in regularly consumed foods may reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease in elderly men.
Article
Many recent studies have implicated dietary factors in the cause and prevention of important diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, birth defects, and cataracts. There is strong evidence that vegetables and fruits protect against these diseases; however, the active constituents are incompletely identified. Whether fat per se is a major cause of disease is a question still under debate, although saturated and partially hydrogenated fats probably increase the risk of coronary heart disease. One clear conclusion from existing epidemiologic evidence is that many individuals in the United States have suboptimal diets and that the potential for disease prevention by improved nutrition is substantial.
Article
Epidemiologic evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of several cancers, including cancers of the esophagus and stomach. Vitamins and minerals in these foods may contribute to the reduced cancer risk. The people of Linxian County, China, have one of the world's highest rates of esophageal/gastric cardia cancer and a persistently low intake of several micronutrients. We sought to determine if dietary supplementation with specific vitamins and minerals can lower mortality from or incidence of cancer as well as mortality from other diseases in Linxian. Individuals of ages 40-69 were recruited in 1985 from four Linxian communes. Mortality and cancer incidence during March 1986-May 1991 were ascertained for 29,584 adults who received daily vitamin and mineral supplementation throughout this period. The subjects were randomly assigned to intervention groups according to a one-half replicate of a 2(4) factorial experimental design. This design enabled testing for the effects of four combinations of nutrients: (A) retinol and zinc; (B) riboflavin and niacin; (C) vitamin C and molybdenum; and (D) beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium. Doses ranged from one to two times U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances. A total of 2127 deaths occurred among trial participants during the intervention period. Cancer was the leading cause of death, with 32% of all deaths due to esophageal or stomach cancer, followed by cerebrovascular disease (25%). Significantly (P = .03) lower total mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.99) occurred among those receiving supplementation with beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium. The reduction was mainly due to lower cancer rates (RR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.75-1.00), especially stomach cancer (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99), with the reduced risk beginning to arise about 1-2 years after the start of supplementation with these vitamins and minerals. No significant effects on mortality rates from all causes were found for supplementation with retinol and zinc, riboflavin and niacin, or vitamin C and molybdenum. Patterns of cancer incidence, on the basis of 1298 cases, generally resembled those for cancer mortality. The findings indicate that vitamin and mineral supplementation of the diet of Linxian adults, particularly with the combination of beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium, may effect a reduction in cancer risk in this population. The results on their own are not definitive, but the promising findings should stimulate further research to clarify the potential benefits of micronutrient supplements.
Article
Cancer-protective factors are present in several fruits, vegetables and commonly used spices and herbs. They can be divided into several different groups, based on their chemical structure, e.g. polyphenols, thiols, carotenoids and retinoids, carbohydrates, trace metals, terpenes, tocopherols and degradation products of glucosinolates (i.e. isothiocyanates, indoles and dithiothiols) and others. Among each of these groups of compounds are substances, which may exert their cancer-protective action by more than one biochemical mechanism.
Article
To study the association between dietary intake of flavonoids and subsequent coronary mortality. A cohort study based on data collected at the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey from 1967-72 and followed up until 1992. 30 communities from different parts of Finland. 5133 Finnish men and women aged 30-69 years and free from heart disease at baseline. Dietary intake of flavonoids, total mortality, and coronary mortality. In women a significant inverse gradient was observed between dietary intake of flavonoids and total and coronary mortality. The relative risks between highest and lowest quarters of flavonoid intake adjusted for age, smoking, serum cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, and body mass index were 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.90) and 0.54 (0.33 to 0.87) for total and coronary mortality, respectively. The corresponding values for men were 0.76 (0.63 to 0.93) and 0.78 (0.56 to 1.08), respectively. Adjustment for intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids weakened the associations for women; the relative risks for coronary heart disease were 0.73 (0.41 to 1.32) and 0.67 (0.44 to 1.00) in women and men, respectively. Intakes of onions and apples, the main dietary sources of flavonoids, presented similar associations. The relative risks for coronary mortality between highest and lowest quarters of apple intake were 0.57 (0.36 to 0.91) and 0.81 (0.61 to 1.09) for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values for onions were 0.50 (0.30 to 0.82) and 0.74 (0.53 to 1.02), respectively. The results suggest that people with very low intakes of flavonoids have higher risks of coronary disease.
Article
Observational studies suggest that people who consume more fruits and vegetables containing beta carotene have somewhat lower risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and earlier basic research suggested plausible mechanisms. Because large randomized trials of long duration were necessary to test this hypothesis directly, we conducted a trial of beta carotene supplementation. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of beta carotene (50 mg on alternate days), we enrolled 22,071 male physicians, 40 to 84 years of age, in the United States; 11 percent were current smokers and 39 percent were former smokers at the beginning of the study in 1982. By December 31, 1995, the scheduled end of the study, fewer than 1 percent had been lost to follow-up, and compliance was 78 percent in the group that received beta carotene. Among 11,036 physicians randomly assigned to receive beta carotene and 11,035 assigned to receive placebo, there were virtually no early or late differences in the overall incidence of malignant neoplasms or cardiovascular disease, or in overall mortality. In the beta carotene group, 1273 men had any malignant neoplasm (except nonmelanoma skin cancer), as compared with 1293 in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.98; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.06). There were also no significant differences in the number of cases of lung cancer (82 in the beta carotene group vs. 88 in the placebo group); the number of deaths from cancer (386 vs. 380), deaths from any cause (979 vs. 968), or deaths from cardiovascular disease (338 vs. 313); the number of men with myocardial infarction (468 vs. 489); the number with stroke (367 vs. 382); or the number with any one of the previous three end points (967 vs. 972). Among current and former smokers, there were also no significant early or late differences in any of these end points. In this trial among healthy men, 12 years of supplementation with beta carotene produced neither benefit nor harm in terms of the incidence of malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, or death from all causes.
Article
In a 1981 review, Doll and Peto estimated that approximately 35% of cancer deaths in the United States were potentially avoidable by the modification of diet but that this percentage might be as low as 10% or as high as 70%. Since that time, the epidemiologic literature on diet and cancer has grown greatly, as has understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In general, this expanded literature has not provided reason to alter the Doll and Peto estimate substantially. For colon cancer, evidence has accumulated that some of the international differences that were attributed to diet are probably due to physical activity. For breast cancer, the concept that fat intake per se is the primary reason for differences in rates among countries has not been supported by prospective studies. Although several lines of evidence suggest that caloric restriction and slow growth rates may contribute importantly to the low rates of breast cancer found outside Western countries, this may not translate directly to practical means of prevention. In contrast to breast cancer, more recent data have supported a causative role for red meat in the development of colon and prostate cancers, although perhaps not entirely due to its fat content. Whereas earlier thinking about nutrition and cancer emphasized the adverse effects of fat and other components in the diet, the most compelling evidence of the last decade has indicated the importance of protective factors, largely unidentified, in fruits and vegetables. Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% of cancer deaths would be avoidable by dietary change.
Article
Lipid oxidation has been shown to be a prominent feature of atherosclerosis. The presence of isoprostanes and other lipid oxidation products has been clearly demonstrated in lesions. Furthermore, antibodies to oxidized phospholipids have been identified in animal and human models. Recent evidence suggests that oxidized phospholipids may activate all vascular cell types. The identification and isolation of particular oxidative products has provided some important information about the receptors for these active lipids.
Article
To investigate the possible relationship between intake of flavonoids-powerful dietary antioxidants that may also inhibit P450 enzymes-and lung cancer risk, we conducted a population-based, case-control study in Hawaii. An in-person interview assessed smoking history and usual intake of 242 food items for 582 patients with incident lung cancer and 582 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control subjects. Subjects who donated a blood sample were genotyped for the P450 enzyme variant allele CYP1A1*2 by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All P values are two-sided. After adjusting for smoking and intakes of saturated fat and beta-carotene, we found statistically significant inverse associations between lung cancer risk and the main food sources of the flavonoids quercetin (onions and apples) and naringin (white grapefruit). The lung cancer OR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake was 0.5 (95% CI = 0.3-0.9) for onions (P for trend =.001) and 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-1.0) for apples (P for trend =.03). The OR for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of intake for white grapefruit was 0.5 (95% CI = 0.2-0.9) (P for trend =.02). No association was found for important food sources of other flavonoids. Using published food-composition data for flavonoids, we found an inverse association between intake of quercetin and risk of lung cancer (P for trend =.07) that appears consistent with associations for its food sources. The effect of onions was particularly strong against squamous cell carcinoma (a cell type specifically associated with CYP1A1*2 in our study) and was modified by the CYP1A1 genotype, suggesting that CYP1A1 may play a role in this association. If replicated, particularly in prospective studies, these findings would suggest that foods rich in certain flavonoids may protect against certain forms of lung cancer and that decreased bioactivation of carcinogens by inhibition of CYP1A1 should be explored as underlying mechanisms.
Article
Male humpbacks modify their sexual displays when exposed to man-made noise.
Article
The intake of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women was calculated from our food-phytochemical composition table. The relationship between intake of these phytochemicals and various anthropometric and blood chemistry data was analyzed in a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 115 women volunteers, aged 29-78 y, living in the northern part of Japan. Each subject completed a 3-d dietary record and received a health check up, including urine and blood sampling for biochemical analysis. Total mean intakes of flavonoids (sum of flavonols and flavones) and isoflavones were 16.7 and 47.2 mg/d, respectively. The major source of flavonoids was onions (45.9%) and that of isoflavones was tofu (37.0%). Total intake of isoflavones exceeded that of other dietary antioxidants, such as flavonoids, carotenoids (3.5 mg/d) and vitamin E (8.2 mg/d), and was approximately one half of the vitamin C intake (109 mg/d). The total intake of flavonoids was inversely correlated with the plasma total cholesterol concentration (TC) (r = -0.236, P: < 0.05) and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) (r = -0.220, P: < 0.05), after the adjustment for age, body mass index and total energy intake. As a single component, quercetin was inversely correlated with both TC (r = -0.261, P: < 0.01) and LDL-C (r = -0. 263, P: < 0.01). Among Japanese, flavonoid and isoflavone intake is the main component among nonnutrient phytochemicals with antioxidant potential in the diet. These results suggest that a high consumption of both flavonoids and isoflavones by Japanese women may contribute to their low incidence of coronary heart disease compared with women in other countries.
Article
To study the efficacy of vitamin E and C supplementation on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis, hypothesizing an enhanced preventive effect in men and in smokers and synergism between vitamins. Double-masked two-by-two factorial trial, randomization in four strata (by gender and smoking status) to receive twice daily either 91 mg (136 IU) of d-alpha-tocopherol, 250 mg of slow-release vitamin C, a combination of these or placebo for three years. A randomized sample of 520 smoking and nonsmoking men and postmenopausal women aged 45-69 years with serum cholesterol >/= 5.0 mmol L-1 were studied. The population of the city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland. Twice daily either a special formulation of 91 mg of d-alpha-tocopherol, 250 mg of slow-release vitamin C, a combination of these (CellaVie(R)) or placebo for three years. Atherosclerotic progression, defined as the linear regression slope of ultrasonographically assessed common carotid artery mean intima-media thickness (IMT), was calculated over semi-annual assessments. The average increase of the mean IMT was 0.020 mm year-1 amongst men randomized to placebo and 0.018 mm year-1 in vitamin E, 0.017 mm year-1 in vitamin C and 0.011 mm year-1 in the vitamin combination group (P = 0.008 for E + C vs. placebo). The respective means in women were 0.016, 0.015, 0.017 and 0.016 mm year-1. The proportion of men with progression was reduced by 74% (95% CI 36-89%, P = 0.003) by supplementation with the formulation containing both vitamins, as compared with placebo. Our study shows that a combined supplementation with reasonable doses of both vitamin E and slow-release vitamin C can retard the progression of common carotid atherosclerosis in men. This may imply benefits with regard to other atherosclerosis-based events.
Article
Both C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are elevated in persons at risk for cardiovascular events. However, population-based data directly comparing these two biologic markers are not available. C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol were measured at base line in 27,939 apparently healthy American women, who were then followed for a mean of eight years for the occurrence of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. We assessed the value of these two measurements in predicting the risk of cardiovascular events in the study population. Although C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol were minimally correlated (r=0.08), base-line levels of each had a strong linear relation with the incidence of cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, smoking status, the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, categorical levels of blood pressure, and use or nonuse of hormone-replacement therapy, the relative risks of first cardiovascular events according to increasing quintiles of C-reactive protein, as compared with the women in the lowest quintile, were 1.4, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.3 (P<0.001), whereas the corresponding relative risks in increasing quintiles of LDL cholesterol, as compared with the lowest, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5 (P<0.001). Similar effects were observed in separate analyses of each component of the composite end point and among users and nonusers of hormone-replacement therapy. Overall, 77 percent of all events occurred among women with LDL cholesterol levels below 160 mg per deciliter (4.14 mmol per liter), and 46 percent occurred among those with LDL cholesterol levels below 130 mg per deciliter (3.36 mmol per liter). By contrast, because C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol measurements tended to identify different high-risk groups, screening for both biologic markers provided better prognostic information than screening for either alone. Independent effects were also observed for C-reactive protein in analyses adjusted for all components of the Framingham risk score. These data suggest that the C-reactive protein level is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than the LDL cholesterol level and that it adds prognostic information to that conveyed by the Framingham risk score.
Article
Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Article
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Endogenous mutagens and the causes of aging and cancer
  • Ames
Ames BN, Gold LS. Endogenous mutagens and the causes of aging and cancer. Mutat Res 1991;250:3-16.
Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population
  • W J Blot
  • J Y Li
  • P R Taylor
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85(18):1483-92.
DNA lesions, inducible DNA repair, and cell division: the three key factors in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
  • Ames
Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study