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Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for eprhedra: An overview

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Abstract

Obesity is a serious health problem throughout the world. More than half of U.S. adults are overweight (61%) and more than a quarter (26%) of U.S. adults are obese. The inability of many individuals to keep their weight in check by diet and exercise has created a need for additional therapeutic means to combat obesity. Despite great effort, the pharmaceutical industry has not come up with the solution; because most weight-loss drugs to date have serious adverse effects to health and well-being. The theory that beta agonists, especially beta 3 agonists, can affect body weight and fat mass is well accepted. Ephedrine has proven time and time again that it is an effective weight loss agent through its ability to increase thermogenesis and quench appetite. However, the publicity concerning adverse reactions has led to its gradual withdrawal from use by many despite the perceived consequences of obesity. Many companies are now substituting Citrus aurantium for ephedra in their formulations. Citrus aurantium, an agent containing beta agonists, has been reported to aid in weight loss in two studies and increase thermogenesis, at least to some extent, in three studies. Colker et al. (1999) reported that in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study the subjects receiving a combination of Citrus aurantium, caffeine and St John's Wort, lost significant amounts of total body weight while on a strict diet and exercise. Those in the placebo and control groups who also were on the same restricted diet did not. However, intergroup analysis showed no statistical significance among the weight changes in the three groups. In contrast, the loss of fat mass in the test group was significantly greater compared to the placebo and control groups. Jones describes an open labeled study performed on 9 women. The subjects showed a mean of 0.94 kg lost during the first week when no product was given and 2.40 kg during the second week when a Citrus aurantium product was taken. Body weight losses were statistically greater during the second week compared to the first week. Since most clinicians would agree that the most weight loss should occur initially coinciding with a greater fluid loss during the first week, these differences are even more remarkable. Three studies reported increased metabolic rates when ingesting Citrus aurantium products, however, at least two of these studies were acute. At present, Citrus aurantium may be the best thermogenic substitute for ephedra. However, more studies are needed to establish this definitively.
... Citrus aurantium, better known as bitter orange, is an evergreen plant whose fruits have been used for many centuries both as a food in Southern Europe and as a supplement in traditional medicine in China and South America [104,105]. These fruits contain alkaloids -particularly synephrine and octopamine-and other compounds, such as flavonoids -in particular hesperidin, naringin, limonene and tangaretin-with potential beneficial effects on metabolism and health [106,107]. ...
... These fruits contain alkaloids -particularly synephrine and octopamine-and other compounds, such as flavonoids -in particular hesperidin, naringin, limonene and tangaretin-with potential beneficial effects on metabolism and health [106,107]. A few human studies have demonstrated both an acute thermogenic effect with a statistically significant increase in REE, DIT and blood catecholamines levels, as well as weight loss and appetite suppression after the ingestion of bitter orange extracts [104,[107][108][109][110]. However, long-term data are lacking, as well as data about the effects of the consumption of the fruit by itself, as the available studies have employed dry and purified extracts from the orange peel, containing a high dose (~26 mg) of p-synephrine. ...
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The mass media has increasingly frequently suggested to the general population that specific foods or nutritional schemes are able to affect both human metabolism and energy expenditure, thus facilitating weight loss. This critical review is aimed at assessing available evidence on the roles of nutrients, food and dietary regimens in energy intake and energy expenditure. We queried the National Library of Medicine, the Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica dataBASEand the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature database, and a search strategy was performed by using database-specific subject headings and keywords. We found that available scientific evidence on these topics is scarce, and that the limited number of available studies often have poor methodological quality. Only a few foods show beneficial effects on metabolism and energy expenditure, as the human energy balance is complex and multifactorial. Finally, microbiota may interfere with the intake, use and expenditure of energy in the human body. Conclusive evidence is still lacking, and, at present, it is not possible to identify a food or a diet with a significant impact on human energy expenditure.
... Citrus aurantifolia (Key lime) is used as a source of volatile oils (limonene and linalool), citric acid, gives testy for food, medicinal purposes in folk medicine (Heneidy, 2010), while Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange) is used as a source of vitamin C., and Jasminum grandiflorum (Spanish jasmine) gives extracted oil from flowers used as perfume, and flavori (Heneidy 2010). Citrus aurantium (Bigarade orange), a beta agonist-containing agent, has been reported to help with weight loss (Preuss HG et al., 2002). Citrullus colocynthis, Mentha longifolia, Thymus vulgaris, Moringa oleifera and etc. are used as medicinal plants in a herbal drug industry (Abdel-Azim et al., 2011). ...
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This assessment tends to evaluate the Egyptian crop basket around the Nile River, with a focus on their introduction history. A framework of growth forms, flowering time, sex forms, cultivation duration, propagation methods, economic values, and ecological benefits was used. A side from assessing were global phyto-geographic regions, continental distribution, and biomes. Twenty-four field visits were conducted covering the study area (December 2020 - December 2021) to verify collected data from the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture, and checking the herbarium of Agricultural Museum, Cairo (CAIM). One hundred and ninety-one crops were recorded, of them 170 crops, belonging 101 genera and 45 families, are currently surveyed, while 21 crops are considered a gap, belonging 7 families and 19 genera. The most evaluated family was Fabaceae, while Citrus was the most evaluated genus. Herbaceous plants were the most recorded growth form (66.5 %). Most crops were bisexual, propagated by seeds, and grown in winter (43.5 %). Their flowering activity gradually increases from December reaching a peak in June. Most crops (48.2 %) return to the Pharaonic era, e.g., Aloe vera and Portulaca oleracea. The majority of crops evaluated as foods (80.7 %) and humidity tolerant species (56 %). The Mediterranean and Saharan-Arabian regions were the most represented (42.9 %). Most crops originated in Africa, then Asia. Temperate deciduous forest and subtropical evergreen forest were the major biomes. As the majority of the Egyptian crops return to the Pharaonic era, indicating the relative stability of the Egyptian climate over last years.
... This result demonstrate that AEK possesses weight reducing activity. This reduction in body weight may partially be mediated via the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity and via the activation of thermogenesis through the stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptors 24 . Furthermore, the decrease in the weight may due to decrease fat pad body weight by reducing the formation of new adipocyte from precursor cells or decreased adipocyte size due to fat storage (adipocyte hypertrophy) 25 . ...
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Obesity is a chronic disorder of global prevalence and associated with morbidity and mortality. This pathology is a real public health problem. The work was undertaken to evaluate the antiobesity efficacy of aqueous extract of Kemite in cafeteria diet induced obese Wistar rats for a period of 28 days. Aqueous extract of Kemite (AEK) was prepared by hot extraction method. Female Wistar rats weighing 124-170 g were divided into different groups i.e. Normal control, cafeteria control and aqueous extract of Kemite at dose of 200 mg/kg bw. The antiobesity activity is estimated in terms of body weight gain, food intake, serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-C), blood glucose (BG), ASAT and ALAT activities, atherogenic index, coronary risk index and liver and fat pad weights. Results showed Cafeteria diet fed rats for 28 successive days significantly increased the body weight, food intake, ASAT and ALAT activities, liver and fat pad weights, atherogenic index, coronary risk index TG, TC, LDL, VLDL, BG and not influenced HDL levels. Rats treated with extract for 28 successive days along with cafeteria diet reversed the effects induced by cafeteria diet. In conclusion, this study revealed that AEK may be a natural and safe remedy for the prevention and control of obesity.
... These inhibitions in weight is not fully due to decreased food intake as there was not much difference in the amount of food consumed between the HFD (Group II) and AEAA treated groups (Group III to V) (Fig. 4). This reduction in body weight may partially be mediated via the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity and via the activation of thermogenesis through the stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptors [38]. ...
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Background Obesity, reached epidemic proportions globally is often associated with life threatening comorbidities. The unavailability of safe and effective long term medications for obesity in modern pharmacotherapy forces the scientific community to explore the potential of Ayurvedic traditional healers as they are considered safe and effective. Objective To explore the anti-obesity potential of aqueous extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera L. (AEAA), a traditional healer in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. Methods AEAA was prepared and subjected to in-vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition assay and in-vivo anti-obesity studies. For in-vivo studies, HFD fed obese prone Wistar albino rats were divided into five experimental groups (Group II to VI): animals fed with standard pellet chow served as normal control (Group I) while, animals continued with HFD alone served as obese control (Group II); Group III, IV and V were administered AEAA at a dose of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. respectively along with HFD; and animals administered orlistat (30 mg/kg bw) along with HFD served as standard control (Group VI). All the drugs were administered orally once a day for a period of 60 days. At the end of the experimental period various physical, biochemical and histopathological observations were made. Results In-vitro studies showed AEAA partially but not significantly inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase. Data of in-vivo studies revealed, significant reduction in body weights, fat pad weights and organ weights upon AEAA treatment. Elevated levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, lipid profiles and antioxidant status were also brought back to normal. Conclusion The obtained results clearly suggested that AEAA possess pronounced anti-obesity potential.
... Fresh citrus fruits are known to be a good source of dietary fiber, which is linked with the prevention of gastrointestinal disease and lowering of circulating blood cholesterol [4]. The effect of citrus products on human health ranges from a significant reduction of obesity through weight loss in adults, which is one of the major causes of chronic diseases and consequently the death of more than 300,000 individuals per year [5,6]. Generally, lemons are rich in flavonoids, a significant part of a balanced nutriment, predominantly for their role in prevention of terminal human diseases, including heart diseases, and certain types of cancer [7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
Background Obesity is a medical condition often associated with chronic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, colon cancer, other cardiovascular diseases etc., and is become a major health problem worldwide in recent years. The non-satisfactory long term effectiveness as well as the side effects associated with the modern pharmacotherapy forced the suffering mankind to resort to better, long lasting and safe therapy. At present, the potential of natural products for treating obesity is under exploration. The aim of the study To explore the anti-obesity potential of Aqueous extract of seed kernel of Mangifera indica Linn. (AEMI) in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. Methodology AEMI was subjected to in-vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition assay. For in-vivo studies, after administering HFD for a period of 45 days obese prone Wistar strains of albino rats were divided into five experimental groups (Group II to VI): animals fed with standard pellet chow served as normal control (Group I) while, animals continued with HFD alone served as obese control (Group II); Group III, IV and V were administered AEMI at a dose of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively along with HFD; and animals administered orlistat (30 mg/kg bw) along with HFD served as standard control (Group VI). All the drugs were administered orally once a day for a period of 60 days. At the end of the experimental period various physical and biochemical parameters were analysed. Results In-vitro studies showed AEMI partially inhibited the activity of the pancreatic lipase. Data of in-vivo studies revealed, significant reduction in body weights, fat pad weights and organ weights of AEMI treated animals. Elevated levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and lipid profiles were normalized upon treatment with AEMI. Antioxidant status was also brought back to normal upon AEMI treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that the aqueous extract of seed kernel of Mangifera indica Linn. Possess pronounced anti-obesity activity and this effect may be due the pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity as well as potent antioxidant nature of therapeutic phytoconstituents present in the selected plant extract in addition to other unrevealed actions.
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