To examine brain-behavior relationships in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the authors obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of monozygotic twins discordant for ADHD.
National recruitment was followed by in-person assessment. MRI scans were measured algorithmically for nine pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for ADHD.
The affected twins had significantly smaller caudate volumes (mean difference=-0.56 ml, CI=-0.92 to -0.21) than their unaffected co-twins.
These results provide further support for striatal models of ADHD pathophysiology.
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"In addition, hippocampal volume in girls and the amygdala volume in boys are greater (Fig. 5). This difference in hippocampal and amygdala volume may be associated with attention deficit, hyperactivity and Tourette's syndrome (disorder) and neuropsychiatric disorders such as earlyonset obsessive-compulsive disorder (Aylward et al., 1996; Castellanos et al., 2003; Peterson et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices. As cell phones are held close to the head during talking and often stored next to the reproductive organs, studies are mostly focused on the brain. In fact, more research is especially needed to investigate electromagnetic field (EMF)'s effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
"Patients with ADHD and co-morbid conditions such as conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) can demonstrate detrimental externalizing behaviors such as physical aggression, bullying, defiance, theft and vandalism. Hyperactive/impulsive patients have a number of structural and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system (Castellanos et al., 2003;Durston et al., 2003;Valera, Faraone, Murray, & Seidman, 2007) and the peripheral nervous system (Scarpa & Raine, 1997;Crowell et al., 2006). These include imbalances in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity associated with symptoms of impulsivity, hyperactivity, emotional reactivity and aggressiveness (Beauchaine, Gatze-Kopp, & Mead, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in psychiatry or integrative psychiatry covers a wide range of biological, psychological and mind-body treatments that enhance standard medical practices and patient outcomes. While CAM approaches are popular among patients, health professionals have received limited education in these interventions and they are often unaware of their patients’ use of CAM treatments. Method: This overview highlights evidence-based CAM treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including dietary interventions, phytomedicines, mind-body practices and neurofeedback. Results: While conventional treatments are the mainstays for ADHD, there are a large number of available treatments that can be used to enhance treatment response. Conclusion: With improved education and further scientific and clinical research, validated integrative treatments will provide more effective, lower risk and lower cost care for patients with ADHD.
"However, only a limited number of studies have been published on ADHD discordant MZ twin pairs to date (Castellanos et al., 2003; Lehn et al., 2007; Pearsall- Jones et al., 2008, 2009; Sharp et al., 2003; Van't Ent et al., 2009). Results from these studies report differences in brain anatomy, i.e. reduced caudate nucleus and prefrontal lobe volumes in cases (Castellanos et al., 2003), and the identification of environmental risk factors such as low birth weight, delayed motor development, and being born the second twin in the pair (Lehn et al., 2007). Furthermore, results from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in twins pairs discordant and concordant for ADHD indicate that attention problems caused by genetic versus non-shared environmental factors, affect the brain in different ways. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The study of differences between monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs with respect to ADHD may provide novel leads to disentangle the environmental contribution driving its phenotypes. Objectives: To examine non-shared environmental influences on executive function in dimensionally defined ADHD. Methods: This study included 27 MZ twin pairs (7 female) aged 11-20 years being moderately to substantially discordant for ADHD traits as assessed by the Attention Problem (AP) scale of the Child Behavior Checklist/Adult Behavior Checklist. The twins completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for cognitive flexibility and the Tower Test (TT) for foresighted planning. Two statistical approaches were used to analyze the data. First, correlations between ADHD trait intra-pair differences and WCST and TT scores were calculated. Second, the significance of those intra-pair differences on WCST and TT, using ADHD as categorical variable in clinically discordant pairs, was tested. Results: Both analysing strategies revealed a link between ADHD on one hand, and foresighted planning and inhibitory control on the other hand mediated by non-shared environmental factors. The first statistical approach yielded positive correlations between intra-pairs differences on the AP scale and intra-pair differences on two subscales of the TT: total rule violation (r s=0.41) and rule-violation-per-item-ratio (rs=0.38). Findings in categorically discordant pairs were consistent, showing within-pair differences on the same subtests (z-1.63, P=0.05, one-tailed and z=-1.60, P=0.05, one-tailed). Conclusions: Findings confirm previous research suggesting ADHD to be a quantitative extreme on a continuum with executive functions being a cognitive marker of ADHD traits. Non-shared environmental factors appear to influence planning skills and inhibitory control.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Developmental Disabilities