Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap

Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2,Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Breast Cancer (Impact Factor: 1.59). 02/2003; 10(3):275-80. DOI: 10.1007/BF02966729
Source: PubMed


It is important for breast reconstruction after mastectomy to recreate immediately good breast symmetry with an adequate amount of soft tissue.
Eight patients with breast cancer underwent skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap. This operative technique, and the results, advantages, and disadvantages of the technique were assessed.
Seven patients had stage IIA disease, and one patient had stage I disease. An arc-shaped incision was made just at the lateral border of the breast in all patients. Three patients had a separate periareolar incision, and one had a circumferential nipple incision. There was 100% flap survival, and good breast symmetry was achieved in all patients. No major perioperative complications occurred in this series. A small amount of fat necrosis occurred in one flap. One patient had slight abdominal bulging. Minor wound-healing problems at the lateral breast skin envelope occurred in two patients.
These data indicate that skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a DIEP flap is a reliable and safe technique. This method is a potentially useful surgical technique, which has achieved very promising results.

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    ABSTRACT: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) is a type of breast cancer surgery presupposed as breast reconstruction surgery. Cosmetically, it is an extremely effective breast cancer operation because the greater part of the breast's native skin and infra-mammary fold are conserved. All cases of SSM and immediate breast reconstruction performed by the senior author during the last five years were reviewed. There are three implant options for breast reconstruction, namely, deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap, and breast implant, and one of these was used for reconstruction after comprehensive evaluation. From 2001 to 2005, immediate reconstructions following SSM were performed on 124 cases (128 breasts) by the same surgeon. Partial necrosis of the breast skin occurred in 4 cases of SSM. The mean follow-up was 33.6 months. During the follow-up, there was local recurrence following surgery in 3 cases. The overall aesthetic results of immediate breast reconstruction after SSM are better than those after non-SSM. SSM preserves the native breast skin and infra-mammary fold, and is an extremely useful breast cancer surgery for breast reconstruction. SSM is an excellent breast cancer surgical technique. We think this procedure should be considered in more facilities conducting breast reconstruction in Japan.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Breast Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Although breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a well-described technique, few publications have specifically reported the technical aspects and the outcome following skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM). The aim of this study is to analyse the feasibility of its immediate application and to describe the operative planning, outcome and complications after SSM. 27 patients underwent 30 DIEP flap breast reconstructions with all immediate and 3 bilateral. Mean time of follow-up was 29 months. Breast skin, DIEP Flap and donor-site complications were evaluated. Information on patient satisfaction was collected. 70% had tumors measuring 2 cm or less (T1) and 74% were stage 0 and I according to American Joint Committee on Cancer. Breast skin complications occurred in 7.4%, all represented by small areas of skin necrosis. Partial losses were observed in two (7.4%) patients (less than 15% of total area) and total DIEP loss in 1 (3.7%). Donor-site complications represented by bulging occurred in only one patient (3.7%). The majority of patients were either very satisfied or satisfied. One local recurrence was observed. All complications except 2 were treated by a conservative approach. The DIEP flap is a reliable technique for SSM reconstruction. Success depends on patient selection, coordinated planning with the oncologic surgeon and careful intraoperative and postoperative management. The main advantage is that patients can safely undergo dual procedures with the added aesthetic benefits in breast and abdominal donor site.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · The Breast Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To review the oncological safety and aesthetic value of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). Controversies including the impact of radiotherapy (RT) on immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), preservation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) and the role of endoscopic mastectomy are also considered. Literature review facilitated by Medline and PubMed databases. SSM is an oncologically safe technique in selected cases, including IBC <5 cm, multi-centric tumours, DCIS and prophylactic risk-reduction surgery. The high risk of local recurrence (LR) excludes inflammatory breast cancers and tumours with extensive involvement of the skin. SSM can facilitate IBR and is associated with an excellent aesthetic result. Prior breast irradiation or the need for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR) do not preclude SSM, however the cosmetic outcome may be affected. Nipple/areola preservation is possible for remote tumours, employing a frozen section protocol for the retro-areolar tissue. There is limited data available for endoscopic mastectomy and superiority over conventional SSM has not been established. In appropriately selected cases SSM is oncologically adequate. There are several patient centred advantages over conventional mastectomy, including aesthetic outcome and the avoidance of multiple staged procedures. Despite widespread uptake into surgical practice, validation of these techniques from randomised controlled trials is lacking.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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