Methionine and cystine requirements of slow- and fast-feathering male broilers from zero to three weeks of age

Auburn University, Poultry Science, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA.
Poultry Science (Impact Factor: 1.67). 10/2003; 82(9):1423-7. DOI: 10.1093/ps/82.9.1423
Source: PubMed


Two experiments were conducted with fast- (Ross x 3F8) and slow- (Ross x 308) feathering broiler males from 0 to 3 wk of age
to determine Met and Cys requirements. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was formulated to be deficient in Met and Cys but was
adequate in all other nutrients (22.0% CP; 3,050 kcal ME/kg). In experiment 1, diets contained 0.50% dietary Cys with 0.35,
0.40, 0.45, and 0.50% total Met. Feed conversion (FC) of slow- and fast-feathering males improved in a similar manner to 0.50%
Met (linear, P < 0.05). Nitrogen retention measured from 20 to 21 d of age optimized at 0.46% Met (quadratic, P < 0.01), regardless
of feathering rate. Experiment 2 examined the response to feeding 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, and 0.50% total Cys in diets having total
Met at 0.45%. Increasing Cys improved FC that optimized at 0.40% with fast-feathering birds (quadratic, P < 0.01), whereas
slow-feathering broilers were not responsive. Nitrogen retention measured from d 20 to 21 did not indicate a difference attributable
to feathering but a Cys optimization at 0.43% with both broiler sources. Present experimentation indicates a Met requirement
approximating 0.50% is appropriate for broilers 0 to 3 wk of age, regardless of feather rate; however, the estimated Cys requirement
for slow-feathering males (0.39%) was less than for fast-feathering (0.44%) males.

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Available from: Edwin Moran, Jan 22, 2015
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    • "Unexpectedly, the feed conversion ratio was even slightly lower in the control groups without methionine supplementation than in the groups supplemented with 0.05% of either DLM or MHA. This finding is in disagreement with other studies performed with ducks, broilers, or turkeys showing that the feed conversion ratio is normally worse or at least unchanged at an insufficient supply of methionine (Boling and Firman, 1997; Chamruspollert et al., 2002; Lemme et al., 2002; Kalinowski et al., 2003; Xie et al., 2006; Jamroz et al., 2009). In order to assess the bioefficacy of MHA in comparison to DLM we subjected performance data to a linear fixed-effects model and to an exponential model. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to assess the bioefficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DLM) as sources of methionine for growing male white Pekin ducks in the first 3 wk of life. For this aim, 580 1-day-old male ducks were allocated into 12 treatment groups and received a basal diet that contained 0.29% of methionine, 0.34% of cysteine and 0.63% of total sulphur containing amino acids or the same diet supplemented with either DLM or MHA in amounts to supply 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25% of methionine equivalents. Ducks fed the control diet without methionine supplement had the lowest final body weights, daily body weight gains and feed intake among all groups. Supplementation of methionine improved final body weights and daily body weight gains in a dose dependent-manner. There was, however, no significant effect of the source of methionine on all of the performance responses. Evaluation of the data of daily body weight gains with an exponential model of regression revealed a nearly identical efficacy (slope of the curves) of both compounds for growth (DLM = 100%, MHA = 101%). According to the exponential model of regression, 95% of the maximum values of daily body weight gain were reached at methionine supplementary levels of 0.080% and 0.079% for DLM and MHA, respectively. Overall, the present study indicates that MHA and DLM have a similar efficacy as sources of methionine for growing ducks. It is moreover shown that dietary methionine concentrations of 0.37% are required to reach 95% of the maximum of daily body weight gains in ducks during the first 3 wk of life.
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    • "due to Lys deficiency may decrease the Lys requirement in the present study. Using RSM, the dMet requirement was estimated at 0.54 and 0.53% of the diet for BW gain and FCR, respectively, which is slightly higher than that found byKalinowski et al. (2003). Among the first 3 essential amino acids, the Lys requirement had the greatest reduction due to posthatch starvation, demonstrating the utmost importance of Lys early in life. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a dose-response study, dietary levels of standardized ileal digestible methionine (dMet), lysine (dLys), and threonine (dThr) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design in starting broiler chicks that were feed-deprived 2 d posthatch. In total, 60 floor pens of 6 birds each were assigned to 15 diets of central composite rotatable design containing 5 levels of dMet (0.42-0.58%), dLys (0.88-1.32%), and dThr (0.53-0.87%) from 3 to 16 d of age. Experimental levels of dMet, dLys, and dThr significantly affected bird performance. The second-order models for BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were generated. The response surface analysis showed significant quadratic models for BW gain and FCR. The crossproduct of amino acids was significant for FCR but not significant for BW gain. Canonical analyses on BW gain and FCR models showed that the maximum BW gain at the stationary point may be obtained with 0.54, 1.12, and 0.78% of dMet, dLys, and dThr in the diet, respectively, and the minimum FCR at the stationary point may be obtained with 0.53, 1.13, and 0.75% of dMet, dLys, and dThr in diet, respectively. Estimated ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys were 48 and 70% for BW gain and 47 and 66% for FCR. Canonical analysis revealed the most important amino acids in the models of BW gain and FCR were Lys and Thr, respectively.
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    • "This model increased higher Thr requirements than those of broken-line models for growth performances 2. CP: 191.3 or 179.7g/kg feed for 0–3 weeks, 176.7 or 165.4g/kg feed for 3–6 weeks. Thr: 6g/kg feed for 0–3 weeks, 5.4g/kg feed for 3–6 weeks Performance Fatufe et al. (2004) 1. Depending on genotype 2. They diVered in lysine concentration from 3.8 to 16.8g/kg Performance Kidd et al. (2004) The 21–42 day threonine need across was estimated as 0.74% total or 0.65% digestible Feed intake is higher, but not in BW gain or breast meat yield Vieira et al. (2004) 1. Reducing diets with SAA/Lys of 77% impairs performance 2. Increasing diets with SAA/Lys of 77% was optimum Performance Corzo et al. (2003) 1.00% as required by NRC (1994) is in agreement Live production and meat yield are good, but carcass and skin are not Kalinowski et al. (2003) 0–3 weeks of age Performance 1. Met required is 0.50% 2. Cys required is 0.39% (slow-feathering males) and 0.44% (fastfeathering males) Sterling et al. (2003) The amino acid requirements of broilers are a constant proportion of CP levels Comment: Two levels of lysine per CP level (35 and 48 g lysine/kg CP) Chamruspollert et al. (2002) 1. Met requirement of male chicks needed to be higher than that of females, but not signiWcant 2. "
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    ABSTRACT: This summary focuses on reducing nitrogen (N) and ammonia emissions from poultry manure through the use of improved amino acid digestibilities and enzyme supplementation. Proper feed processing techniques, phase feeding, and the minimization of feed and water waste can contribute to additional minor reductions in these emissions. Reductions in environmental pollution can be achieved through improved diet formulation based on available nutrients in the ingredients, reducing crude protein (CP) levels and adding synthetic amino acids. Use of amino acid and CP digestibilities can reduce N excretion up to 40% and a 25% increase in N digestibility can be achieved with enzyme supplementation in broiler diets. Digestibilities can be measured by two methods: the excreta and ileal amino acid digestibilities. Both methods allow amino acid levels to be reduced by 10% or more. Enzyme supplementation decreases intestinal viscosity, improves metabolizable energy levels, and increases amino acid digestibilities. Many feed manufacturers still use total amino acid content to formulate feeds. To meet amino acid requirements, crystalline amino acids are needed. The use of feather, meat and bone meal must not be overestimated or underestimated and the limiting amino acids such as cystine, tryptophan, and threonine must be carefully analyzed.
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