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Mice, Monkeys, Men, and Motives

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Abstract

A drive-reduction theory of learning, emphasizing the internal physiological state, is untenable. Learning efficiency is far better related to "tensions in the brain than in the belly." The key to human learning is motivation aroused by external stimulation. 35 references.

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... Our purpose of this review article is to survey the progress of neuroscience research on intrinsic motivation. Because intrinsic motivation is not a uniquely human capacity (Harlow, 1953;Wilson, 2000;Ryan and Deci, 2017) we review conceptual developments in the comparative affective neurosciences (Panksepp, 1998;Panksepp and Biven, 2012) that inform the concept of intrinsic motivation. Such considerations are essential for appreciating intrinsic motivation as a basic organismic capacity and for helping to clarify its unique components in humans (Ryan and Di Domenico, 2016). ...
... Because intrinsic motivation often ensues in the absence and, on occasion, independent of such deprivations, it was poorly explained by traditional drive reduction accounts (White, 1959). Early attempts to amend drive theory led researchers to postulate the existence of various exploratory drives as the basis for seemingly spontaneous curiosity, exploratory and manipulatory behaviors (e.g., Butler, 1953;Harlow, 1953;Montgomery, 1954;Myers and Miller, 1954). Apart from its lack of parsimony, this ''drive-naming'' approach could not be reconciled with the observations that exploratory activities do not resemble consummatory responses and that animals often behave to increase rather than decrease such exploratory drives (White, 1959;Deci and Ryan, 1985). ...
... During intrinsic motivation, feelings of interest and positive excitement predominate over both anxiety and boredom. Indeed, such exploratory states entail searching for novelties and challenges and, moreover, acting on the world to elicit novelties and to discover new problems (Harlow, 1953;White, 1959;Deci and Ryan, 1985). These observations indicate that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are primarily energized by interest and appetitive mastery tendencies, not anxiety reduction. ...
Article
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Intrinsic motivation refers to people’s spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges, and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development, and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation. In the present paper, we trace the history of intrinsic motivation research, compare and contrast intrinsic motivation to closely related topics (flow, curiosity, trait plasticity), link intrinsic motivation to key findings in the comparative affective neurosciences, and review burgeoning neuroscience research on intrinsic motivation. We review converging evidence suggesting that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are phylogenetically ancient tendencies that are subserved by dopaminergic systems. Studies also suggest that intrinsic motivation is associated with patterns of activity across large-scale neural networks, namely, those that support salience detection, attentional control, and self-referential cognition. We suggest novel research directions and offer recommendations for the application of neuroscience methods in the study of intrinsic motivation.
... Deci and Ryan (2011) discussed the experiments and indicated that subjects who received rewards became dependent upon the external reward. Deci and Cascio (1972) and Harlow (1953) noted that the subjects were essentially performing for payment rather than for health reasons. ...
... By connecting with people, individuals likely feel higher levels of efficacy and receive positive feedback for their contributions. Harlow (1953) noted an incident along the same lines: when primates were rewarded, they eventually stopped being curious about their surroundings. Most learning is intrinsically motivated, occurs across a person's lifespan, and serves as an important impetus to engagement and revitalization. ...
... Relatedness refers to feeling of togetherness, to caring for and being cared for by others, and to having a sense of belonging (Harlow, 1953;Olafsen et al., 2017;Deci & Ryan, 2000. Relatedness reflects the integrative tendency of life and reflects an integral need to connect with and be accepted by others. ...
Article
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has been found to be complete and satisfactory in all respects, and that any and all revisions required by the review committee have been made. Abstract Although there is ample information on the negative aspects of video game playing, we
... Attachment theory. The major source for the attachment scales was based on the attachment measures and theories developed by Bowlby, Harlow, and Ainsworth (Ainsworth, 1964Ainsworth, , 1972Ainsworth, , 1989 Bowlby, 1969 Bowlby, , 1973 Bowlby, , 1980 Harlow, 1953), and extended to adults by Hazan and Shaver (1987), Kobak and Sceery (1988), and Main et al. (1985). The first psychometrically sound measure of attachments for human infants was developed by Ainsworth (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Ainsworth & Wittig, 1969). ...
Article
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A model that more specifically predicts who is most vulnerable to developing addiction was offered. • The relationship between adverse childhood events (ACE) and substance abuse was mediated by attachments and other variables. • The path model showed new approaches to RDoC diagnoses and treatments. • Important relationships between nomothetic, ideographic, and ecological variables were identified. • Psychological correlates to biological reinforcement deficits were proposed.
... For example, in monkeys object and puzzle manipulation are rewarding activities in their own right (Harlow, 1950;Butler, 1960). Furthermore, monkeys that learned manipulation tasks through curiosity or play actually continued to manipulate the objects, whereas monkeys who received food rewards abandoned further interactions with the objects as soon as the food reward was obtained (Harlow, 1953). Thus, viewing predatory object play as just substitute predation seems simplistic, unless we have evidence that the animal actually tries to ingest the object and does not distinguish between the toy and real animals. ...
Article
Object play occurs in diverse animals in addition to birds and mammals. Although many carnivores engage in object play in a predatory context, many non-predators do so also. Conjectures over the years on the motivation to play are reviewed dealing with intrinsic, developmental, and stimulus factors. We then report on quantitative studies of the play of puppies from 6 litters (3 breeds) when given 5 different toys with different sensory and functional properties at half week intervals from 3 to 7 weeks of age. The propensity to engage with objects begins early, play complexity increases rapidly, the structure of the play is similar to adult object play, and breed differences were found. Object play with predatory characteristics appears before weaning, suggesting that hunger is not the primary motivation. Studying the development of object play in different dog breeds may be useful in addressing questions of domestication and play evolution. © 2016
... Curiosity as an Unpleasant Experience Harlow (1953), Berlyne (1954), and Dember (1956) originated the Drive theory. They considered curiosity to be an unpleasant experience of "uncertainty" triggered by "the presentation of new or unusual stimuli (e.g., objects, pictures) [which] elicit approach behavior and sustained attention" (Litman, 2005, p. 794). ...
Conference Paper
Self curiosity is a new concept. Theoretical underpinnings and measurement issues are presented
... Curiosity as an Unpleasant Experience Harlow (1953), Berlyne (1954), and Dember (1956) originated the Drive theory. They considered curiosity to be an unpleasant experience of "uncertainty" triggered by "the presentation of new or unusual stimuli (e.g., objects, pictures) [which] elicit approach behavior and sustained attention" (Litman, 2005, p. 794). ...
Conference Paper
Development of a New Measure of Curiosity about Self: The Self Curiosity Attitude Interest Scale - SCAI.
... The causes of behavior have both an external dimension (situational, societal, and cultural) as well as an internal dimension (dispositional, psychic, personal). Motivational theorists view motivated (energized and directed) behavior as caused or determined by multiple and diverse variables, including:  Adaptation to the environment (Darwin, 1872/1998)  Affiliation, belongingness, and interpersonal attachment needs (Baumeister & Leary, 1995)  Approach and avoidance causes (Dollard & Miller, 1950)  Arousal, thrill-seeking, and risk-taking (Zuckerman, 1994)  Cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957)  Competency motives (White, 1959)  Control and predictability (Shapiro, Schwartz, & Astin, 1996)  Creativity (Mumford & Gustafson, 1988)  Curiosity and exploratory impulses (Harlow, 1953)  Emotions-positive and negative (Frijda, 1988, Lazarus, 1991)  Extrinsic rewards (Kohn, 1993;Skinner, 1969)  Free will (volition) (Markus & Nurius, 1986)  Goals (Locke & Latham, 1990) Intrinsic rewards (Deci & Ryan, 1991) Locus of control (Rotter, 1990)  Mastery and achievement motives (McClelland, 1985)  Meaning and purpose in life (Frankl, 1945Frankl, /2006)  Needs (Maslow, 1943;Murray, 1938)  Optimism and hope (Seligman, 1990;Snyder et al., 1991)  Self-actualization (Maslow, 1968;Rogers, 1951).  Self-esteem and positive self-regard (Harter, 1993;Rogers, 1959)  Self-regulation (Bandura, 1991)  Variety, novelty, and complexity (Berlyne, 1960Berlyne, , 1971) ...
... Maslow's theory was influenced by comparative psychologists, such as his advisor Harry Harlow (cf. Harlow, 1953), and Maslow's theory was, as Maslow himself put it: ".. . in the functionalist tradition of [William] James and [John] Dewey. . ." (p. ...
Article
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Maslow’s self-actualization remains a popular notion in academic research as well as popular culture. The notion that life’s highest calling is fulfilling one’s own unique potential has been widely appealing. But what do people believe they are doing when they pursue the realization of their full, unique potentials? Here, we examine lay perceptions of self-actualization. Self-actualizing, like any drive, is unlikely to operate without regard to biological and social costs and benefits. We examine which functional outcomes (e.g., gaining status, making friends, finding mates, caring for kin) people perceive as central to their individual self-actualizing. Three studies suggest that people most frequently link self-actualization to seeking status, and, concordant with life history theory, what people regard as self-actualizing varies in predictable ways across the life span and across individuals. Contrasting with self-actualization, people do not view other types of well-being—eudaimonic, hedonic, subjective—as furthering status-linked functional outcomes.
... Self Determination Theory is founded on the pioneering work of Murray (1938) and his components of autonomy and achievements. Harlow (1953) and White (1959) built on them to propose the concept of intrinsic motivation, largely as opposition to Skinner's (1953) 'operant theory ' and Hull's (1943) 'drive theory'. They challenged the concept that all voluntary behaviours were not for the sake of operational functioning and that the consequences could be spontaneous rewards within the body (feelings and thoughts). ...
Conference Paper
This study looks to address the challenges of engagement in learning for those with additional needs in the UK in the 21st century. In doing so, the model’s aim is to improve access to roles of social value and address the 6% employment rate through better educational outcomes and future opportunities. The meaningful, mastery project-based learning (MMPBL) curriculum model was designed to best facilitate the psychological needs of Ryan and Deci (2000) Self Determination Theory (SDT) and enhance engagement, enhancing student agency. It was tested on Key Stage 4 students (n51) in a secondary special education needs or disability (SEND) school. They chose one of six MMPBL projects and dedicated 350hours towards ‘mastery’ of their strengths. The mixed-method methodology sought to explore what impact, if any, the MMPBL would have compared to the previous ‘typical’ delivery of the national curriculum. Secondary data was drawn from typical academic outcomes and stakeholder voice through focus groups and surveys, using coded analysis of the presence of motivational components and observations of engagement. As an exploratory piece of research, the study was also left open to spontaneous data. The results showed an increase in the presence of competence, relatedness and autonomy, but also built conceptual and applied learning into education. The model led to a positive spiral in outcomes, including engagement (behaviourally- 83% reduction in negative behaviour incidents and +4.16% attendance), improved academic outcomes (cognitively- increasing 0.4 qualifications per student and quality, 0.5 in level), improving autonomy in transition choices (those who went on to subject specific college courses increased by 32% and 2 students gained employment). Stakeholders highlighted a positive impact on culture, perceptions (including identity), development and connecting networks locally and globally (entrepreneurially supporting 29 causes). The research will benefit practitioners, policy makers and academic research as it is the first whole curriculum based on SDT and agentic engagement in SEND. Future studies look to explore if sustainable projects can be built into post-19 social entrepreneurship in SEND.
... The first essential primate experiments (these studies were infamous for their cruelty) on maternal deprivation in rhesus monkeys were performed by Harlow in the 1950s, '60s, and '70s; later, Suomi conducted similar maternal deprivation experiments on infant monkeys (Harlow, 1953(Harlow, , 1958Harlow and Zimmermann, 1959;Harlow and Suomi, 1971;Suomi, 2011). These studies revealed that permanently separating primate infants from their mothers and rearing them under conditions of total isolation produced devastating effects on their subsequent development and behaviour (Suomi, 1997). ...
Article
In the 20th century, mother-infant separation shortly after birth in hospitals became routine and unique to humans. However, this hospital birth practice is different from the practice in our evolutionary history, where newborn survival depended on close and essentially continuous maternal contact. This time shortly after birth represents a psychophysiologically sensitive or critical period for programming future physiology and behaviour. We hypothesize that early maternal separation as conducted in conventional hospital practice may induce similar epigenetic changes similar to those found in various mental diseases that may also be implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders.
... Interest in exploratory behavior, initiated by Pavlov (1927) in his studies of animal behavioral responses to novelty in stimulus situations has been increasing in developmental psychology. This interest has resulted in studies of curiosity and exploratory behavior in animals (Butler, 1954;Harlow, 1953), children (Cantor & Cantor, 1964;Comerford & Witryol, 1993), and adults (Berlyne, 1960;Pliner, Pelchat, & Grabski, 1993). These studies showed that the degree of novelty in a stimulus is a major factor in eliciting exploratory behavior (Mendel, 1965), and that the intrinsic motivational value of novelty is equivalent to that provided by material and edible rewards (Cahill-Solis & Witryol, 1994). ...
... An old and robust literature supports the theory that curiosity is an inherent drive in many animals, including primates. In turn, the evidence supports opportunities and environmental affordances that allow for the expression of curiosity-driven exploratory behavior as a need for species-typical behavior and psychological wellbeing (Berlyne, 1960;Butler, 1954;Fiske & Maddi, 1961;Fowler, 1965;Harlow, 1953;Harlow, Harlow, & Meyer, 1950;see Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987 for review and additional references; Welker, 1956Welker, , 1961. Like other animals, NHP explore and manipulate the various objects they encounter. ...
Preprint
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Nonhuman primates (NHP) are housed in captivity for a variety of purposes. In the US the housing and care for the majority of primates fall under federal regulation with additional guidelines and means of evaluation provided by various accreditation organizations. There is a gap, however, between the policy, common practices, and the findings of a large empirical literature on the effectiveness of care strategies aimed at ensuring the animals' psychological wellbeing. Uniform assessment tools to guide decisions about selection and refinement of standards and practices are largely missing. In two consecutive publications, we propose a novel approach to evaluation and refinement of environmental enrichment (EE) programs that: 1) is based on empirical evidence; 2) permits flexibility to balance facility goals (or purpose) with consideration of animal wellbeing; 3) provides a systematic framework for assessment; and 4) identifies priority areas for hypothesis-driven research. We focus on one area of EE that is relatively neglected with respect to consistency in practice and detail in standards yet is well-supported both theoretically and empirically. The non-social, non-structural EE domain includes practices that promote sensory, manipulative (motor), and cognitive (SMC) engagement which often are less constrained by space, geography, resources, and any conflicts with the facilities' varying purposes. This first paper provides the theoretical background for our proposed EE evaluation technique; whereas, the second describes the technique in detail. The systematic approach to categorization and assessment of the relevant components of facilities' federally-required NHP EE plans (EEP) proposed here can readily accommodate new evidence and is adaptable for different species and facility types. In turn, the approach can assist consideration of refinement, changes in EE, and development of best practices that transcend facility type.
... An old and robust literature supports the theory that curiosity is an inherent drive in many animals, including primates. In turn, the evidence supports opportunities and environmental affordances that allow for the expression of curiosity-driven exploratory behavior as a need for species-typical behavior and psychological wellbeing (Berlyne, 1960;Butler, 1954;Fiske & Maddi, 1961;Fowler, 1965;Harlow, 1953;Harlow, Harlow, & Meyer, 1950;see Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987 for review and additional references; Welker, 1956Welker, , 1961. Like other animals, NHP explore and manipulate the various objects they encounter. ...
Preprint
Nonhuman primates (NHP) are housed in captivity for a variety of purposes. In the US the housing and care for the majority of primates fall under federal regulation with additional guidelines and means of evaluation provided by various accreditation organizations. There is a gap, however, between the policy, common practices, and the findings of a large empirical literature on the effectiveness of care strategies aimed at ensuring the animals’ psychological wellbeing. Uniform assessment tools to guide decisions about selection and refinement of standards and practices are largely missing. In two consecutive publications, we propose a novel approach to evaluation and refinement of environmental enrichment (EE) programs that: 1) is based on empirical evidence; 2) permits flexibility to balance facility goals (or purpose) with consideration of animal wellbeing; 3) provides a systematic framework for assessment; and 4) identifies priority areas for hypothesis-driven research. We focus on one area of EE that is relatively neglected with respect to consistency in practice and detail in standards yet is well-supported both theoretically and empirically. The non-social, non-structural EE domain includes practices that promote sensory, manipulative (motor), and cognitive (SMC) engagement which often are less constrained by space, geography, resources, and any conflicts with the facilities’ varying purposes. This first paper provides the theoretical background for our proposed EE evaluation technique; whereas, the second describes the technique in detail. The systematic approach to categorization and assessment of the relevant components of facilities’ federally-required NHP EE plans (EEP) proposed here can readily accommodate new evidence and is adaptable for different species and facility types. In turn, the approach can assist consideration of refinement, changes in EE, and development of best practices that transcend facility type.
... Indeed, this blurs the whole distinction between work and play (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991;Henricks, 2014Henricks, , 2015. Harlow's (1953) work showing that monkeys will "work" to solve puzzles, manipulate objects, and even just to watch interesting visual events was stimulated by observations at the zoo in Madison, Wisconsin, where he was a professor at the University of Wisconsin. This work was perhaps the death knell for the idea that all animal learning was based on the reduction of primary drives involving hunger and thirst and avoiding pain. ...
Chapter
Scientific Foundations of Zoos and Aquariums - edited by Allison B. Kaufman January 2019
... Viewing learning as always and ultimately a product of primary drive reduction (hunger, thirst, sex, pain), so basic to studies of learning during the era in which most classic behaviorist approaches were developed, such as those by Tolman, Hull, and Spence (Osgood, 1953) is no longer viable. Studies showing the rewarding properties of object manipulation (Harlow, 1953) and non-nutritive saccharin (Sheffield and Roby, 1950) were among the early findings that discredited primary drive reduction theories. As documented in the paper by Lucas (2019), much of the research by Timberlake and his students further questioned many key findings and interpretations of instrumental and operant conditioning by showing how they were actually isolated pieces of behavior embedded in adaptive and evolved hierarchical sequences. ...
Article
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Although issues of motivation, including appetitive searching behavior, have been crucial aspects of behavior systems approaches since their inception, as well as in the ethological research and models that inspired them, emotions and affect have been noticeably absent in such analyses. Emotions and affect may have been lying below the surface all the time, however, as motivation, emotion, and cognitive processing are embedded in all aspects of behavior, including conditioning and learning. Here a brief case is made that emotions and related hedonic processes, can and should be explicitly incorporated into behavior systems approaches. Evidence from recent behaviorist, neuroscience, and animal behavior (including human) studies suggest that emotions may, just as motivational drives, lead to appetitive searching and avoidance, both general and focal, as well as consummatory acts with emotional consequences and satiation. Research testing these claims, as well as theoretical formulations and evaluations, would be timely and extend the reach of behavior systems approaches to a far wider swath of psychological research than it has engaged with hitherto.
... Such exploratory behavior is evident even when appetitive (i.e., thirst, hunger) drives are sated. Just giving monkeys a problem to solve (e.g., opening a clasp on a box) is enough to engender activity (Harlow et al. 1950;Harlow 1953). Clearly, there is a drive toward exploration in even some of the most basic behaviors-as White puts it "Even Pavlov, whose theory of behaviour was one of Spartan simplicity, could not do without an investigatory or orienting reflex" (1959, p. 298). ...
Book
This book offers a unique perspective on the topic of boredom, with chapters written by diverse representatives of various mental health disciplines and philosophical approaches. On one hand, studying boredom involves the mental processes of attention, memory, perception, creativity, or language use; on the other, boredom can be understood by taking into account many pathological conditions such as depression, stress, and anxiety. This book seeks to fill the knowledge gap in research by discussing boredom through an interdisciplinary dialogue, giving a comprehensive overview of the past and current literature within boredom studies, while discussing the neural bases and causes of boredom and its potential consequences and implications for individual and social well-being. Chapters explore the many facets of boredom, including: • Understanding the cognitive-affective mechanisms underlying experiences of boredom • Philosophical perspectives on boredom, self-consciousness, and narrative • How boredom shapes both basic and complex human thoughts, feelings, and behavior • Analyzing boredom within Freudian and Lacanian frameworks Boredom Is in Your Mind: A Shared Psychological-Philosophical Approach is a pioneering work that brings together threads of cross-disciplinary boredom research into one comprehensive resource. It is relevant for graduate students and researchers in myriad intersecting disciplines, among them cognitive psychology, cognitive neurosciences, and clinical psychology, as well as philosophy, logic, religion, and other areas of the humanities and social sciences.
... Harlow performed the first significant experiments on maternal deprivation in monkeys in the 1950s and 1970s. Afterwards, Suomi conducted similar maternal deprivation experiments on newborn monkeys [10][11][12][13][14], which showed how the separation of primate infants from their mothers could lead to disastrous effects on their following development and behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have focused on neonatal maternal separation (MS) to investigate behavioural and neuroendocrine reactions to lack of contact, but only a few have focused on early separation in the first days or weeks after birth. This literature review investigates the vital importance of contact and touch by exploring how skin-to-skin contact (SSC) regulates stress in the mother–infant relationship. Various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched for literature published between 2015 and 2020. From 1141 articles, 22 were declared eligible. The reviewed articles showed how SSC regulates child stress by biological indicators such as the autonomic nervous system (ANS), heart rate variability (HRV), cortisol, and oxytocin. This research concludes the importance of SSC for stress regulation, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. With no research to date indicating a possible risk of neonatal COVID-19 transmission following SSC, SSC should continue to be practiced for all women, as recommended by the WHO.
... Another traditional aesthetic state is interest. Berlyne's (1960Berlyne's ( , 1967 research on curiosity and exploration, paired with the emerging interest in "for-its-own-sake behavior" in motivation psychology (Butler, 1953;Harlow, 1953), fostered a focus on feelings of interest and behavior associated with approaching, learning, and exploring. Berlyne and his group extensively studied pleasingness and interestingness as dimensions of aesthetic response (Berlyne, 1974;Crozier, 1974), and many studies ...
Chapter
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The history of ideas shows a long interest in duality and dialectic dark and light, structure and chaos, yin and yang. Our chapter, too, is founded on dialectic much of the world is normal, and much of the world is weird. Although less ennobling than the others, this dualism nicely captures the history of thought on aesthetic states. For most of the history of our field, researchers have studied a few positive “normal” states liking, pleasure and interest. These states have much going for them – life would be grim without them, and the only thing on TV would be morbid experimental cinema. But just as structure needs chaos, the conventional needs the offbeat, the quirky, the weird, so the unusual aesthetic states are the focus of this chapter. Our goal is to introduce and review some unusual aesthetic experiences awe, chills, crying and beauty – all states that have not received much attention in aesthetics and arts research. These quirky states are interesting in their own right and pose challenges to common theories of aesthetics, especially theories devoted to feelings of liking and pleasure (see Silvia, 2009). We focus on the handful of states that have received enough attention to yield a literature review but not enough attention to be considered staid and stodgy. Because these literatures are sparse, there often is not much to say or much research to review, but we hope researchers will see the holes and blind spots as opportunities for innovative research.
... Since Thorndike (1911) first introduced cross-species comparisons investigating the variation of cognition, the majority of the following early large-scale comparative studies have focused on revealing universal learning processes and principles in animals (e.g., Harlow, 1953;Skinner, 1938). Subsequently, researchers shifted their focus from a phylogenetic comparative perspective to a model species approach that diminished the diversity of study species throughout the following decades (MacLean et al., 2012). ...
Article
The objectives in the field of comparative cognition are clear; efforts are devoted to revealing the selection pressures that shape the brains and cognitive abilities of different species and understanding cognitive processes in differently structured brains. However, our progress on reaching these objectives is slow, mostly because of several major practical challenges. In this review, we discuss 2 major shortcomings: (a) the poor systematics and low magnitude of the phylogenetic comparisons made, and (b) the weak comparability of the results caused by interfering species-specific confounding factors (perceptual, motivational, and morphological) alongside an insufficient level of standardisation of the methodologies. We propose a multiple-level comparative approach that emphasises the importance of achieving more direct comparisons within taxonomic groups at genus or family level as the first step before comparing between distantly related groups. We also encourage increasing interdisciplinary efforts to execute "team-science" approach in building a systematic and direct large-scale phylogenetic comparisons of bigger cognitive test batteries that produce reliable species-representative data. We finally revisit some existing suggestions that allow us to maximise standardisation while minimising species-specific confounding factors.
... A motiváció A XX. század második felében néhány tudományos kísérlet arra az eredményre jutott, hogy a jutalmazó-büntető motivációs rendszer hosszútávon nem eredményes [7] [17]. Befolyásolni ugyan lehet vele másokat, de tartósan irányítani nem, mert az ember többnyire akkor motivált, amikor azt teszi, ami erősíti az énképét [29] [12]. ...
... Widespread disenchantment with previously hegemonic discourses, such as the benignity of Western civilization, social stratification, and scientific progress, was fostered by the industrial scale slaughter and horrific genocide of World War Two, a war fought between some of the most supposedly civilized nations in the world, using scientifically devised lethal means that culminated in the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the prospect of the extinction of the human species. Such catalytic experiences contributed to the growing influence of postmodernism and more general scepticism towards mainstream scientific, socio-political and cultural claims (Giddens, 2009). In such a context, concepts of development and progress need to be themselves critically questioned. ...
Chapter
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... Defined as doing a task for its own sake, out of interest or enjoyment (Deci, 1971), intrinsic motivation departed from drive theories of motivation, which emphasize reducing anxiety and maintaining homeostasis as the forces that compel behavior (Hull, 1943). Instead, intrinsic motivation seems to energize exploratory behaviors, which are often accompanied by excitement rather than anxiety reduction (Harlow, 1953). White (1959) originally referred to the motivation to explore as effectance motivation. ...
Chapter
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Historically, the link between motivation and creative performance has focused heavily on intrinsic motivation. However, after nearly 30 years of research, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship remain largely a mystery. In this chapter, we draw on goal orientation and self- regulation theories of motivation to propose specific paths through which intrinsic motivation may have a positive or negative impact on creative performance, depending on the type of outcome of interest (e.g., radical vs. incremental creativity, expected vs. proactive creativity). In addition, despite the longstanding belief that extrinsic motivation is bad for creativity, we also propose ways in which extrinsic motivation may in fact prove beneficial. Exploratory and exploitative cognitive processes (e.g., deep learning, self-efficacy) are examined as key mediating mechanisms. We highlight the need for leaders to understand their context and objectives in order to effectively facilitate creative performance.
... Such exploratory behavior is evident even when appetitive (i.e., thirst, hunger) drives are sated. Just giving monkeys a problem to solve (e.g., opening a clasp on a box) is enough to engender activity (Harlow et al. 1950;Harlow 1953). Clearly, there is a drive toward exploration in even some of the most basic behaviors-as White puts it "Even Pavlov, whose theory of behaviour was one of Spartan simplicity, could not do without an investigatory or orienting reflex" (1959, p. 298). ...
Chapter
From the second half of the twentieth century to the end, the blossoming interest of the Mental health professionals on the phenomenon of boredom increased to unimagined levels. Particularly, the psychoanalysts riddled the journals’ pages with titles such as those by well-known psychoanalyst Martin Wangh “Boredom in psychoanalytic perspective” (1975), and “Some psychoanalytic observation on boredom” (1979). However, many psychoanalysts were heirs of the father of Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. This was also the case of the French psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. The present chapter aims to develop the notion of boredom and its relationship with psychoanalysis by taking into account many of its roots in the past century. Particularly, we consider boredom is a symptom of other conditions. Therefore, to work on this concept from a psychoanalytical perspective, we will mainly follow parts of Lacan and Freud’s works, who tackled the complex question, and some clinical vignettes.
Chapter
The study of play has a longer history than the study of psychology itself, but the ideas about the phenomenon have shown remarkable changes according to the prevailing climate and conditions.
Chapter
This chapter covers (1) the place of exploratory behavior in relation to psychological science, including historical background and a temporal scheme for articulating various subprocesses involved in exploratory behavior, (2) the theoretical concepts that underlie all existing theories concerning exploratory behavior, (3) methodology and findings with respect to the form of exploratory behavior that has been treated in most detail, namely that of visual investigation, and (4) the implications of the aforementioned topics for developmental psychology. It is concerned only with humans about 2 years of age or older rather than with infants and lower animals. Although exploratory behavior in general is discussed, the literature surveyed in the chapter pertains to visual investigation.
Chapter
Kurz nachdem er an der Stanford-University promovierte, wurde Harry Harlow 1930 an der University of Wisconsin Assistenz-Professor für Psychologie. Mit Ausnahme seiner zweijährigen Dienstzeit als Chef psychologe bei der United States Army (1950–52) blieb er an der University of Wisconsin, wo er „George Cary Comstock Research Professor of Psychology“wurde. Er errichtete das weltberühmte Primaten-Labor der Universität und leistete bahnbrechende Forschungen auf verschiedenen Gebieten, wie dem affektionalen System der Primaten, deren Lernfähigkeiten, den Auswirkungen von sozialer Isolation und der Erzeugung und therapeutischen Behandlung von Depressionen bei Affen. Professor Harlow war Herausgeber des „Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology“(1951–1963) und Präsident der „American Psychological Association“(1958). Jetzt arbeitet er an der University of Arizona.
Chapter
Almost all studies of exploratory behavior in preschoolers have noted the high amount of individual variation in different curiosity-oriented behaviors. Only a small amount of this variation can be explained by the age and sex of the children. In one of our own earlier studies in which we had confronted preschoolers with Corinne Hutt’s novel box (see Schneider, Moch, Sandfort, Auerswald, & Walther-Weckman, 1983), interindividual differences in the total time the 99 children (ages 3 to 6) dealt with the novel box (exploration and playing) were determined only partially (about 20%) by the individual difference variables “age” (3 age groups) and “sex” of the children.
Chapter
The purpose of this Chapter is to explore whether there are any biological constraints to systemic integration, to explore the “ultimate micro-macro nexus”: the link between biology and the international system.
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When intrinsically motivated people engage in activities, it is because they find them interesting and satisfying and not because the activities lead to separable rewards or consequences. Emergence of the concept of intrinsic motivation within the psychology of motivation is discussed, various definitions are considered, and recent research on the concept is reviewed. Because intrinsic motivation relates positively to persistence, creativity, cognitive flexibility, and conceptual understanding, a substantial body of research has examined factors in the social environment that tend to enhance versus undermine this important type of motivation. Beginning with the frequently replicated finding that extrinsic rewards tend to undermine intrinsic motivation, the research has now examined the effects of numerous environmental factors such as positive and negative feedback, threats, deadlines, competition, and interpersonal climates. The findings have been well integrated in terms of how they support versus thwart the underlying needs for competence and self-determination. A differentiated view of extrinsic motivation, based in the concept of internalization is also provided.
Article
The effects of drive intensity in Sr test and the imposition or withholding of Sr training upon bar pressing were studied in a Zimmerman paradigm. The Ss tested under high drive, with or without Sr training, made significantly more bar presses than satiated Ss. No support was found for an exploratory-manipulatory interpretation of Zimmerman’s results, but the validity of the assumption that intense homeostatic drives interfere with exploratory-manipulatory motivation was questioned. The fact that Ss without Sr training performed as well in test as trained Ss confirmed a previous finding and led to a rejection of Zimmerman’s Sr interpretation of his results.
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Tierisches Verhalten wird durch Instinkte kontrolliert. Tierisches Lernen muss demnach als Veränderung instinktiven Verhaltens verstanden werden. Aus dieser Perspektive handelt es sich beim klassischen und instrumentellen Konditionieren nicht um die Herausbildung von Reiz-Reiz- bzw. Reiz-Reaktionsverbindungen sondern um den Erwerb von Wissen darüber, welche Verhaltensweisen zu welchen Effekten führen. Es werden Experimente besprochen, die den Erwerb von Verhaltens-Effekt-Beziehungen und ihre verhaltensdeterminierende Funktion beweisen. Verhaltens-Effekt-Beziehungen werden situationsspezifisch differenziert, wenn gleiche Verhaltensweisen in unterschiedlichen Situationen zu verschiedenen Effekten führen. Dem Erlernen von Verhaltenseffekten liegt vermutlich ein elementares Bedürfnis nach Vorhersage zugrunde: Tiere streben danach, die Konsequenzen ihres Verhaltens vorhersagen zu können, unabhängig davon, ob die Konsequenzen belohnenden oder bestrafenden Charakter haben.
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This article explores the work of psychologist Gordon Gallup, Jr., during the 1960s and 1970s on mirror self-recognition in animals. It shows how Gallup tried to integrate the mental “self-concept” into an otherwise strictly behaviorist paradigm. By making an argument from material culture, the article demonstrates how Gallup's adoption of a self-concept is best understood as a product of his sustained analysis of the workings of the mirror as a piece of experimental apparatus. In certain situations, the stimulus properties of the mirror changed dramatically, a shift that Gallup thought legitimated the positing of a self-concept. For this reason, Gallup supposed he could use a mirror to provide an operationalized concept of the self, that is, produce a definition that was compatible with behaviorist experimental norms. The article argues that behaviorism was more supple and productive than is often assumed, and contained resources that could align it with the “cognitive revolution” to which it is most often opposed.
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This article is a commentary on Hill, Spiegel, Hoffman, Kivlighan, and Gelso’s interesting and thought-provoking article focused on defining psychotherapy expertise. I address Hill et al.’s inclusion of other criteria to evaluate expertise that counters Tracey, Wampold, Goodyear, and Lichtenberg’s conclusion that treatment outcome is the only criterion supported by the research to determine expertise. I also address Hill et al.’s discussion on the development of expertise with a focus on monitoring treatment outcome to promote therapist improvement. In sum, Hill et al. provide a way forward for psychotherapy researchers to address proposed dimensions of expertise that currently are based more on our clinical wisdom than empirical evidence and, in doing so, offer the promise of better understanding what makes an excellent psychotherapist.
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Mal ganz unter uns: Das Führungsmodell Matterhorn − oben einer, der sagt, wo’s lang geht, und unten darunter der Rest, der fröhlich folgt − ist aus den Sehnsüchten mancher Entscheidungsträger in Politik und Administration noch nicht ganz verschwunden. Bei manchem bricht es durch und manchmal treibt gar die Öffentlichkeit diese undefinierbare Sehnsucht nach „Basta-Führung“, nach dem „starken Mann“ oder der „starken Frau“ um. Ist so, ist aber falsch.
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We argue that comparing adult behavior and cognition across cultures is insufficient to capture the multifaceted complexity of cultural variation. We champion a multidisciplinary perspective that draws on biological and psychological theory and methods. We provide examples for ways in which cross-cultural, developmental, and comparative studies might be combined to unravel the interplay between universal species-typical behaviors and behavioral variation across groups and, at the same time, to explain uniquely human cultural diversity by identifying the unique and universal patterns of human behavior and cognition in early childhood that create, structure, and maintain variation across groups. Such a perspective adds depth to explanations of cultural variation and universality and firmly roots accounts of human culture in a broader, biological framework. We believe that, therefore, the field of cross-cultural psychology may benefit from combining efforts with comparative and developmental psychologists.
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Introductory psychology classes and texts invariably feature attachment theory, which is rightly regarded as a pillar of the field. The acknowledged founder of attachment theory, John Bowlby, resisted the tide of psychoanalysis and instead pursued a more biological explanation of parent–child relations, characterized by insecure attachment variants as dysfunctional miscarriages of mother–infant bonding. Contrary to Bowlby’s assumptions, the supposed pathology of the insecure attachment is reframed by life history evolution as strategic adaptation to reproductive ecologies. While insecure attachment is not specifically adaptive, eliciting rearing behaviors displayed by parents, like early sexual debut, mate diversity, completed fertility, and other resultant mating behaviors displayed by the child at maturity, are adaptive within unpredictable and stochastic environments.
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This article frames self-curiosity—the curiosity that people have about their inner world—within the overarching construct of curiosity and describes its psychological correlates identified in the empirical literature. The construct of self-curiosity is defined as one’s tendency and interest in exploring their inner functioning. It can be assessed through self-report on the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale (SCAI), which comprises two positively correlated factors: (1) Attitude toward Self-Curiosity and (2) Interest in Increasing Knowledge of Self. Research provides evidence of the nomological network of self-curiosity, its relationship with other personality traits, and how it varies among different levels of intelligence, between cultures, and across stages of life development. The principal results on self-curiosity are summarized and current research directions are discussed.
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Boredom is Functional. Simplistically, it operates as a signal to do something other than what you are doing now. But it is more nuanced than that. Animals must strike a balance between two competing drives: to explore one’s environs for resources and to exploit those resources once found. Boredom may provide the signal to switch between Exploitation and Exploration, minimizing Opportunity costs. Evidence from behavioral and Genetic studies suggests a particular profile of the high boredom prone individual, characterized by poor Self-control and a tendency to ruminate on potential options for action. Cast in these terms, those who succumb to boredom more frequently suffer from a failure to launch into activities (in some sense a failure to explore) and a failure to sustain Focus once Engaged (a failure to exploit). This leads to a vicious cycle: The boredom prone individual can’t choose something to engage with, and their current circumstance lacks meaning and seems boring making it difficult to focus, prompting them to do something else. This then comes full cycle to confront them with the difficulty of choosing something worth engaging with.
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Theories of cognitive processes, such as decision making and creative problem solving, for a long time neglected the contributions of emotion or affect in favor of analysis based on use of deliberative rules to optimize performance. Since the 1990s, emotion has increasingly been incorporated into theories of these cognitive processes. Some theorists have in fact posited a “dual-systems approach” to understanding decision making and high-level cognition. One system is fast, emotional, and intuitive, while the other is slow, rational, and deliberative. However, one’s understanding of the relevant brain regions indicate that emotional and rational processes are deeply intertwined, with each exerting major influences on the functioning of the other. Also presented in this paper are neural network modeling principles that may capture the interrelationships of emotion and cognition. The authors also review evidence that humans, and possibly other mammals, possess a “knowledge instinct,” which acts as a drive to make sense of the environment. This drive typically incorporates a strong affective component in the form of aesthetic fulfillment or dissatisfaction.
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This chapter explores the history of the demand for a synthesis of knowledge, gradual movement in that direction, and some of the challenges encountered along the way. Recounting important advancements in the natural sciences—namely, how the shift in focus from entities to organizing relations enabled them to finally reconcile life and matter—this chapter reveals an important precedent for success. Applying this basic principle, as well as lessons learned from failed attempts to bring the social sciences into the fold, suggests a way forward for integrating the seemingly irreconcilable social and natural sciences.
Article
A common understanding of media innovation does not yet exist. The dimensions, characteristics, components, and linkages as well as types of media innovation have been discussed relatively little in the literature. Important basic findings from innovation research have not yet been considered or given adequate consideration in journalism and communication science. However, if innovation is to be reflected in all of its facets with regard to the specifics of media, a corresponding object-specific understanding of innovation is required. An appropriate media-specific innovation theory does not yet exist. The majority of the articles that deal with innovation in the media sector are small-scale and distributed in various publications, even if there are some monographs. However, these sometimes have deficiencies, for example in capturing the characteristics of media innovations and determining different degrees of novelty.Against this background, it seems appropriate to first create a corresponding theoretical basis. This study aims to make a contribution in order to fully exploit the previously untapped potential of innovation theory approaches in journalism and communication science. For this purpose, the various dimensions of media innovations found in the literature are brought to a common denominator, condensed, and developed further. This results in a coherent, elaborated media innovation concept that is rooted both in communication science and in technology and innovation management. This concept comprises eight specifically interrelated dimensions: (1) innovative organization of media, (2) innovative institutionalization of media, (3) innovative technicality of media, (4) innovative signs, (5) innovative intermediality, (6) media process innovation, (7) media business model innovation, and (8) media product innovation. The epithet innovative implies more than just something new; it also refers to something complex, uncertain/risky, and conflictual. This is relevant for the micro‑, meso‑, and macro-perspectives of communication science.Accordingly, the focus is then on the characteristics of media innovations. With the help of additional innovation criteria, a media innovation concept is created that comprises six central features: (1) degree of novelty, (2) complexity, (3) uncertainty/risk, (4) conflict content, (5) exploitability or usability, and (6) communicative implications. This concept also shows that media innovations can have an impact not only on communication structures and processes, but also on communication cultures and topics.Media innovations are multidimensional objects. In order to gradually classify media innovations, it makes sense to draw on Henderson and Clark’s multidimensional approach, which is based on components and linkages, and to develop it further in such a way that four degrees of novelty in the media context can be differentiated: (1) incremental, (2) modular, (3) architectural, and (4) radical, from which also organizational implications result. Furthermore, three types of media innovation – original, derivative, and imitative – are systematically derived as research objects based on the characteristics and manifestations. The approaches provide a richer characterization of the different types of innovation and open up new areas for understanding the relations between innovation and organization.These elaborated approaches and models for a further developed media innovation concept can serve as a basis for well-founded, differentiated media innovation research. They can become the starting point for further empirical research, and thus be made beneficial for media practice. For example, one could examine to what extent media innovation processes and systems differ, depending on the different types of media innovation and their characteristics, and the implications this has for the micro‑, meso‑ and macro-levels. As far as the presented characteristics of media innovations are concerned, their multi-level relationship could be analyzed in even greater detail.
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Some years ago, when I was thinking about cognitive appraisal as the central process in emotion, I realized that the cognitive revolution in psychology did not create new constructs with which to understand the human mind but only changed the definition and arrangement of old constructs. The basic theoretical constructs have always consisted of motivation, emotion, and cognition. In an interesting discussion of the origins of faculty psychology, Hilgard (1980) questions whether this “trilogy of mind” describes fundamental faculties or is merely a convenient classification of mental activities. To the trilogy we must add two other fundamental concepts, namely actions and the environmental stimulus array, making a total of five concepts to juggle in our theories.
Article
The multiple-choice box, described here consists of a test cage divided into 2 identical chambers by a common partition in which there are as many as 5 doors. One chamber is lighted, the other is not. An animal placed in the lighted chamber escapes to the darkened one, where it is given a brief, fixed period in the dark after which the light conditions are reversed and the animal returns to the original chamber, and the cycle is repeated. By using different numbers of doors and various temporal sequences of locking and unlocking them, a large variety of problems can be presented to the animal. The ability of the rat to learn in this situation is illustrated by 2 sets of data, one on a single-alternation problem, the other on a task analogous to the double-alternation problem.
Article
Two rhesus monkeys, given 60 two-hour sessions with a six-device mechanical puzzle showed clear evidence of learning, the curve showing ratio of incorrect to correct responses appearing quite comparable to similar curves obtained during externally rewarded situations. When, on the thirteenth day of tests, the subjects were presented with the puzzle 100 times at 6-minute intervals, the number of devices manipulated decreased regularly throughout the day, although there was no significant change in the number of times the problem assembly was attacked.
The effect of familiarity on maze performance of albino rats Univer
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HANEY, G. W. The effect of familiarity on maze performance of albino rats Univer. Calif. Publ Psychol., 1931, 4, 319-333.
Primate learning Comparative psy-chology
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