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The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone

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... The salt content was calculated using a NaCl calibration curve by conductimetry technique. Total carbohydrate content in the permeate was measured using anthrone-sulfuric acid presented by Yemm and Willis with some modifications (Yemm & Willis, 1954). In this method, glucose was used to construc the calibration curve. ...
... Total carbohydrate content in the permeate was measured by the method of anthrone-sulfuric acid presented by Yemm and Willis with some modifications (Yemm & Willis, 1954). Briefly, samples were mixed with 2 g/L anthrone in 98% sulfuric acid in boiling water for 10 min. ...
... Total carbohydrate content in UF permeate and hydrolyzed permeate was determined according to the anthrone-sulfuric acid method of Yemm and Wilis (Yemm & Willis, 1954). Glucose was used as standard and glucose solutions with concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 mg/mL were used to construct the calibration curve (y = 1.1845x, ...
Thesis
apeseed and sunflower are the most cultivated oilseed plants in Europe in general, and in France in particular. Some industrialists are currently focusing on the development of industrial processes for the extraction/purification of proteins from the oil cakes of these two plants. These processes generate co-products which are saline aqueous effluents rich in phenolic compounds such as cholorgenic acid (CGA, for sunflower) and sinapine (SP, for rapeseed). The capture of these phenolic compounds, which can act as natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents in nutrition and health, is therefore a promising way of valorization. The main objectives of this work were: 1) to characterize and identify the phenolic compounds of protein isolate by-products from SFM and RSM; 2) to select the best macroporous resins and to study the adsorption mechanism of phenolic compounds; 3) to optimize the conditions in the phenolic compounds adsorption column; and 4) to evaluate the biological activities of the obtained phenolic fractions, especially the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.By different analytical methods, we determined that the liquid effluents consisted of phenolic compounds, amino acids, carbohydrates, and salt, which have a low molecular weight and can easily pass through a UF/DF membrane. All phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis in comparison with standards. CGA is the main phenolic compound in the sunflower effluent. The main phenolic compound of rapeseed effluents is MS. Unlike sunflower, they also contain many other minor compounds. The adsorption/desorption of sunflower and rapeseed phenolic compounds was evaluated using different macroporous resins including XAD4, XAD7, XAD16, XAD1180 and HP20. We found that all phenolic compounds adsorbed readily onto the resins. XAD7 and XAD16 resins showed the best adsorption/desorption properties in sunflower and rapeseed liquid effluents, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption of all phenolic compounds follows a Langmuir model. According to the determined thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption process, is in all cases physical and is exothermic.The optimal condition for column adsorption was determined on the selected resins by experimental planning and multicriteria optimization. A multicriteria optimization methodology based on design of experiments showed the optimal conditions were adsorption flow rate of 15 BV/h at pH 2.7 for CGA from SFM. Meanwhile, adsorption flow rate of 13.3 BV/h and at pH ranging from 2 to 5 were the optimal conditions for sinapine from RSM. Ethanol solutions 50% (v/v) for chlorogenic acid, 70% (v/v) for sinapine were used for desorption.These approaches successfully produced the phenolic fractions for biological activities such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Phenolic fraction showed a higher antioxidant capacity than vitamin C in DPPH and ABTS assays (IC50/phenolic fractions < IC50 vitamin C, p < 0.05. In addition, it was discussed whether the phenolic fractions obtained in this project also showed an inflammatory effect. The sunflower fraction (CGA) effectively inhibited the production of TNF-α, which is a pro-inflammatory marker when a sample is treated with LPS. However, the rapeseed fractions were not effective against proinflammatory mediators. None of the fractions showed cytotoxicity.
... The supernatants were collected and mixed as the sample solution. Total soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) were detected using anthrone colorimetry as previously described (Yemm and Willis, 1954). Since rice is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures and cannot synthesize fructans (Kawakami et al., 2008), the HMW-WSCs primarily refer to water-soluble polysaccharides in the rice tissues. ...
... Seedlings at the fourleaf stage were maintained for 24 h in the dark to reduce concentrations of their endogenous carbohydrates (dark, 28 C 16-h light/ 25 C 8-h dark, with 24 h dark treatment) as described by Cho et al. (2005) and Ryan et al. (2015) with some modifications. The root WSCs contents were detected using anthrone colorimetry as previously described (Yemm and Willis, 1954). Root DNA was extracted as described above to estimate the amount of D. liquidambaris in the roots. ...
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The fungal endophyte Diaporthe liquidambaris can establish mutualistic relationships with rice (Oryza sativa) and promote plant growth, specifically under low nitrogen (N) conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The fungal nutritional status, which is based on host carbohydrate dynamics, determines symbiotic outcomes. In this study, an experiment with (Eþ) and without (E-) D. liquidambaris under low, moderate and high N conditions demonstrated that D. liquidambaris promoted chlorophyll biosynthesis and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSCs) accumulation in rice roots and root exudates under a lower N supply. In addition, D. liquidambaris grew better on substrates containing Eþ root extracts in vitro due to the carbon (C) resource compared to that on E-treatments. Further experiments with manipulated environmental conditions (light and temperature) in vivo indicated that increased root WSCs were closely related to improved fungal colonization. We concluded that the presence of the fungal endophyte induced an enhanced mutualistic system by mediating host carbohydrate dynamics under N-poor conditions.
... Qualitative losses in Bengal gram: The infested whole, broken grains and flour Bengal gram were subjected to biochemical estimation after 90 and 180 days and compared with non-infested grains/ flour. After separation of mites through Berlese Funnel method at 90 and 180 days, protein (A.O.A.C, 1980) [1] , total soluble sugars (Yemm and Willis, 1954) [20] , reducing sugars (Nelson, 1944;Somogyi, 1945) [14,17] , non-reducing sugars and starch (Clegg, 1956) [5] were estimated following standard procedures. These were compared with the protein, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch content of noninfested whole, broken grains and flour at 0 day which acted as control. ...
... Qualitative losses in Bengal gram: The infested whole, broken grains and flour Bengal gram were subjected to biochemical estimation after 90 and 180 days and compared with non-infested grains/ flour. After separation of mites through Berlese Funnel method at 90 and 180 days, protein (A.O.A.C, 1980) [1] , total soluble sugars (Yemm and Willis, 1954) [20] , reducing sugars (Nelson, 1944;Somogyi, 1945) [14,17] , non-reducing sugars and starch (Clegg, 1956) [5] were estimated following standard procedures. These were compared with the protein, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch content of noninfested whole, broken grains and flour at 0 day which acted as control. ...
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Susceptibility of whole, broken grains and flour of Bengal gram to Suidasia nesbitti (Acari: Suidasiidae) population build up and its damage potential was estimated during monthly data analysis. The results showed that mite count was significantly higher in flour (682.95 mites/g) than broken (332.52 mites/g) and whole grains (70.33 mites/g). Irrespective of the form of Bengal gram, significantly higher S. nesbitti population was recorded at the end of study period i.e. 180 days (1232 mites/g) from the initial count of 20 mites. Cursory analysis of S. nesbitti population on three forms of Bengal gram revealed highest percentage of mites on flour (63%) followed by broken grains (31%) and whole grains (6%) which showed that flour were preferred by mites than other two forms. The mite infestation resulted in significant decrease in the protein, total soluble sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch content of all the three forms of Bengal gram at 90 and 180 days of infestation. In contrast, reducing sugars significantly increased with increase in S. nesbitti infestation period. Due to mite feeding, progressive discolouration of whole and broken grains were witnessed. Broken grain material and flour became darker in colour as the population multiplied due to excessive excreta.
... Estimation of total soluble sugars. Total soluble sugars were analyzed according to the modification of [23,24] and reading the cooled samples at Advances in Biotechnology & Microbiology 625 nm using spectrophotometer. Estimation of polysaccharides. ...
... Determination of nitrogenous constituents. In this study, the method used was essentially that recommended by [24]. Estimation of amide-N. ...
... The reducing sugars (mg/100g), non-reducing sugars (mg/100g), total sugars (mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) in tubers were calculated from each replication at the start, mid and end of the experiment. Reducing sugars were estimated by using method of [8], while the total sugars were estimated by using the method of [9]. The content of non-reducing sugars was obtained by subtracting the values of reducing sugars from that of total sugars and multiplying the value with 0.95 [10]. ...
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The objective of this experiment was to analyse the effect of different nitrogen levels on biochemical property of potato tubers. The experiment was carried out at the post-harvest laboratory of the department of vegetable science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the rabi season of 2019-20. Four different doses of nitrogen (0, 80, 160, and 240 kg ha-1) and three different potato cultivars viz., ‘Kufri Pukhraj’, ‘Kufri Gaurav’ and ‘AICRP-P-39’ were used in different combinations. The harvested potatoes were stored in the laboratory for three months using a completely randomized design to study their biochemical behaviour. Results revealed a positive relationship between nitrogen content and ascorbic acid in tubers up to a certain extent only. Whereas, different sugars level in tubers showed inconsistent behaviour with varying nitrogen doses. The cv. ‘Kufri Pukhraj’ found superior to other tested cultivars for maintaining their biochemical quality during storage.
... After the second extraction, 30% PCA is added, resuspended and centrifuged. This extraction was carried out in two steps (2,5 ml + 2,5 ml) in order to obtain the maximum amount of hydrolyzate, as described by Yemm and Willis (1954). The supernatant constitutes the starch sample. ...
Article
Carbohydrate reserves are an essential key to plant survival from disturbance. Therefore, studying the different storage organs and types of reserves makes it possible to understand the dynamics of singular plants such as Bulbostylis paradoxa (Spreng.) Lindm, which presents flowering triggered by fire in the Cerrado. Physiological response to fire frequency is detailed by measuring the plant's reserves after a fire disturbance and which carbohydrates are more available for its use. It was measured the concentrations of starch, amino acids, total soluble carbohydrates and soluble proteins in leaves (control), flowers (burning) and caudex of B. paradoxa, in unburned individuals (control), and burned individuals (annually and biennially, obtained 48 h and 15 days after fire). Starch concentrations increased at both fire frequencies in all parts of the plant, as did carbohydrate concentrations. In amino acids, an increase in the concentration of flowers from individuals burned biennially 48 h after fire was observed. The protein concentration showed a decrease in burned plants. Furthermore, the two burning frequencies and the days following the fire can influence the storage of such reserves.
... The determination of soluble sugars was carried out according to the method of Yemm and Willis (1954). ...
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This study investigated the effect of Atriplex halimus extract on faba bean plants (Vicia faba). Three different concentrations (0.1% 0.25%, and 0.5%) of Atriplex halimus extract were applied. The obtained results indicated that the tested extract had a positive effect on several physiological and biochemical parameters of the tested plants, which led to enhancing their growth. A signi cant (p < 0.05) increase in plant metabolites and photosynthetic pigments content was observed in the treated plants. Furthermore, Atriplex halimus extract signi cantly improved the activities of enzymes involved in the activation of the carbon-nitrogen enzymatic system; including, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31), isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42), Glutamine Synthase (EC 6.3.1.2) glutathione-S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18), glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7). This effect was more pronounced in plants treated with 0.25% of Atriplex halimus extract. Altogether, our results suggest that the application of the tested extract could be used as a promising plant growth biostimulant to improve faba bean plants' growth and yield.
... The carbohydrate and protein content were evaluated as previously described, respectively using Anthrone's (Yemm e Willis, 1954) and Kjedahl's (Jung et al., 2003) methods. Ash and water contents were determined through the procedure described in AOAC (Williams, 1984). ...
... The fresh leaf samples were extracted with 80% ethanol at 4 • C and were then centrifuged for 10 min at 10,000× g. Soluble sugars were determined according to the method of Yemm and Willis AJ (1954) [47]. A calibration curve was created using glucose to calculate the data as mg/g dry weight. ...
Article
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Salinity is a severe abiotic problem that has harmful impacts on agriculture. Recently, biostimulants were defined as bioprotectant materials that promote plant growth and improve productivity under various stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract as a biostimulant on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown under salt stress. Concentrations of 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 70 mg/L of C. oxyacantha extract were applied to tomato plants that were grown under salt stress. The results indicated that plants that were treated with C. oxyacantha extract had a higher ability to tolerate salt stress, as demonstrated by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, in addition to a significant increase in tomato soluble sugars and amino acids compared to the control plants. In the stressed tomato plants, malondialdehyde increased and then decreased significantly with the different concentrations of C. oxyacantha extract. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the stressed plants, especially after treatment with 70 mg/L of the extract. Overall, our results suggest that C. oxyacantha extract could be a promising biostimulant for treating tomato plants under salinity stress.
... estimation [17]. The absorbance at 625 nm using UV-VIS spectrophotometer was recorded after one ml of the diluted solution was reacted with freshly prepared Anthrone reagent. ...
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Due to pandemic situation, a sudden demand of healthy and immune booster products has risen to get rid of infections like Covid-19. The aim of this study is to develop novel health drink and beverages using plant-based byproducts like orange peel, milling byproducts (chickpea husk, rice bran, broken rice, wheat bran). Byproducts were processed by using different culinary processes such as, soaking, blanching, roasting, natural air-drying. Proximate composition along with minerals, antioxidants, Vitamin-C of formulated Health Drink Powder (HDP) and Detox Tea-substitute (DTS) were estimated. Most acceptable variants among the formulated products were estimated through sensory profiling where, HDP1 (7.79 ± 0.01) and DTS2 (8.18 ± 0.11) showed higher acceptability scores among others. Crude protein present in HDP and DTS were (19.27 ± 0.01)% and (18.21 ± 0.19)% respectively. Calcium was higher in HDP (81.21 ± 4.03 mg/100 g), whereas phosphorus was higher in DTS (211.52 ± 0.22 mg/100 g). Total phenolic contents of both the products were around 4 mg GAE/g. Vitamin C level was higher in HDP (60.23 ± 0.11 mg/100 g). Shelf life study and microbial load assessment indicated longer storage life of the formulated products. The Total Plate counts (Log CFU/g) were 2.12 ± 0.01 and 2.08 ± 0.12 found to be in freshly prepared HDP1 and DTS2 respectively under evaluation. The yeast and mold counts (Log CFU/g) was observed after 75th day and 60th day in HDP1 (2.09 ± 0.05) and DTS2 (2.01 ± 0.11) respectively (stored room temperature). The overall acceptability of these novel formulations as determined by sensory evaluation throughout the storage duration was satisfactory. According to the estimated data it can be concluded that the selected byproducts can be utilized as significant plant-based sources to formulate value-added functional products without affecting its sensory quality and to enhance nutritional status of consumer.
... The soluble sugar content and the titratable acidity were used as indicators of fruit quality. The soluble sugar content was quantified by anthrone-sulfuric acid assays [24], and the titratable acidity was quantified by the acid-base titration method. Samples were collected randomly from 6 fruits in each block. ...
Article
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The addition of supplemental light (SL) is an effective way to offset insufficient lighting. Although it is commonly believed that SL increases leaf photosynthesis and therefore improves yield and fruit flavor, the mechanism underlying the effects of SL on the photosystem II (PSII) apparatus remains unclear, and SL leads to high energy consumption. In order to save energy, we investigated the physiological status of the PSII apparatus, plant growth parameters and fruit parameters under two types of overhead SL with a low daily energy consumption of 0.0918 kWh m ⁻² . The results showed that SL significantly increased the leaf chlorophyll content from full unfolding to yellowing. However, a remarkable increase in the absorption flux per cross-section (ABS/CS), the quantum yield of electron transport (φ Eo ) and the performance index (PI abs ) was observed only in a relatively short period of the leaf life cycle. SL also enhanced the fruit yield and quality. The obviously increased ΔV K and ΔV J components of the chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetic (OJIP) curve, along with the significantly decreased PI abs from days 40–60 after unfolding in the SL-treated groups, resulted in more rapid leaf aging and earlier fruit ripening compared with the control plants (CK). Therefore, an energy-friendly SL strategy can alter the physiological status of the PSII apparatus, affecting yield and fruit quality and maturity.
... Similarly total free amino acids were estimated according to the standard protocol [18]. While total soluble sugars were quantified using the standard protocol [19]. In order to determine the Free Proline from plants the protocol [20] was used. ...
Article
Among the environmental problems, salinity is one of the major threats to agriculture around the globe which affects more than 6% of the available land on earth. However halophytes are blessed with the ability to cope with high salinity by various mechanisms. The present study was aimed to explore adaptive components of Cyperus exaltatus which is now growing widely at a number of saline areas across the Pakistan. Extensive trips were made across the country to collect the populations of Cyperus exaltatus from all sorts of environments with varying levels of salinity. The morphological study of ecotypes showed that many growth parameters were affected negatively under higher salinity. However, root length, shoot length, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight showed a high association with hyper saline sites. Moreover the physiological parameters such as proline content, total soluble proteins and total soluble sugars were accumulated in higher concentrations among populations at hyper saline sites while in lower concentrations at moderately saline and less saline sits which may have supported the production of higher biomass under salinity. The results show that the plants like Cyperus exaltatus can be grown under various types of environmental stresses especially under salinity. Thus the barren saline lands can be used to produce fodder as well as the growth of plants may also help to reduce the levels of salinity in such areas.
... The antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts was specified by a spectrophotometric method, based on the reduction of a methanol solution of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and according to a method by Oke et al. (2009) with some modifications (Oke et al., 2009). The carbohydrate content was measured by anthrone colorimetric reagent (Sigma-Aldrich) at 630 nm (Bio Quest, CE 2502, UK) and the results were presented as mg glucose equivalent/g dry weight (Yemm and Willis, 1954). ...
Article
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Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a strategic plant that can be cultivated compatibly in many regions of Iran. Despite their long history in medicinal and nutritional applications, Iranian jujubes have been the subject of few studies so far. In the present study, we analyzed several physicochemical characteristics, nutritional values and antioxidant activity in eight Iranian jujube populations and in an imported jujube (known as the Belarusian jujube in Iran). The most important factors that were measured in the fruits included total flavonoid content, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and polyphenol compounds which were identified by HPLC. The compounds were, namely, catechin, gallic acid and vanillic acid, as well as protein content, along with several nutrient elements (i.e. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn). The measurements also covered color index (L, a*, b*, Hue angle, Chroma) and physical properties. The results of the present study showed that most of the measured parameters varied significantly among the jujube populations. The highest flavonoid content (3.064 mg quercetin equivalent/g), total phenolic compounds (32.902 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and antioxidant activity (90.61%) were recorded in Abiz, an Iranian population. Esfeden and Abiz populations had the highest amounts of catechin (14.160 and 13.398 mg/g) and gallic acid (1.027 and 0.285 mg/g), respectively. The highest (3.38%) and lowest (2.31%) protein contents were recorded in Esfeden and Abiz populations, respectively. The imported types of jujube had the largest fruit diameter and length (25.74 and 34.83 mm, respectively). In sum, Abiz and Zirkuh populations had the best quality in terms of biochemical properties and, thus, they can be used potentially in industries or in plant breeding programs.
... The photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl b, and carotenoid (car), contents were detected from fresh leaves by 80% acetone extraction, and the contents were calculated according to the method introduced in the literature [18]. The total soluble sugar (TSS) and proline contents were detected following the methods of Yemm and Willis [19] and Hodges [20], respectively. Each 0.5 g of leaf material was homogenized with the extraction buffer containing 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). ...
Article
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Four evergreen broadleaf Rhododendron spp. (Rhododendrons), namely, Rhododendron aganniphum, R. nyingchiense, R. wardii, and R. triflorum, occur in harsh subalpine habitats in the southwest Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China. Considering that the four Rhododendrons cannot escape their unique environment, they must evolve a set of adaptations to survive, but the information is lacking. To uncover their physiological adaptation characteristics, in the present study, we monitored their physiological characteristics by determination of their seasonal variation in antioxidant enzyme activity, osmotic adjustment substrates, and carbohydrate contents, and their pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) activities and proline content of four Rhododendrons had a significant difference in autumn and were insignificant in summer. Specifically, R. aganniphum had the maximum protective enzyme activity and proline content in winter as well as chl a, b, and car contents. The values of maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm), photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of four Rhododendrons were significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. The lower qP indicated the four Rhododendrons were susceptible to photoinhibition. Overall, the four Rhododendrons had similar physical characteristics in subalpine habitats. The parameters of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), the actual quantum yield of PSII, the non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and chlorophyll a content increased in summer. Meanwhile, the protective enzyme activity and total soluble sugar content, proline content, and carotenoid content increased in spring, autumn, and winter. These results suggested that the four Rhododendrons can adapt to subalpine habitats by heat dissipation to avoid the damage of excessive radiation during the warm season while scavenging reactive oxygen and increasing the intracellular fluid concentration to avoid damage caused by chilling temperatures during the cold seasons. These findings would provide a reference for the conservation and application of these valuable ornamental evergreen broadleaf Rhododendrons, and enrich theory of plant eco-physiology in the high altitudes of the QTP.
... Proline concentration was determined by the method of ninhydrin reagent as described by Bates, et al. [73]. Total soluble sugars were estimated using the anthrone method [74], whereas, the reducing sugars were determined using the dinitrosalicylic acid method [75], and the non-reducing sugars content was estimated using the difference between the total soluble sugar content and the reducing sugars. ...
Article
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The effect of melatonin (MT) on potato plants under drought stress is still unclear in the available literature. Here, we studied the effect of MT as a foliar application at 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM on potato plants grown under well-watered and drought stressed conditions during the most critical period of early tuberization stage. The results indicated that under drought stress conditions, exogenous MT significantly (p � 0.05) improved shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll (Chl; a, b and a + b), leaf relative water content (RWC), free amino acids (FAA), non-reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, cell membrane stability index, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared to the untreated plants. Meanwhile, carotenoids, proline, methylglyoxal (MG), H2O2, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were significantly decreased compared to the untreated plants. These responses may reveal the protective role of MT against drought induced carbonyl/oxidative stress and enhancing the antioxidative defense systems. Furthermore, tuber yield was differentially responded to MT treatments under well-watered and drought stressed conditions. Since, applied-MT led to an obvious decrease in tuber yield under well-watered conditions. In contrast, under drought conditions, tuber yield was substantially increased by MT-treatments up to 0.1 mM. These results may imply that under water deficiency, MT can regulate the tuberization process in potato plants by hindering ABA transport from the root to shoot system, on the one hand, and by increasing the non-reducing sugars on the other hand.
... Soluble carbohydrates were extracted with ethanol (80%) and then measured by the anthrone reagent method [30]. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured based on the method of Madhava and Sresty [31]. ...
Article
Abo-Elyousr KAM, Magdi A. A. Mousa, Omer H. Ibrahim and Nouf Owdah Alshareef , Mamdouh A. Eiss 2022. Calcium-Rich Biochar Stimulates Salt Resistance in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L) Plants by Improving Soil Quality and Enhancing the Antioxidant Defense. Plants 11: 10 https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101301
... Leaves samples were dried in a circulation oven at 105 • C for 24 h, and 50 mg dried leaves were taken, ground, and filtered, and the supernatant was used to determine soluble sugar using the anthrone colorimetric method (Yemm and Willis, 1954). ...
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The effects of foliar application of spermidine (Spd) on the physiological aspects of salt-stressed oat seedlings were studied under greenhouse conditions. At the seedling stage, the salt-sensitive variety, namely, Caoyou 1 and the salt-tolerant variety, namely, Baiyan 2 were treated with 70 and 100 mM of salt, followed by the foliar application of 0.75 mM Spd or distilled water. Results showed that Spd application increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and reduced the rate of O2⋅– production and the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, it increased the level of zeatin riboside (ZR) and the content of endogenous polyamines. The application of Spd increased the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and free proline and helped maintain the osmotic balance of oat leaves. At the same time, foliar Spd treatment helped in maintaining the ion nutrition balance. Specifically, it reduced the content of Na+ and thereby stabilized the ratio of Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, and Na+/Mg2+. The effects of Spd application were more obvious for the salt-sensitive cultivar Caoyou 1 and under the lighter 70 mM salt stress.
... Soluble sugar (SSg) and titratable acidity (TA) contents were evaluated in onion bulbs according to the methods described by Yemm and Willis (1954) and by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008), respectively. SSg was extracted from samples of 1 g of juice from fresh bulbs, dissolved in 100 mL of pure demineralized water. ...
Article
Salinity limits agricultural yield in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Silicon (Si) benefits plants under abiotic stresses. However, Si fertilization in the yield of onion plants under salt stress are less well known. We conducted a field experiment to evaluate Si fertilization in onion yield, physiology and postharvest quality irrigated with saline water. The experiment was designed in randomized complete blocks, with four replicates, and treatments were arranged in split plots. The plots had four water electrical conductivity (0.65, 1.7, 2.8 and 4.1 dS m⁻¹) and the subplots had five Si levels (0, 41.6, 83.2, 124.8 and 166.4 kg ha⁻¹ of Si), in the form a diatomaceous earth-based fertilizer derived from the species Melosira granulata. Waters high salinity reduced onion yield and bulb fresh mass, and increasing small bulbs (<50 mm) production. Waters high salinity hampered onion plants membrane instability index, relative water content and contents of total chlorophyll, and carotenoids. Waters high salinity too hampered onion firmness, pH, soluble solids concentration, and SS/TA ratio. Si fertilization increased onion yield, bulb fresh mass and production of large bulbs (≥ 50 mm), and saline stress attenuation occurred up to 2.8 dS m⁻¹. Si fertilization improved onion plants chlorophylls, carotenoids, total sugars, soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and pyruvic acids content. Si fertilization promoted onions acclimatization to salt stress, because increasing the synthesis of soluble sugars, ascorbic acids, and thio-compounds identifiable in PyA. Therefore, we recommend 78.5 kg ha⁻¹ of Si for onion plants under saline stress conditions.
... Then we added the resulting supernatant to the first and dried it in the oven until ethanol evaporation was complete. Crystallised soluble NSCs were suspended in 0.5 ml of 50 mM of Tris-HCl pH 7.5 and stored at −20 • C until the application of anthrone assay (Yemm and Willis, 1954). This method allows for quantifying NSC content by means of spectrophotomertic measurements by converting absorbance at 620 nm, in the amount of glucose (g/g DW) through a titration curve obtained with known amounts of glucose. ...
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With the recent climate warming, tundra ecotones are facing a progressive acceleration of spring snowpack melting and extension of the growing season, with evident consequences to vegetation. Along with summer temperature, winter precipitation has been recently recognised as a crucial factor for tundra shrub growth and physiology. However, gaps of knowledge still exist on long-living plant responses to different snowpack duration, especially on how intra-specific and year-to-year variability together with multiple functional trait adjustments could influence the long-term responses. To fill this gap, we conducted a 3 years snow manipulation experiment above the Alpine treeline on the typical tundra species Juniperus communis , the conifer with the widest distributional range in the north emisphere. We tested shoot elongation, leaf area, stomatal density, leaf dry weight and leaf non-structural carbohydrate content of plants subjected to anticipated, natural and postponed snowpack duration. Anticipated snowpack melting enhanced new shoot elongation and increased stomatal density. However, plants under prolonged snow cover seemed to compensate for the shorter growing period, likely increasing carbon allocation to growth. In fact, these latter showed larger needles and low starch content at the beginning of the growing season. Variability between treatments slightly decreased over time, suggesting a progressive acclimation of juniper to new conditions. In the context of future warming scenarios, our results support the hypothesis of shrub biomass increase within the tundra biome. Yet, the picture is still far from being complete and further research should focus on transient and fading effects of changing conditions in the long term.
... The carbohydrate concentration in the food samples was measured by Anthrone method (Yemm and Willis, 1954). 100 mg of each of the samples was weighed and taken into a boiling tube, hydrolysed by keeping it in a boiling water bath for three hours with 5 ml of 2.5 N HCl and the mixture was cooled at room temperature. ...
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Indian Sundarbans, at the apex of Bay of Bengal sustains a wide variety of mangrove associate species. Salicornia brachiata and Suaeda maritima are two such species found in the supra-littoral zone of Sundarban estuarine mudflats. These two species are used in the present research to prepare common Indian snacks namely samosa and kachuri. The proximate and elemental analyses were carried out with the final products and compared with the control. We observed significant variations in protein, carbohydrate, fat, total fibre, Ca, Na and K between the control samples (in which the mangrove associate species have not been mixed) and final products (in which the mangrove associate species are mixed separately in the ratio 1:1). The increase of Ca, Na and K in the final products clearly depicts the upgradation of samosa and kachuri in terms of essential elements needed for the benefit of human body.
... Absorbance was recorded at 765 nm against the standard curve of gallic acid. Total soluble carbohydrates were estimated according to the method of Yemm and Willis (1954). Water extract (10 ml) of dried leaves (0.1 g) was boiled for 1 h. ...
Article
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Secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds, play an important role in alleviating salinity-induced negative effects in plants. The present study focused on seed priming and foliar application of a potent phenolic compound, coumarin, to induce salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor var. SS-77. Based on pilot experiment, 100 mg L−1 concentration of coumarin was applied to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on Sorghum, grown at 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl under netted greenhouse conditions. Coumarin was applied to each salinity treatment in four different ways (i) non-primed control (NP), (ii) seed priming (COP), (iii) foliar application (COF), and (iv) a combination of seed priming and foliar application (COPF). Salinity stress significantly reduced the plant growth, biochemical attributes, and photosynthetic efficiency of Sorghum, whereas coumarin treatments (COP, COF, and COPF) showed a significant increase (P< 0.01) in above-mentioned parameters at all salinities. Among all, the combined treatment (COPF) showed maximum increase in growth, biochemicals, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic efficiency parameters. Therefore, it is suggested that a combination of seed priming and foliar spray of 10 mg L−1 coumarin is more suitable than their individual applications. It is an environment friendly and economically feasible approach that will be used to improve salinity tolerance of Sorghum and helpful to get considerable biomass from saline degraded lands to fulfill food, fodder, and energy demands of the ever-growing population.
... After cooling, the samples were filtered into tubes, diluted to 50 ml, and refrigerated at −20 • C until analysis. The WSC of each sample was quantified using the anthrone method (Yemm and Willis, 1954), using absorbance at 620 nm on a UV-visible light spectrophotometer (Model UV-120, MIOSTECH, USA) and fructose as the standard. Water-soluble carbohydrate content (mg) was calculated by multiplying WSC concentration (mg g −1 ) by stem dry weight (g). ...
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Heat stress is a primary constraint to Australia's barley production. In addition to impacting grain yield, it adversely affects physical grain quality (weight and plumpness) and market value. The incidence of heat stress during grain filling is rising with global warming. However, breeding for new superior heat-tolerant genotypes has been challenging due to the narrow window of sensitivity, the unpredictable nature of heat stress, and its frequent co-occurrence with drought stress. Greater scientific knowledge regarding traits and mechanisms associated with heat tolerance would help develop more efficient selection methods. Our objective was to assess 157 barley varieties of contrasting genetic backgrounds for various developmental, agro-morphological, and physiological traits to examine the effects of heat stress on physical grain quality. Delayed sowing (i.e., July and August) increased the likelihood of daytime temperatures above 30°C during grain-filling. Supplementary irrigation of field trials ensured a reduced impact of drought stress. Heat tolerance appeared to be the primary factor determining grain plumpness. A wide variation was observed for heat tolerance, particularly among the Australian varieties. Genotypic variation was also observed for grain weight, plumpness, grain growth components, stay-green and stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content, and mobilisation under normal and delayed sown conditions. Compared to normal sowing, delayed sowing reduced duration of developmental phases, plant height, leaf size, head length, head weight, grain number, plumpness, grain width and thickness, stem WSC content, green leaf area retention, and harvest index (HI), and increased screenings, grain length, grain-filling rate (GFR), WSC mobilisation efficiency (WSCME), and grain protein content. Overall, genotypes with heavier and plumper grains under high temperatures had higher GFR, longer grain-filling duration, longer green leaf area retention, higher WSCME, taller stature, smaller leaf size, greater HI, higher grain weight/plumpness potentials, and earlier flowering. GFR played a significant role in determining barley grain weight and plumpness under heat-stress conditions. Enhancing GFR may provide a new avenue for improving heat tolerance in barley.
... Soluble carbohydrates were extracted with ethanol (80%) and then measured by the anthrone reagent method [30]. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured based on the method of Madhava and Sresty [31]. ...
... Soluble carbohydrates were extracted with ethanol (80%) and then measured by the anthrone reagent method [30]. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured based on the method of Madhava and Sresty [31]. ...
... The absorbance of Bradford reagent treated samples was noted at 595 nm using the spectrophotometer (Hitachi U-2001, Japan). Total soluble sugars were measured following the Yemm and Willis (1954) method. The ethanolic extracted samples were treated with anthrone reagent, boiled and cooled. ...
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The present work provides an insight into the development of biochemical adaptations in mung beans against ozone (O3) toxicity. The study aims to explore the O3 stress tolerance potential of mung bean genotypes under exogenous application of growth regulators. The seeds of twelve mung bean genotypes were grown in plastic pots under controlled conditions in the glasshouse. Six treatments, control (ambient ozone level 40–45 ppb), ambient O3 with ascorbic acid, ambient ozone with silicic acid, elevated ozone (120 ppb), elevated O3 with ascorbic acid (10 mM), and elevated ozone with silicic acid (0.1 mM) were applied. The O3 fumigation was carried out using an O3 generator. The results revealed that ascorbic acid and silicic acid application decreased the number of plants with foliar O3 injury symptoms in different degrees, i.e., zero, first, second, third, and fourth degrees; whereas 0–4 degree symptoms represent, no symptoms, symptoms occupying < 1/4, 1/4–1/2, 1/2–3/4, and > 3/4 of the total foliage area, respectively. Application of ascorbic acid and silicic acid also prevented the plants from the negative effects of O3 in terms of fresh as well as dry matter production, leaf chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble proteins and ascorbic acid, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Overall, silicic acid application proved more effective in reducing the negative effects of O3 on mung bean genotypes as compared to that of the ascorbic acid. Three mung bean genotypes (NM 20–21, NM-2006, and NM-2016) were identified to have a better adaptive mechanism for O3 toxicity tolerance and may be good candidates for future variety development programs.
... For the extraction of TSS, dry leaves powder was incubated in 1.5 mL of distilled water at 95 • C for 1 h [104]. The TSS content was determined using the anthrone method, according to [105], based on a standard curve of glucose. ...
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The present investigation aims to highlight the role of salt priming in mitigating salt stress on faba bean. In the absence of priming, the results reflected an increase in H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation in plants subjected to 200 mM salt shock for one week, accompanied by a decline in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and yield. As a defense, the shocked plants showed enhancements in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Additionally, the salt shock plants revealed a significant increase in phenolics and proline content, as well as an increase in the expression levels of glutathione (GSH) metabolism-related genes (the L-ascorbate peroxidase (L-APX) gene, the spermidine synthase (SPS) gene, the leucyl aminopeptidase (LAP) gene, the aminopeptidase N (AP-N) gene, and the ribonucleo-side-diphosphate reductase subunit M1 (RDS-M) gene). On the other hand, priming with increasing concentrations of NaCl (50–150 mM) exhibited little significant reduction in some growth- and yield-related traits. However, it maintained a permanent alert of plant defense that enhanced the expression of GSH-related genes, proline accumulation, and antioxidant enzymes, establishing a solid defensive front line ameliorating osmotic and oxidative consequences of salt shock and its injurious effect on growth and yield.
... The biochemical characterization of the biomass of Sargassum spp. was determined according to crude protein and ash content [92,93]. Total sugars were determined using Antrona through the methodology of [94]. ...
Article
The development of green technologies and bioprocesses such as solid-state fermentation (SSF) is important for the processing of macroalgae biomass and to reduce the negative effect of Sargassum spp. on marine ecosystems, as well as the production of compounds with high added value such as fungal proteins. In the present study, Sargassum spp. biomass was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatments at different operating temperatures (150, 170, and 190 °C) and pressures (3.75, 6.91, and 11.54 bar) for 50 min, obtaining a glucan-rich substrate (17.99, 23.86, and 25.38 g/100 g d.w., respectively). The results indicate that Sargassum pretreated at a pretreatment temperature of 170 °C was suitable for fungal growth. SSF was performed in packed-bed bioreactors, obtaining the highest protein content at 96 h (6.6%) and the lowest content at 72 h (4.6%). In contrast, it was observed that the production of fungal proteins is related to the concentration of sugars. Furthermore, fermentation results in a reduction in antinutritional elements, such as heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Sn), and there is a decrease in ash content during fermentation kinetics. Finally, this work shows that Aspergillus oryzae can assimilate nutrients found in the pretreated Sargassum spp. to produce fungal proteins as a strategy for the food industry.
... Sugars from leaf tissues were extracted by 3 aliquots (2.5 mL) of 80% ethanol, and the supernatants were combined to make final volume to 10 mL using distilled water. Total soluble sugar contents were determined by anthrone assay (Yemm and Willis, 1954). Reaction mixture (100 μL of the supernatant + 3 mL anthrone reagent) was placed in boiling water bath for 10 min and then immediately cooled on ice. ...
... Sugars from leaf tissues were extracted by 3 aliquots (2.5 mL) of 80% ethanol, and the supernatants were combined to make final volume to 10 mL using distilled water. Total soluble sugar contents were determined by anthrone assay (Yemm and Willis, 1954). Reaction mixture (100 μL of the supernatant + 3 mL anthrone reagent) was placed in boiling water bath for 10 min and then immediately cooled on ice. ...
Thesis
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Climatic variability, typified by erratic heavy-rainfall events, causes waterlogging in intensively irrigated crops and is exacerbated when crops are grown under warm temperature regimes on soils with poor internal drainage. Irrigated cotton is often grown in precisely these conditions around the world, exposing it to waterlogging-induced yield losses after substantial summer rainfall. This requires a deeper understanding of the basis of waterlogging tolerance and its relevance to cotton. The yield penalty depends on soil type, phenological stage and the cumulative period of root exposure to air-filled porosities below 10%. Events in the soil include O2 deficiency in the root zone, which changes the redox state of nutrients, making them unavailable (e.g. nitrogen) or potentially toxic (e.g. manganese) for plants. Furthermore, root-derived hormones that are transported through the xylem have long been associated with oxygen deficits. These belowground effects (impaired root growth, nutrient uptake and transport, hormonal signalling) have impacts on the shoots, interfering with canopy development, photosynthesis (Pn) and radiation use efficiency. Compared with the more waterlogging tolerant cereals, cotton does not have identified adaptations to waterlogging in the root zone, forming no conspicuous root aerenchyma and having low fermentative activity. These factors contribute substantially to the sensitivity of cotton to sustained periods of waterlogging. Despite significant advances in cotton production systems, limited efforts have been made to improve cotton performance in waterlogged soils. Management practices such as soil aeration, scheduling irrigation and fertiliser application are practised to reduce waterlogging damage. However, little information is available on the physiological responses of cotton to waterlogging. Cotton plants respond to a variety of stresses through a complex signalling network of hormones. Understanding the biosynthesis and regulation of these hormones (e.g. ethylene) in cotton tissue offers an opportunity to modulate cotton performance under stressful environments. The central research question was: can waterlogging-induced yield losses in cotton be minimised by modulating key physiological processes? This thesis aims to investigate the physiological mechanisms of waterlogging damage to cotton and devise targets for increased waterlogging tolerance.
... Soluble sugars extraction was performed in fully expanded and adult dry leaves using 15 mL of potassium phosphate buffer 0.1 M. Extracts were submitted to three 45 min centrifugations at 2500 g. Anthrone was added to supernatant and soluble sugars content was determined according to Yemm and Willis (1954). ...
... Samples of root, sheath and leaves (0.5 g) were grounded using ethanol 80%, and chloroform was used for fractionation (Fernandes 1984). The soluble fraction was used for NH 4 + (Felker 1977), free amino-N (Yemm et al. 1955) and soluble sugar content determination (Yemm and Willis 1957). ...
... Os açúcares solúveis totais foram determinados pelo método de antrona segundo metodologia descrita por Yemn e Willis (1954). Em seguida, efetuou-se a leitura em espectrofotômetro a 620 nm e os resultados expressos em porcentagem (%). ...
Article
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As palmeiras são recursos vegetais de grande importância econômica e social no Brasil. Apesar da diversidade e amplo uso são pouco estudadas, havendo necessidade de mais pesquisas, principalmente, sobre a qualidade e composição de espécies ainda pouco exploradas. O trabalho objetivou caracterizar os óleos fixos extraídos do mesocarpo dos frutos de tucumã-açú e tucumã para identificar usos potenciais. Óleos fixos foram obtidos da Amazon Oil Industry LTDA, Ananindeua/PA, sob extração por prensagem a frio. Os tucumãs apresentaram diferenças em todas as propriedades físico-químicas avaliadas, com exceção do índice de peróxidos. Os óleos apresentaram elevado potencial em termos de constituintes bioativos, com destaque para o teor de clorofila total do óleo de tucumã (50,99 mg/100 g) e polifenóis extraíveis totais do óleo de tucumã (147,02 mg/100 g). Em relação ao perfil de ácidos graxos, o óleo de tucumã-açú apresentou elevado conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados, principalmente oleico e linoleico, com mais de 73%. Por ser fonte de compostos bioativos, há perspectivas de uso destes óleos como matérias-primas importantes para utilização em escala industrial e comercial, mas a qualidade destes óleos também implica num fator de relevância para o mercado consumidor, evidenciando necessidade de mais estudos. Palavras-chave: Arecaceae; qualidade; componentes funcionais; cromatografia gasosa. Potential for use of fixed tucumãs oils ABSTRACT: Palm trees are plant resources of great economic and social importance in Brazil. Despite their diversity and wide use, they are little studied, requiring more research, mainly on the quality and composition of species that are still underexplored. The work aimed to characterize the fixed oils extracted from the mesocarp of tucumã-açú and tucumã fruits to identify potential uses. Fixed oils were obtained from Amazon Oil Industry LTDA, Ananindeua/PA, under cold pressing extraction. Tucumãs showed differences in all physicochemical properties evaluated, with the exception of the peroxide index. The oils showed high potential in terms of bioactive constituents, especially the total chlorophyll content of tucumã oil (50.99 mg/100 g) and total extractable polyphenols from tucumã oil (147.02 mg/100 g). Regarding the fatty acid profile, tucumã-açú oil had a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, with more than 73%. As a source of bioactive compounds, there are prospects for the use of these oils as important raw materials for use on an industrial and commercial scale, but the quality of these oils also implies a factor of relevance for the consumer market, evidencing the need for further studies. Keywords: Arecaceae; quality; functional components; gas chromatography.
... The dried culm (with leaf sheaths) was ground into a coarse powder for extraction and estimation of WSCs through the anthrone method [33] as adopted by Hossain et al. [14]. About 0.5 g of culm powder was taken into a microtube (5 mL), and WSCs were extracted with 80% ethanol at 60 • C for 30 min and then with distilled water twice at 80 • C for 15 min. ...
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Citation: Islam, M.A.; De, R.K.; Hossain, M.A.; Haque, M.S.; Uddin, M.N.; Fakir, M.S.A.; Kader, M.A.; Dessoky, E.S.; Attia, A.O.; El-Hallous, E.I.; et al. Evaluation of the Tolerance Ability of Wheat Genotypes to Drought Stress: Dissection through Culm-Reserves Contribution and Grain Filling Physiology. Agronomy
... The obtained alcoholic extract was separated in microtubes and stored at − 20 °C until determination (Amaro 2014). For the quantification of total soluble sugars, the Morris (Morris 1948) and Yemm and Willis (Yemm and Willis 1954) methodologies were used as follows: 50 µL of alcoholic extract + 950 µL of deionized water (final volume 1000 µL) were added to test tubes and kept in an ice bath, to which 2000 µL of cold anthrone solution was added. Then, these tubes were placed in a water bath at 100 °C for 3 min. ...
Article
Hormonal balance is important for plant metabolism and, consequently, berry development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) combined with mineral elements, in satisfactory dosages, can promotes physiologic efficiency. We investigated the effect of foliar application of PGRs alone or combined with mineral elements on 'Crimson Seedless’ grapevines. The metabolism and development of the plants were examined. The treatments were applied via foliar spraying consisting in a PGRs mixture [cytokinin (kinetin—Kt), auxin [4-Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)], and gibberellin (gibberellic acid—GA3)] and a cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) mixture were studied. The PGRs and nutrients combined acted as protectors against stress, presenting increases in antioxidant enzyme activities but with a low level of lipid peroxidation. We concluded that the mixture of PGR applied alone or combined with mineral elements favoured content of photosynthetic pigments in the grapevines leaves, antioxidant enzyme activity, translocation and accumulation of reserves.
... Based on Yemm and Willis (1954), anthrone reagent was prepared by dissolving 0.2 g of anthrone in a mixture of 5 ml of ethanol and 95 ml of 75% sulfuric acid on ice. For measurement of calibration line, glucose in concentrations 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg•ml −1 was used. ...
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Natural compounds isolated from macroalgae are promising, ecofriendly, and multifunctional bioinoculants, which have been tested and used in agriculture. Ulvans, for instance, one of the major polysaccharides present in Ulva spp. cell walls, have been tested for their plant growth-promoting properties as well as their ability to activate plant immune defense, on a large variety of crops. Recently, we have characterized for the first time an arabinogalactan protein-like (AGP-like) from Ulva lactuca, which exhibits several features associated to land plant AGPs. In land plant, AGPs were shown to play a role in several plant biological functions, including cell morphogenesis, reproduction, and plant-microbe interactions. Thus, isolated AGP-like proteins may be good candidates for either the plant growth-promoting properties or the activation of plant immune defense. Here, we have isolated an AGP-like enriched fraction from Ulva lactuca and we have evaluated its ability to (i) protect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cotyledons against Leptosphaeria maculans, and (ii) its ability to activate immune responses. Preventive application of the Ulva AGP-like enriched fraction on oilseed rape, followed by cotyledon inoculation with the fungal hemibiotroph L. maculans, resulted in a major reduction of infection propagation. The noticed reduction correlated with an accumulation of H2O2 in treated cotyledons and with the activation of SA and ET signaling pathways in oilseed rape cotyledons. In parallel, an ulvan was also isolated from Ulva lactuca. Preventive application of ulvan also enhanced plant resistance against L. maculans. Surprisingly, reduction of infection severity was only observed at high concentration of ulvan. Here, no such significant changes in gene expression and H2O2 production were observed. Together, this study indicates that U. lactuca AGP-like glycoproteins exhibit promising elicitor activity and that plant eliciting properties of Ulva extract, might result not only from an ulvan-originated eliciting activities, but also AGP-like originated.
... × A645; and Chlb (mg/L) = 22.88 × A645-4.67 × A663. The total soluble sugar was estimated following the anthrone method (Yemm and Willis, 1954). The MDA content was determined according to Hodges et al. (1999), with some modifications. ...
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Increasing severity of drought stress due to global change and extreme weather has been affecting the biodiversity, function, and stability of forest ecosystems. However, despite being an important component in the alpine and subalpine vegetation in forest ecosystems, Rhododendron species have been paid rare attention in the study of molecular mechanism of tolerance or response to drought. Herein, we investigated the correlation of transcriptomic changes with the physiological and biochemical indicators of Rhododendron rex under drought stress by using the co-expression network approach and regression analysis. Compared with the control treatment, the number of significantly differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) increased with the degree of drought stress. The DEGs were mainly enriched in the cell wall metabolic process, signaling pathways, sugar metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Coupled analysis of the transcriptome, physiological, and biochemical parameters indicated that the metabolic pathways were highly correlated with the physiological and biochemical indicators under drought stress, especially the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, such as the actual photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II, electron transport rate, photochemical quenching coefficient, and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The majority of the response genes related to the metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, sugar metabolism, and phytohormone signal pathway, were highly expressed under drought stress. In addition, genes associated with cell wall, pectin, and galacturonan metabolism also played crucial roles in the response of R. rex to drought stress. The results provided novel insight into the molecular response of the alpine woody species under drought stress and may improve the understanding of the response of forest ecosystems to the global climate change.
... After, these tubes are put in a water bath at 100 °C for 10 minutes, then placed in the ice. The reading of optical density is at 640 nm (Yemm and Willis, 1954). ...
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Date of Acceptance 22/06/2021, Publication date 31/08/2021, http://m.elewa.org/Journals/about-japs/ 1 ABSTRACT Salinity causes a major threat on the agriculture nowadays and can alter the global vegetal production's map. The present work focuses on the physiological behaviour of Lepidium sativum L. (Garden cress) under salt stress condition and its post-stress recovery. In order to better understand the effects of salinity on the growth of plants, the recovery experiments were conducted in L. sativum by measuring physiological parameters on seedlings prior to salt (NaCl) treatment and after culturing them on a salt-free nutrient solution. This study indicates that removal of NaCl from the media results in resumption of growth activity. The increase in leaf biomass exceeds the roots. The results indicated a significant increase in protein, sugar and proline contents that is equivalent to the ones in untreated controls. In addition, the high endogenous accumulation of Na + ion, decreased significantly after NaCl suppression, especially in roots. Salt ions provoked an increase in the NH4 + concentrations in the leaves and roots parallel to high increase of proteolytic enzymes activities involved in the protein degradation. This was in accordance with the pronounced decrease of dry weight by salt in leaves and roots. Also, protease activity decreased during the recovering time. On the basis of these results, L. sativum specie can be able to dilute the effects of NaCl toxicity in cellular compartment during the recovering period. An important conclusion of this work is that a transient contamination of the culture medium by salinity or pollutants is not necessarily followed by a significant depreciation in the product yield and tolerance.
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Ficus is one of the most diverse genera with its habits. Fig trees serve a keystone species providing food for wildlife. Fig trees are known to have medicinal properties and used to treat various ailments. Ficus tsiela (Indian Bat tree) is a large evergreen spreading avenue tree. The crushed bark with water is used for stomach disorders. The fruits are edible and chewed for mouth ulcers. The objective of this study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals on the shade dried fruit powder of Ficus tsiela for the purpose of discovering new chemically active compounds. The qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimations of phenols, total alkaloid, total flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, protein, amino acids, lipids, carotene and saponin content, and GC/MS analysis of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus tsiela were performed using standard procedures The results showed that the presence of bioactive compounds may be responsible for the medicinal purposes of the plant and exploitation of these bioactive compounds beneficial in the pharmaceutical and alternative medicine industries.
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Sporobolus pungens (Schreb.) Kunth is a perennial rhizomatous grass which develops at several coastal habitats, being relevant in the embryonic dune communities. Considering its importance for dune ecosystem and its fragile situation in the face of changes in sea level derived from global warming, the present study aimed to evaluate S. pungens response to increased salinity. One-year-old plants were exposed to different seawater (SW) dilutions (None, 1/16SW, 1/8SW, 1/4SW, 1/2 W and Full-SW). Gas exchange measurements and oxidative stress biomarkers were determined after two months of treatment. Stress conditions were maintained until flowering finished in order to assess the potential effects on the reproductive effort. Strong delay and inhibition of flowering were observed at low salinity levels and full inhibition for further treatments. Gas exchange measurements showed little effect until 1/8SW and a decreased assimilation rate due to mainly stomatal limitations at 1/4SW. Further decreases at higher salinity levels were related to both stomatal and metabolic limitations. As salinity increased, there was a progressive increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, while catalase activity remained stable. Superoxide dismutase did not vary except for Full-SW, where the activity significantly decreased. The levels of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, remained unchanged and only increased in Full-SW level. In addition, the concentration of osmolytes, proline and soluble sugars, increased progressively with increasing salinity. In conclusion, S. pungens showed strong tolerance to salinity, through physiological adjustments at low levels of salinity, and activating glutathione-dependent enzymes at the highest concentrations. Evidence of oxidative damage was only observed after Full-SW exposure, although no death rate was recorded.
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Diabetes mellitus may be defined as a state where the body of a person is deficient in the production of insulin. It may lead to a high amount of glucose in the bloodstream. The uses of medication for diabetes have many side effects. This paper involves a biochemical analysis of protein and carbohydrate content of Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Azadirachta indica leaves by use of extraction method. The plant samples for the same were collected from Vadodara and Anand district located in Gujarat. The results showed that the Azadirachta indica leaf sample collected from Anand showed maximum protein content and the Aegle marmelos leaf sample obtained from Vadodara had maximum carbohydrate content when compared with all plant samples collected for analysis. It may indicate that these plants have great anti-diabetic potential and can be used for the development of a potent drug from natural sources in the future.
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Weeds represent a main limiting factor in potato production. In this study, the efficacy of clomazone against broadleaf and grass weeds in potato was assessed. Its effect on yield and quality and its residues in tubers and soil were also determined. Two field experiments were conducted on potato cultivar “Spunta” in winter 2020 and 2021. Treatments comprised clomazone sprayed preemergence at 1152 g a.i ha−1, hand hoeing, and unweeded control. Clomazone showed an excellent performance against broadleaf and grass weeds compared to the unweeded and hoed plots. Foliar phytotoxicity symptoms were observed in the potato plants and appeared to negatively affect their growth during the two seasons. The herbicide increased the tuber yield and the sugar and starch contents compared with the untreated control, but to a lower extent than the hoeing treatment. The clomazone residues in soil and tubers were determined using HPLC-DAD. Data revealed that no detectable residues (< 0.01 mg.kg−1) of clomazone were found in either tubers or the soil at harvest time. The results suggest that clomazone is a potential alternative herbicide to metribuzin for the effective control of weeds in potato and could be integrated with manual hoeing as a useful tool. However, more research is needed on the safety and efficacy of clomazone under different conditions, in different situations, and in other potato varieties.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soilless substrate mixtures on blueberry seedling growth under greenhouse conditions and to determine the optimal growth media for soilless blueberry (Vaccinium australe) cultivation. Trials were carried out with two-year-old blueberry seedlings from April to August 2021. Three mixed substrates (PB: peat and bark (1:1, v/v), PR: peat and rice husk (1:1, v/v), and BR: bark and rice husk (1:1, v/v)) were investigated. The results showed that the plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll content were much higher in PB and PR than in BR. The PB and PR substrates triggered antioxidant system activity and exerted marked positive effects on blueberry seedling growth. The total flavonoid content was greatly increased in the PB group compared with the other two groups. Most element contents were greatly increased with BR compared with PB and PR. Furthermore, metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed the critical responses of metabolic pathways to different substrate treatments in blueberry leaves collected in June. Overall, the metabolomic data revealed 757 metabolites with decreased levels and 1383 metabolites with increased levels. The levels of multiple prenol lipids, flavonoids, organooxygen compounds, carboxylic acids and derivatives were changed. “Flavonoid biosynthesis” was the most significantly enriched pathway and may be closely related to blueberry growth. Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic data suggested that the expression of 4 DEGs, VcPAL, VcHCT, VcF14G24.3, and VcCHS, was strongly correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This work provides insights for elucidating the mechanisms that mediate the growth adaptability of blueberry cv. ‘Zhaixuan 7’ in different substrates.
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In this study, abundant starch was separated from the industrial crop Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW), and a novel bioactive packaging film loaded with oregano essential oil (OEO) was prepared and characterized. NaClO solution worked as a bleacher to prepare uniform starch powder from DZW tubers. OEO was selected from among three essential oils of Labiatae family plants for its strongest antibacterial activity. After the addition of OEO into the starch-based film, the UV–vis shielding property and antioxidant activity were enhanced. Meanwhile, the films still have a considerable performance in transparency, mechanical strength and water vapor permeability after incorporated with OEO. Furthermore, the 3% OEO-loaded starch film exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It effectively lowered the total viable count of fresh chicken under 4 °C preservation conditions. These results revealed that the OEO-loaded DZW starch film can exert a positive effect on maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of fresh meat. Therefore, readily accessible DZW tubers and oregano are very promising resources for application in degradable bioactive packaging film.
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This study compiles the results of phycoremediation of milk processing wastewater (MPWW) and production of lipid-rich Chlorella vulgaris biomass using a continuous batch system operated for 12-wks. After a 4-wks interval, a new MPWW was loaded photobioreactor to provide appropriate nutrient supply to algae. Results indicated that MPWW supported the algal growth efficiently and the maximum algal growth was recorded in the ranges of 407.12 to 421.56 mg L⁻¹ during 4-wk's of the cultivation cycle. Average reduction in total nitrogen, TN (45.82–69.18%); nitrate, NO3 (93.32–94.54%); total ammonium nitrogen, TAN (92.94–94.54%); sulphate, SO4⁻² (85.13–85.53%); total phosphorus (75.09–78.78%); and biochemical oxygen demands, BOD (89.53–92.40%) was recorded during 12-wks phycoremediation of MPWW. Harvested algal biomass (dry weight basis, DW) exhibited a significant content of total sugar (45.5%) and total lipid (39.7%). The lipid profiling results indicated the presence of palmitic acid (39.9%), oleic acid (21.08%), linoleic acid (13.13%), and other C18 compounds in algal biomass, suggesting the suitability of MPWW for Chlorella vulgaris cultivations. Algal biomass exhibited a high heating value (MJ/Kg of DW) in the range of 17.3 to 25.1, comparable to other lignocellulose biomass to be used for bioenergy purposes. Results of this study indicate that MPWW could be utilized as a valuable medium for Chlorella vulgaris cultivation under a circular economy approach: wastewater treatment and bioenergy feedstock production. The effect of controlled environmental conditions on algal growth behavior and lipid composition in biomass, while using MPWW as a medium, could be investigated in future studies.
Article
Salt-accumulator species are of great interest for the phytoremediation of salt-affected soils to reclaim soil salinization, a major constraints causing germination retardation and growth restriction of plants as well as habitat degradation. Higher biomass production at ECe 23-36 dS m-1 indicated that this species grows better in high to moderate salinity that was linked to osmotic adjustment through higher ion accumulation (Na+, Cl‒, and Ca2+) and organic osmolytes (free amino acids and proline). Plants from highly and moderately saline habitats exhibited broader metaxylem vessels, which was associated with eased conduction of solutes leading to better growth. Leaf anatomical characteristics generally increased with increasing salinity except at the highest ECe 55 dS m-1. The increased leaf lamina thickness contributed to succulence because of increased storage parenchymatous spongy tissues (that can store high amounts of water), water contents and it is a reflection of maintaining ion homeostasis and colonizing hyper-saline soil. Reduced stomatal density and area under high salinity are critical to cope with environmental hazards. Under high salinity, compartmentalization of excessive Na+ and Cl- ions and accumulation of compatible osmolytes are directly related to high degree of salinity tolerance, and hence are useful for phyto-amelioration of salinity-impacted lands.
Article
We explored how two pea varieties, Sarsabz (V1) and Meteor (V2), showed resistance to salt stress by modulating their mechanism under thiamine application. The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of three levels of foliarly applied thiamine (0, 250, and 500 ppm) on biochemical and morpho-physiological parameters of pea varieties under salt stress (150 mM). Both morpho-physiological and biochemical responses were examined such as growth attributes, chlorophyll contents, total sugars, total proteins, proline content, phenolic content, and antioxidant activities. One hundred fifty millimolar of salinity caused significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic pigments in both pea varieties. The highly significant effect was noted after application of 500 ppm of thiamine in V1 on shoot and root weights, lengths, and photosynthetic pigments as compared to the control. The V2 accumulated the highest Na+, Cl−, and Ca2+ under stressed conditions compared to V1; its homeostasis appeared to be more affected. The results indicated that 500 ppm alleviated the detrimental effects of salinity in both pea varieties by supporting different components of the defense mechanism. Both varieties differed significantly for total soluble sugars, proline, and phenolics. Our results showed that the mitigating effects of 500 ppm of thiamine against salinity proved to be more promising in comparison with other levels. The exogenous supply of thiamine not only protected growth and development but also supported biochemical attributes in terms of detoxification responses for fighting against the stressed conditions.
Article
Agrobacterium species are one of the most frequently isolated endophytes from root nodules of a wide range of wild and cultivated legumes. Many studies have investigated the role of endophytes in phytoprotection and phytoremediation enhancement. However, their biological significance and their implication in nodule functioning have been scarcely studied, especially, the effect of the inoculation time on nodule activity and plant growth which still unknown. Accordingly, in this study, nodule-endophytic Agrobacterium sp.10C2 was inoculated before and after nodule formation, to determine the effect of the inoculation time on the plant growth and nodule functioning in the reference line Jemalong A17 of the model legume Medicago truncatula in symbiotic association with Sinorhizobium meliloti TII7. The results revealed that nodule functioning was strongly influenced by the inoculation time of the endophytic Agrobacterium sp.10C2. In fact, the early inoculation with Agrobacterium sp.10C2 induced an increase of the highest nodules nitrogenase activity, recorded at the day 66 after the inoculation, by 66%, the leghemoglobin concentration by 26% and the total sugar content by 67%, in addition to a higher photosynthesis activity and biomass plant production compared to the control. Interestingly, when inoculation occurred after nodule formation, nodules have induced a defense response against Agrobacterium sp. 10C2 evidenced by an overproduction of Guaicol peroxidase which increased from 1,04 μmol H2O2 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ proteins in the control to 2,36 μmol H2O2 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ proteins in the late inoculated plants, leading to a loss of the beneficial impact of the endophytic Agrobacterium on both biomass production and nodule functioning parameters. The finding of this study showed for the first time that nodule responses to endophytic agrobacteria change according to the time of inoculation. When inoculated at early stage, 10C2 plays the role of a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), however, after nodule formation, 10C2 could act as a pathogen agent. Thus, the inoculation time could be considered as a crucial parameter for the nodule functioning and plant growth.
Article
A variety of pesticides are often used in agricultural management to control target pests but may trigger disruptions in the metabolism of nontarget organisms, ultimately affecting crop quality. Acetamiprid (ACE) and cyromazine (CYR) are two frequently used insecticides on cowpea, so it is critical to understand whether these two insecticides cause metabolic disorders in cowpea quality changes and the mechanism by which they do so. Here, we used metabolomic and transcriptomic methods to explore the mechanisms of the effects of ACE, CYR, and their mixture (MIX) on cowpea. In this study, ACE, CYR and MIX had no significant effects on plant biomass or growth status but decreased the contents of starch, soluble protein, and total flavonoids. All treatments reduced the total flavonoid content, but MIX showed the largest reduction of 10.02%. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that ACE markedly affected amino acid metabolism, and CYR and MIX affected sugar metabolism and flavonoid synthesis pathways. ACE and CYR reduced the levels of alanine, glutamic acid, isoleucine and phenylalanine and the expression of amino acid-related genes in cowpea, while MIX significantly increased the levels of most amino acids. All pesticide treatments reduced saccharide levels and related genes, with the most pronounced reduction in the MIX treatment. Exposure to ACE decreased the content of naringenin chalcone and quercetin and increased the content of anthocyanins in cowpeas, while MIX caused a significant decrease in the contents of quercetin and anthocyanins. According to the current study, single and mixed pesticides had different effects on the active ingredients of cowpea, with MIX causing the most significant decrease in the metabolite content of cowpea. These results provide important insights from a molecular perspective on how neonicotinoids and triazine insecticides affect cowpea metabolism.
Article
IN the course of investigations on, methods for the determination of sugars in the study of the trashy leaf phenomenon in Australian flue-cured tobacco1, it was soon apparent that the anthrone reagent of Dreywood2 was well suited to the routine estimation of hexose and polyhexose sugars in plant materials. It was found, however, that the quantitative estimation of sugars with anthrone requires rigid control of variables such as the rate of evolution of heat of hydration of sulphuric acid in the development of the green-coloured sugar-anthrone complexes.
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