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    • "But for the hair, in order to increase the effectiveness of ECT it would be better to locate the electrodes not in the typical frontotemporal areas, but further back and higher – closer to the motor cortex area. It would be good for this kind of stimulation to choose the points determined by Lancaster et al. (1958) or Krzyżowski (1991) – mostly applied bilaterally. Due to the shorter distance to the motor cortex area and the low sensitivity threshold of this area of cortex, it can be expected that the current flow parameters and therefore the electric load for the entire brain/head necessary to evoke seizure activity would be the lowest as compared to other electrode locations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1999, attempts have been made in the application of a new technique called magnetic seizure therapy (MST) or magnetic convulsion therapy (MCT) in the treatment of depressive disorder--as an alternative to electroconvulsive treatment. The technique of rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to evoke intentional and repeated magnetoconvulsive seizures, though it requires the use of stimulation parameters practically inaccessible in commercially available rTMS magnetic stimulators. Magnetic convulsion therapy has been tested on monkeys as well as humans. A decisive majority of studies carried out both on animals and humans addressed the issue of safety of the MST method and confirmed that the side-effects (mostly of a cognitive nature) which occurred after magnetic seizures were weaker than those observed after electroconvulsive seizures. An analysis of available sources, however, does not confirm any proven antidepressant action of the MST technique. No experimental investigations have been carried out on animal models of depression. Clinical effectiveness had been confirmed in merely a few (perhaps three) patients with depression. The authors submit the results of the hitherto conducted studies on MST to critical analysis, particularly in the aspect of their antidepressant efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Neuro endocrinology letters
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    • "Several unilateral electrode placements have been described, viz., temporoparietal (Lancaster et al., 1958 and d'Elia, 1970), temporo-frontal (Muller, 1971), tcmporo-occipital (Impastato and Karliner, 1966; McAndrew ct al., 1967 and Halliday et al., 1968 "

    Full-text · Article · Apr 1989 · Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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    Preview · Article · Dec 1959 · Canadian Medical Association journal
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