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didaktika biologie

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Dagmar Rihova
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Petr Novotný
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The science field trips in educational practice publication intends to examine various aspects of the topic of field trips at schools and to interconnect all these approaches. The book is a result of collaboration of respected experts in various fields of science as well as educational theorists attempting to find common language in order to produce a piece of work, which would be based on both tested knowledge as well as new findings in individual fields constituting the subjects of natural history and biology and which would, at the same time, be divided into pedagogical and didactic categories and would make use of pedagogical and didactic terminology. To the team of authors, the target readers were predominantly teachers and other professionals working with children and young people and striving to teach them about the world of both abiotic as well as biotic components; however, not only in a classroom but, above all, directly in the nature. It is therefore intend for both trainee teachers as well as new graduates, experienced teachers as well as educational programme lecturers of various natural history institutions. The book presents a basic overview of the topic, the aim of which is to direct the reader to further study and to inform him about specialised literary sources. The publication is divided into a general and a specific part. The general part defines the field trip as a pedagogical and didactic category, it focuses on regulation of field trips as governed by legislation and safety of pupils and on the new trend in teaching directly in the nature: the utilisation of the ICT. The specific part is subdivided into chapters according to the prevailing systematic approach to teaching of natural science and biology in the Czech Republic. It concerns an approach, in which the biology syllabus content is based on a systematic classification of organisms. Apart from this approach, the Czech schools also rely on the ecological and integrated approach. The individual chapters are therefore always devoted to field trips/group excursions in a particular field of biology (botany, invertebrate zoology, vertebrate zoology) and geology. By contrast, the concluding chapter entitled Foreign field trips presents a comprehensive view, connects constituent biological and geological fields and, additionally, gives the Czech teacher an opportunity to consider a field trip abroad. Remaining text is a content overview of individual chapters. The first chapter presents the field trip as one of the teaching forms, describes the possible approaches to the concept definition itself and to classification of field trips according to various criteria. It describes the phases of a field trip preparation from the viewpoint of a teacher (preparation of the teacher, preparation of the children, teaching aids, teaching methods, teaching aim establishment, school activities to follow-up on the field trip, evaluation of the field trip, most frequently occurring mistakes of the teacher during his or her leadership of the field trip. The second chapter is concerned with legislative regulation of field trips from the viewpoint of the school operation and safety of the pupils. To be found here are the basic acts of the Czech Republic as well as recommended methods for a suitable type of supervision during a field trip. Also included is the issue of phobias or fear of products of nature and the theme of products of nature, which may potentially endanger to the health of the pupil. The third chapter describes the possible ways of utilising the ICT during field trips for the purposes of measuring and detection, recording and reproduction, navigation, safety and organisation, or as an information source. The chapters four to seven are focused on specific possibilities of work directly in the nature during the teaching of botany, invertebrate zoology, vertebrate zoology and geology. It includes suggestions of simple tasks but also of more complex research projects for pupils. The final, eighth chapter, concludes the book with examples of foreign field trips, which will be greatly beneficial for the teaching syllabus as they would introduce ecosystems, which are impossible to find in the Czech Republic.
Opakovaně se objevují apely, že škola má žáky vést mimo jiné ke kritickému myšlení, práci s literárními zdroji, badatelsky orientované výuce a plánování experimentů. Těmi, kdo má tyto přístupy a metody zprostředkovávat, jsou učitelé. Je proto důležité, aby budoucí učitelé rozeznávali důvěryhodné zdroje literatury, kriticky vyhodnocovali informace a v neposlední řadě měli správnou představu o tom, jak probíhá pedagogický a didaktický výzkum. I když není nutné ani možné, aby učitelé z praxe prováděli didaktický výzkum, je vhodné, aby znali metody a trendy, které jim pomohou aktualizovat a zefektivnit výuku. Myslíme si, že jednou z možných cest jak získat představu o úspěchu přípravy učitelů v naznačených doménách, je analýza absolventských prací studentů učitelství. Provedli jsme proto kvalitativní analýzu všech prací obhájených na našich domovských katedrách za poslední tři roky (n = 199) doplněnou o porovnání zastoupení metod a přístupů mezi absolventy dvou kateder, které se věnují přípravě budoucích učitelů biologie na Univerzitě Karlově. Didaktický výzkum obsahovalo 60 prací, absolventi k získání dat nejčastěji volili dotazník, který ale často nebyl pilotně ověřen. V řadě prací chyběly údaje o výběru respondentů. Absolventi obou kateder se lišili pouze v míře použití statistických testů. Zjištění jsou dále diskutována.
Background: Genetic testing rapidly penetrates into all medical specialties and medical students must acquire skills in this area. However, many of them consider it difficult. Furthermore, many find these topics less appealing and not connected to their future specialization in different fields of clinical medicine. Student-centred strategies such as problem-based learning, gamification and the use of real data can increase the appeal of a difficult topic such as genetic testing, a field at the crossroads of genetics, molecular biology and bioinformatics. Methods: We designed an electronic teaching application which students registered in the undergraduate Medical Biology course can access online. A study was carried out to assess the influence of implementation of the new method. We performed pretest/posttest evaluation and analyzed the results using the sign test with median values. We also collected students' personal comments. Results: The newly developed interactive application simulates the process of molecular genetic diagnostics of a hereditary disorder in a family. Thirteen tasks guide students through clinical and laboratory steps needed to reach the final diagnosis. Genetics and genomics are fields strongly dependent on electronic databases and computer-based data analysis tools. The tasks employ publicly available internet bioinformatic resources used routinely in medical genetics departments worldwide. Authenticity is assured by the use of modified and de-identified clinical and laboratory data from real families analyzed in our previous research projects. Each task contains links to databases and data processing tools needed to solve the task, and an answer box. If the entered answer is correct, the system allows the user to proceed to the next task. The solving of consecutive tasks arranged into a single narrative resembles a computer game, making the concept appealing. There was a statistically significant improvement of knowledge and skills after the practical class, and most comments on the application were positive. A demo version is available at https://medbio.lf2.cuni.cz/demo_m/ . Full version is available on request from the authors. Conclusions: Our concept proved to be appealing to the students and effective in teaching medical molecular genetics. It can be modified for training in the use of electronic information resources in other medical specialties.