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antimicrobial treatment optimization

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Andrea Novelli
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We describe caspofungin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the first and fourth doses in 20 critically ill septic patients. Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the probability of target attainment (PTA) (AUC/MIC > 865) for Candida spp. Caspofungin concentrations were analyzed by HPLC in plasma and urine. A great variability in PK parameters was observed after both doses. Patients were divided in two groups according to their AUC values (AUC ≤ 75 mg h/L cut-off). In the low-AUC group Cmax, Cmin and AUC were lower, while Vd and Cl were higher than in the high-AUC group (p < 0.05, both at day 1 and 4). The mean 24-h urinary recovery of the drug was 8 ± 6.3% (day1) and 9.8 ± 6.3 (day4). Monte Carlo simulation analysis (0.03–1 mg/L MIC-range) showed that PTA was guaranteed only for MICs ≤ 0.03 mg/L in the low-AUC group, and for MICs ≤ 0.06 mg/L in the high-AUC group. No group had a PTA ≥ 90% for 0.125 mg/L MIC (the epidemiological cut-off). Mortality was higher in low-AUC group (p < 0.01). In our ‘real-world’ population, no clinical data can predict which patient will have lower, suboptimal caspofungin exposure, therefore we suggest TDM to optimize caspofungin therapy and reduce the risk of selecting resistances (CEAVC, 32366/2015; OSS.15.114, NCT03798600).
Andrea Novelli
added a research item
Objective This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. Methods Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The NMA was performed using both a fixed-effect and random-effect model. Efficacy-related endpoints were (1) clinical treatment success and (2) microbiological success at TOC visit. Safety-related endpoints were (1) number of discontinuations due to AEs/SAEs, (2) patients experiencing AEs, (3) patients experiencing SAEs and (4) all-cause mortality. Results Study interventions included daptomycin, dalbavancin, linezolid and tigecycline. Vancomycin was the comparator in all studies, except in two where it was linezolid and teicoplanin. The NMA showed that irrespective of patient subgroup, the likelihood of clinical and microbiological success with dalbavancin was statistically similar to the comparators studied. No statistically significant differences were observed between dalbavancin and any of the comparators in the discontinuation rate due to AEs/SAEs. In contrast, dalbavancin was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing an AE than linezolid, a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing a SAE than vancomycin and daptomycin, and a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality than vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Conclusion Dalbavancin affords a promising, new alternative IV antimicrobial agent which is as effective as traditional therapies, but with the added benefit of enabling clinicians to treat patients with ABSSSI in different organisational settings. Notwithstanding, any introduction of an effective treatment with a differential mode of administration into healthcare systems must be followed by a change in clinical practice and patient management in order to fully achieve desirable economic outcomes.
Andrea Novelli
added 2 research items
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Empiric therapy often base the choice of antibiotic treatment on antibacterial spectrum of the agent rather than on its pharmacological properties or the pathogen resistance profile. Inappropriate prescribing leads to therapeutic failure and antibiotic resistance, with increasing direct and indirect health costs. A consensus on appropriate prescribing in LRTI therapy was appraised by this Delphi exercise, based on a panel of 70 pulmonologists, coordinated by a Scientific Committee of nine experts in respiratory medical care. Full or very high consensus was reached on several issues, including the role of oral cephalosporins in first-line treatments of LRTIs and the appropriateness of cefditoren, with balanced spectrum and high intrinsic activity, in LRTI treatment. Evidence-based medicine approach and a comprehensive process of disease management, from diagnosis to therapy and follow-up, should guide antibiotic prescribing.
Purpose: With the aim to reduce waste in the health care system and avoid risks associated with unnecessary treatment, the Italian Panel of the National Guidelines for the Management of Acute Pharyngitis in Children joined the Choosing Wisely initiative. Methods: An ad hoc Choosing Wisely task force was selected to develop a candidate list of items for the top-5 list on pharyngitis medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of 5 items was chosen. Drafted recommendations were formulated and then reviewed by the task force members until a final consensus was reached. Findings: The 5 recommendations approved are: blood exams should not be performed; antibiotics should not be administrated unless microbiologic confirmation of streptococcal infection has been carried out; if a throat culture is performed, susceptibility tests on isolates should not be executed; antibiotic course should not be shortened; because penicillin V is not available in Italy, amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/d in 2-3 doses orally) for 10 days is the first choice treatment; and steroids should not be administered for the risk of masking possible underlying severe condition. Implications: This top-5 list can be a novel tool to spread the key messages of guidelines and to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures, and to promote a rational use of antibiotics in children.