Introduction: Given the increasing prevalence of mental health problems in the general population, it is indispensable to use assessment tools aimed to assess the outcome of therapeutic interventions in order to refine the process of psychological rehabilitation. Method: We describe the process of adaptation into Spanish and a first psychometric study of the Young Person's- Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (YP-CORE), an instrument designed to measure the outcome in terms of general distress of therapeutic interventions in young people (11-16 years). 104 adolescents participated in the clinical and 131 in the non-clinical samples. Results: Analyses showed good levels of acceptability, adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest stability, with moderately high correlations between administrations. In addition, the instrument yielded significant correlations with all dimensions of the Youth Self Report, the highest being between both total scores. Crucially, discriminated between clinical and non-clinical samples and showed a small effect of age but a larger effect of gender, with higher scores for females. The Principal Component Analysis replicates the original structure. Cut-off scores to calculate the reliable and clinically significant change are provided. Conclusions: These results support initial use of the instrument though there are certain limitations that indicate the need for more research with larger and more representative samples, in which the psychometric properties of the instrument should be verified.
Background: Life events are recognised to link low socio-economic status (SES) with impaired mental health. Despite attention to patients’ historical environmental circumstances in psychotherapeutic practice, events that occur over the course of counselling and psychotherapy (‘intercurrent’ events) seem to have received little attention in research. Method: Life events were defined to include those that are chronic and severe, as well as minor, everyday occurrences. Outcomes were restricted to internalising problems related to depression and anxiety in child, or adolescent participants. Bibliographic databases and citations and review reference lists were searched, and relevant scholars were contacted. The conceptual and methodological nature of the literature is reported. Results: This review included 42 studies. Intercurrent events varied in severity and duration. Events were most frequently measured using questionnaires. The same questionnaire was rarely used in more than one study, and questionnaires were often adapted for use for the study's purpose/population. Events included in analyses tended to be analysed as a mediator of change in psychiatric symptomatology, or an outcome of therapy. Conclusions: Attention to intercurrent life events appears rare in psychotherapy research. This contributes to a systematic neglect of socio-economic issues in psychotherapy research and arguably psychotherapy more generally. This neglect is exacerbated by a lack of agreed measures of life events, both intensive and routine in nature. Recommendations are made to improve attention to such events.