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Wireless Sensor Networks

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In recent times, different routing protocols have been proposed in the Internet of Things enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) to explore the underwater environment for different purposes, i.e., scientific and military purposes. However, high Energy Consumption (EC), End to End (E2E) delay, low Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and minimum network lifetime make the energy efficient communication a challenging task in Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN). The high E2E delay, EC and reliable data delivery are the critical issues, which play an important role to enhance the network throughput. So, this paper presents two energy efficient routing protocols namely: Shortest PathCollision avoidance Based Energy Efficient Routing (SP-CBE2R) protocol and Improved-Collision avoidance Based Energy Efficient Routing (Im-CBE2R) protocol. At this end, both routing protocols minimize the probability of void hole occurrence and in return minimizes the EC and E2E delay. In both routing protocols, courier nodes are positioned at different strategic locations to keep the greedy forwarding continuous. The proposed routing protocols are also analyzed by varying the Packet Size (PS) and Data Rate (DR). Additionally, various simulations have been performed to authenticate the proposed routing protocols. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocols outperform the baseline routing protocols in counterparts.
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Reduced energy consumption in sensor nodes is one of the major challenge in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's) deployments. In this regard, Error Control Coding (ECC) is one of techniques used for energy optimization in WSN's. Similarly, Critical distance is another term being used for energy efficiency, when used with ECC provides better results of energy saving. In my thesis, I have used three different critical distance values against different coding gains for sake of energy saving. If distance lies below critical distance values then particular encoders are selected with respect to their particular coding gains. Coding gains are used for critical distances estimation of all encoders. This adaptive encoder and transmit power selection scheme with respect to their coding gain results in a significant energy saving in WSN's environment. Simulations provide better results of energy saving achieved by using this adaptive scheme. In my work, i have also presented an energy efficient routing algorithm for heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). A prototype is defined for employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) and on-demand data while Multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery in this proposed routing algorithm. One of the prime challenges in WBASNs, is sensing of heat generated by implanted sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm is thermal-aware which senses the link Hot-spot and routes the data away from these links. Continuous mobility of human body causes disconnection between previous established links. So, mobility support and energy-management is introduced to overcome the problem. Linear Programming (LP) model for maximum information extraction and minimum energy consumption is defined in this study. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm are performed for lifetime and reliability in comparison with Multi-hop communication. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm has less energy consumption and more reliable as compared to Multi-hop communication.
Stability and lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) mainly depend on energy of each node in the network. Hence, it is necessary for WSNs to be energy efferent. There are different methods to preserve energy in WSNs and clustering is one of those methods. It is a technique to divide whole network into small blocks, each having a managing node, called cluster head (CH) and rest act as members. CH is responsible to provide communication bridge between members and the base station. In this paper, we propose a distributed clustering scheme that uses multiple criteria i.e. residual energy, node density, distance to the Base Station (BS) and average distance between a node and its neighbors, to select a CH. Modified VIKOR method is used to outrank the potential nodes as CHs. The realistic multi-hoping communication model is used, instead of single hop as in previous schemes. Simulation results show that our purposed technique performs much better than those previous methods in terms of energy efficiency and network life time. Our proposed scheme has less CH deformation and control overhead.
In current era of technology, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rising in various fields. The deployment of WSNs for real life applications is greater than before. Still, the energy constraints remain one of the key issues; it prevents the complete utilization of WSN technology. Sensors typically powered with battery, which have insufficient life span. Even though renewable energy sources like solar energy or piezoelectric means are used as supplementary energy in WSNs, it is still some degree of reserve to consume energy judiciously. Proficient energy routing is thus a key requirement for a trustworthy design of a wireless sensor network. In this article, we advise a new Gateway Based Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (M-GEAR) for WSNs. We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions based on their distance from the gateway node and Base Station (BS). We install BS faraway from sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication to transmit its sensed data. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We then divide these two regions into clusters and each region elects its own Cluster Heads (CHs) independent of other region. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. We also propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). We use multi hop topology to minimize energy consumption and maximizing network lifetime. We use a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node, which has high residual energy and less distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes and distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results shows that proposed protocol enhance the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
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The requirement of high data rates, low latency, efficient use of spectrum and coexistence of different network technologies are major considerations in Internet of Things (IoT) based Fifth Generation (5G) networks. To achieve the above requirements, the incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is required to make efficient decisions based on the massive data generated by the large number of IoT devices. AI methods analyse the data to extract the patterns and make sense of the data to prescribe action to the end devices. In this work, we first give an overview, discussing the challenges and relevant solutions of the 5G and IoT technologies including the IoT based 5G enabling technologies. Second, we discuss the need for AI in future IoT based 5G networks in the perspective of Kipling's method. In addition, we review the intelligent use of spectrum through full duplex and cognitive radio technologies.
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In this letter, we discuss multiple links with equal weights, in buffer size based relay selection schemes in cooperative wireless networks. A general relay selection factor is defined, which includes the weight of the link as the first metric and the link quality, or priority, as the second metric for different cases of the same weight. The Markov chain based theoretical framework is employed to evaluate the outage probability, delay and throughput of the system. The proposed scheme is evaluated for symmetric and asymmetric channel conditions. The link quality based second selection metric achieves lower outage probability, while the link priority based selection shows significant improvements in terms of delay and throughput. Theoretical results are validated through extensive Monte carlo simulations.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), particularly Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) and Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are important building blocks of upcoming generation networks. Sensor networks consist of less expensive nodes having the features of wireless connectivity, very less transmission power, limited battery capacity and resource constraints. Due to low cost and small size, sensor nodes allow very big networks to be installed at a viable price and develop a link between information systems and the real globe. Cooperative routing exploits the transmission behavior of wireless medium and communicates cooperatively by means of neighboring nodes acting as relays. Prospective relays as well as the destination nodes are chosen from a set of near-by sensors that use distance and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the link conditions as cost functions – this contributes to significant reduction in path-loss and enhanced reliability. In this dissertation, we propose three schemes Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (LAEEBA), Incremental relay-based Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static wireless BANs (InCo-CEStat) and Cooperative Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (Co-LAEEBA). These protocols are efficient in terms of link-losses, reliability and throughput. Consideration of residual energy balances load among sensors, and separation and SNR considerations entrust reliable data delivery. As a promising technique to mitigate the effect of fading, cooperative routing is introduced in the functionality of LAEEBA and Co-LAEEBA protocols. Similarly, incremental relaying in InCo-CEStat account for reliability. Simulation results show that our newly proposed schemes maximize the network stability period and network life-time in comparison to other existing schemes for WBANs. In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks, demand of time-critical applications leads to the requirement of delay-sensitive protocols. In this regard, this disserta- tion presents five routing protocols for UWSNs; Cooperative routing protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-UWSN), Cooperative Energy-Efficient model for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-EEUWSN), Analytical ap- proach towards Reliability with Cooperation for Underwater sensor Networks (AR- CUN), Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for Efficient UWSNs (RACE) and Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and COoperation for UWSNs (SPARCO). In these protocols, physical layer’s cooperative routing is explored for the design of network layer routing schemes that prove to be energy-efficient as well as path-loss aware. The concentration is focused on Amplify-and-Forward (AF) scheme at the relay nodes and Fixed Ratio Combining (FRC) technique at the destination nodes. Nodes cooperatively forward their transmissions taking benefit of spatial diversity to reduce energy consumption. Simulations are conducted to validate the performance of our proposed schemes in comparison to the selected existing ones. Results demonstrate the validity of our propositions in terms of selected performance metrics.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) extend human capability to monitor and con- trol the physical world, especially, in catastrophic/emergency situations where hu- man engagement is too dangerous. There is a diverse range of WSN applications in terrestrial, underwater and health care domains. In this regard, the wireless sensors have significantly evolved over the last few decades in terms of circuitry miniaturization. However, small sized wireless sensors face the problem of limited battery/power capacity. Thus, energy efficient strategies are needed to prolong the lifetime of these networks. This dissertation, limited in scope to routing only, aims at energy efficient solutions to prolong the lifetime of terrestrial sensor networks (i.e., WSNs) and Underwater WSNs (UWSNs). In WSNs, we identify that uneven cluster size, random number of selected Clus- ter Heads (CHs), communication distance, and number of transmissions/recep- tions are mainly involved in energy consumption which lead to shortened net- work lifetime. As a solution, we present two proactive routing protocols for cir- cular WSNs; Angular Multi-hop Distance based Clustering Network Transmission (AM-DisCNT) and improved AM-DisCNT (iAM-DisCNT). These two protocols are supported by linear programming models for information flow maximization and packet drop minimization. For reactive applications, we present four routing protocols; Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive (HEER), Multi-hop Hybrid Energy Ef- ficient Reactive (MHEER), HEER with Sink Mobility (HEER-SM) and MHEER with Sink Mobility (MHEER-SM). The multi hop characteristic of the reactive protocols make them scalable. We also exploit node heterogeneity by presenting four routing protocols (i.e., Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous (BEENISH), Mobile BEENISH (MBEENISH), improved BEEN- ISH (iBEENISH) and improved Mobile BEENISH (iMBEENISH)) to prolong the network lifetime. Since the problems of delay tolerance and mobile sink trajecto- ries need investigation, this dissertation factors in four propositions that explore defined and random mobile sink trajectories. On the other hand, designing an energy efficient routing protocol for UWSNs demands more accuracy and extra computations due to harsh underwater environment. Subject to nodes’ energy consumption minimization, we present Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and Courier Nodes (CNs) based routing protocol for UWSNs. We validate our propositions for both WSNs and UWSNs via simulations. Results show that the proposed protocols where we incorporated sink mobility perform better than the existing ones in terms of selected performance metrics.
In this work, we present two routing protocols for circular underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); circular sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (CSEEC) and circular depth-based sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (CDSEEC) with sink mobility. In CSEEC, we divide circular network area into 5 concentric circular regions. We deployed sensor nodes randomly and placed a static sink at the top of the circular underwater network region. We further sub-divided the 5 concentric circles into 10 regions. Then, we identified sparse and dense regions based on the number of nodes in each region. We used cluster based routing approach in dense network regions and introduced sink mobility in least node density region to achieve balanced energy consumption in the network. In CDSEEC, circular network area is divided into upper and lower semi-circles. Sensor nodes are random uniformly deployed in upper and lower semi-circles and a static sink is placed at the surface of the network region. In upper semi-circle, each sensor node send its sensed data to surface sink using depth information of sensor nodes to achieve energy efficiency by selecting forwarder node with minimum depth. In lower semi-circle, we implement cluster based routing approach in high node density regions and used sink mobility in least density network regions to achieve balanced energy consumption. In UWSNs, uneven distribution of sensor nodes and dynamic network topology creates void holes and high collision probability due to channel interference in dense networks. For avoiding void holes and reducing collision probability, we proposed a virtual chain based routing (VCBR) protocol for UWSNs. In VCBR, we build virtual chains between sensor nodes and sinks to avoid void holes. VCBR also minimizes collision probability which is due to channel interference in the network. The proposed VCBR protocol, introduces a mechanism to forward data packet through best suitable virtual chain to manage the energy resources of sensor nodes efficiently during data communication. The shortest virtual chain between source node and destination is calculated based on the location information of sensor nodes. Furthermore, we also exploit cooperative diversity by presenting two routing protocols (i.e., fixed adaptive cooperative virtual chain based routing (FACVCBR) and incremental adaptive cooperative virtual chain based routing (IACVCBR) to achieve data reliability and prolong network lifetime. In FACVCBR, source node broadcasts data to destination and two relays to achieve diversity which results in data reliability. In IACVCBR, retransmission of data packet is done incrementally to improve data reliability and successful delivery of data packets. In proposed FACVCBR and IACVCBR protocols, we introduce adaptive power control mechanism to utilize energy of sensor nodes in an efficient manner. We validate our propositions via simulations. The results verify that our proposed routing protocols outperform baseline protocols in terms of selected performance parameters.
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Revolutionary development in integrated circuit miniaturisation facilitates the in-volvement of electronic sensors in every aspect of our life. This involvement results in a wide range of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications in terrestrial, underwater and health care. However, small size poses power limitation on these sensors. In order to conserve their energy, energy efficient strategies are needed at all layers of network model. However, this dissertation focuses on energy hole analysis and proposition of energy efficient solutions in WSNs (terrestrial, underwater, and body area) at the network layer only. In terrestrial WSNs, we identify that uneven number of Cluster Heads (CHs) selection is the major cause of uneven cluster size. This uneven cluster size leads to imbalanced energy consumption of sensors (nodes) in the network, which ultimately leads to creation of energy hole. In order to cope with this issue, we propose two energy efficient routing techniques; Density Controlled Divide-and- Rule (DDR) and Divide-and-Rule (DR). These techniques logically divide the network area into static clusters (regions) and nodes are randomly distributed in these regions. The two techniques differ in terms of regions’ formation and nodes’ association with CH(s). In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), limited number of nodes are placed on the human body, and typically, three communication modes are used; direct, intermediate node based, and cluster based. In this regard, our contribution factors in a detailed energy consumption analysis. Analytical and experimental analysis reveals important results regarding energy consumption of these techniques. In UWSNs, we propose two techniques; Delay Intolerant Energy Efficient Routing (DIEER) with sink mobility and Spherical Hole Repair Technique (SHORT). In DIEER, we analyze energy consumption of nodes in Depth Based Routing (DBR) techniques and devise an optimised way of forwarder node selection. On the other hand, SHORT’s energy hole analysis reveals that knowl- edge acquisition phase of DBR, and static transmission power level are the major contributors in nodes’ energy consumption. We devise a solution to repair the coverage holes which are created due to regular death of nodes. The simulation results show that our newly proposed techniques perform better than the selected existing ones in terms of the selected performance metrics.