added a research item
What type of movement or sequence of movements causes optimum brain states for learning, healing and regeneration
This critical review considers the epistemological and historical background of the theoretical construct of motor learning for a more differentiated understanding. More than simply reflecting critically on the models that are used to solve problems-whether they are applied in therapy , physical education, or training practice-this review seeks to respond constructively to the recent discussion caused by the replication crisis in life sciences. To this end, an in-depth review of contemporary motor learning approaches is provided, with a pragmatism-oriented clarification of the researcher's intentions on fundamentals (what?), subjects (for whom?), time intervals (when?), and purpose (for what?). The complexity in which the processes of movement acquisition, learning, and refinement take place removes their predictable and linear character and therefore, from an applied point of view, invites a great deal of caution when trying to make generalization claims. Particularly when we attempt to understand and study these phenomena in unpredictable and dynamic contexts, it is recommended that scientists and practitioners seek to better understand the central role that the individual and their situatedness plays in the system. In this way, we will be closer to making a meaningful and authentic contribution to the advancement of knowledge, and not merely for the sake of renaming inventions.
Background: Mind-body exercises (MBE) are sequences of low to medium-intensity activities that benefit healthy performers physically and mentally. In contrast to the unmodified application of traditional tai chi, qi gong, or yoga in the healthy population, MBEs are typically tailored for individuals with substance abuse disorder (SUD). Despite numerous applications in practice, the detailed effects of tailor-made MBEs for SUD are unclear. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze and compare changes in the physical fitness and quality of life of individuals with SUD that underwent conventional or tailor-made MBEs. Methods: A total of 100 subjects obtained from the Shanghai Mandatory Detoxification and Rehabilitation Center with SUD were randomly assigned into two groups. The subjects in the experimental group ( n = 50) practiced tailored MBE for 60 min a day, five times a week, for 3 months. The subjects ( n = 50) in the control group were treated with conventional rehabilitation exercises with the same intervention protocol. The outcomes of fitness and quality of life for drug addiction were measured at the beginning and after 3 and 6 months by a questionnaire (QOL-DA). A two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was applied to compare the difference of treatments in the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences for the experimental group were found in systolic ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.124) and diastolic blood pressure ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.097), pulse ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.086), vital capacity ( p < 0.05, η ² = 0.036), flexibility ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.143), and aerobic endurance ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.165). Results of the QOL-DA showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in total score ( p < 0.01, η ² = 0.158) with greater effects on the former. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that tailored MBE could lead to remarkable effects with regard to blood pressure, vital capacity, flexibility, and aerobic endurance in comparison with conventional rehabilitation methods. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR-IPR-14005343.
Besides the pure pleasure of watching a dance performance, dance as a whole-body movement is becoming increasingly popular for health-related interventions. However, the science-based evidence for improvements in health or well-being through dance is still ambiguous and little is known about the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. This may be partly related to the fact that previous studies mostly examined the neurophysiological effects of imagination and observation of dance rather than the physical execution itself. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate acute effects of a physically executed dance with its different components (recalling the choreography and physical activity to music) on the electrical brain activity and its functional connectivity using electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis. Eleven dance-inexperienced female participants first learned a Modern Jazz Dance (MJD) choreography over three weeks (1 h sessions per week). Afterwards, the acute effects on the EEG brain activity were compared between four different test conditions: physically executing the MJD choreography with music, physically executing the choreography without music, imaging the choreography with music, and imaging the choreography without music. Every participant passed each test condition in a randomized order within a single day. EEG rest-measurements were conducted before and after each test condition. Considering time effects the physically executed dance without music revealed in brain activity analysis most increases in alpha frequency and in functional connectivity analysis in all frequency bands. In comparison, physically executed dance with music as well as imagined dance with music led to fewer increases and imagined dance without music provoked noteworthy brain activity and connectivity decreases at all frequency bands. Differences between the test conditions were found in alpha and beta frequency between the physically executed dance and the imagined dance without music as well as between the physically executed dance with and without music in the alpha frequency. The study highlights different effects of a physically executed dance compared to an imagined dance on many brain areas for all measured frequency bands. These findings provide first insights into the still widely unexplored field of neurological effects of dance and encourages further research in this direction.
Quite a few competitive athletes listen to music directly before the competition or during training. Even though this is well established in practice, the effects have so far been considered rather suggestive. In the past, the effects of music on physiological processes have been controversially discussed (Te-nenbaum et al., 2004). In addition to the positive influence of listening to music on cycling performance (Becker et al., 1994), similar effects have also been observed, for example, in the case of athletic sounds (Matesic & Cromartie, 2002). However, depending on the study design and the selection of music and test persons, the investigations led to different results regarding the physiological parameters recorded. Brownley, McMurray, and Hackney (1995) ascribe advantages to listening to music while running rather to untrained runners. Szmedra and Bacharach (1998) found significant differences in lactate levels, systolic blood pressure and heart rate in their subjects when running with and without music, while Yamamoto et al (2003) did not confirm these results, but observed a decrease in norepinephrine concentration at the hormonal level with slow music and an increase in epinephrine concentration in the blood plasma with fast music. These, however, had no effect on the athletic cycling performance tested. Crust (2004) showed that subjects were able to perform an isometric strength endurance task significantly longer when listening to self-selected music before and during the test. Subjects who only listened to music before the test or no music at all scored worse. Nicht wenige Leistungssportler hören Musik unmittelbar vor dem Wettkampf oder auch beim Training. Auch wenn dies in der Praxis durchaus etabliert ist, so werden die Wirkungen bislang eher als suggestiv betrachtet. In der Vergangenheit wurden die Auswirkungen von Musik auf physiologische Prozesse kontrovers diskutiert (Te-nenbaum et al., 2004). Neben der positiven Beeinflussbarkeit der Radfahrleistung durch das Horen von Musik (Becker et al., 1994) konnten ähnliche Effekte z. B. auch beim leichtathletischen Laut beobachtet werden (Matesic & Cromartie, 2002). In Abhangigkeit des Studiendesigns und der Musik- und Probandenauswahl fuhren die Untersuchungen jedoch zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen bzgl. der erhobenen physiologischen Parameter. Brownley, McMurray und Hackney (1995) schreiben dem Horen von Musik beim Laufen eher Vorteile fur untrainierte Laufer zu. Szmedra und Bacharach (1998) fanden signifikante Unterschiede im Laktatspiegel, systolischen Blutdruck und in der Herzfrequenz ihrer Probanden beim Laufen mit und ohne Musik, während Yamamoto et al. (2003) diese Resultate nicht bestatigen konnten, jedoch auf hormoneller Ebene eine Abnahme der Norepinephrinkonzentra-tion bei langsamer Musik und Zunahme der Epinephrinkonzentration im Blutplasma bei schneller Musik beobachteten. Diese blieben jedoch ohne Auswirkungen auf die getestete sportliche Radfahrleistung. Crust (2004) zeigte, dass Probanden eine isometrische Kraftausdaueraufgabe signifikant länger ausführen konnten, wenn sie vor und während des Tests selbst gewahlte Musik hörten. Probanden, die nur vor dem Test oder gar keine Musik hörten, schnitten schlechter ab.
Der folgende Artikel !asst einen der Hauptvortrage der 9. Tagung der dvs-Kommission Leichtathle-lik am 9. und 10. Oktober 2008 i n Mainz zusammen. Die Autoren geben einen kurzen Oberbllck Ober Probleme, die i n der unkritischen Obernahme von vermeintlich bewahrten Trainingsprinzipien und-methoden liegen. I n der Folge werden die Vorteile einer alternativen Betrachtung des Trai-nings und speziell des Bewegungslernens anhand von neurophysiologisch, physikalisch und bio-mechanisch begrOndeten Phanomenen (lndividualitat und Nichtwiederholbarkeit von Bewegungen) erlautert. Ein kurzer, jedoch leicht verstandlicher Einblick i n die dalOr verwendeten Verfahren wird dem Leser i m Rahman eines Exkurses geboten. Ausgehend von diesen Phanomenen wird die Ent-wicklung des Differenziellen Lernens (Schollhorn, 1999) nachvollzogen. Die Moglichkeiten der prak-tischen Umsetzung des Differenziellen Lernens und die Darstellung seiner Etfekte anhand einiger Studien bilden den Abschluss des Beitrags. Besser zu sein als andere ist der Wunsch und das Ziel i n vielen Sportarten und insbesondere i n der Leichtathletik. Besser zu sein verbietet jedoch schon per defini-tionem EbenmaB und geht i n gleichem Atemzug einher mi t der Betonung vom Un-gewohnlichen, vom Anderssein, vom Einzelnen, zusammengefasst vom ,,lndividuel-len". Um besser zu sein als andere und um lelzlendlich ,,der Beste" zu werden, kennt der Einfallsreichtum erfolgreicher Athleten selten Grenzen. Trotz des Vorhabens der Schnellste, Kraftigste oder Ausdauerndste, d. h. einzigar-tig zu werden, verlassen sich viele Athleten und ihre Trainer auf dem Weg dorthin immer noch i n hohem MaBe auf Trainingsprinzipien, die i n der Mehrzahl am Glei-chen orientiert sind, also implizieren, dass verschiedene Personen auf ahnliche Trainingsreize mi t ahnlichen Anpassungen reagieren. Im Kanon der Trainingsprin-zipien beinhaltet allein das Prinzip der lndividualitat i n seiner urspri.inglichen Form (u. a. Matweijew, 1956; Letzelter, 1978) das Ungewohnliche und lndividuelle und steht damit fast i m Widerspruch zu samtlichen Prinzipien, die auf Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Athleten basieren. Wurde dieses Prinzip der lndividualitat bei Matweijew (1956) noch als erstes und wohl wichtigstes Prinzip aufgefi.ihrt, wurde es i m Laufe der Zeit immer welter degradiert und i m Wesentlichen nur noch zur Begrundung fur unerklarbare Ausnahmen, norm-und prinzipienabweichendes Verhalten herange-zogen. Schon die politisch motivierte Modifikation des Prinzips auf eine ,,zuneh-mende lndividualisierung" (Harre, 1979) schrankt die Freiheit und Toleranz des An-dersseins i m The following article summarizes one of the main lectures of the 9th meeting of the dvs-Commission Leichtathle-lik on October 9 and 10, 2008 in Mainz. The authors give a brief overview of problems that lie in the uncritical adoption of supposedly proven training principles and methods. In the following, the advantages of an alternative approach to training and especially movement learning are explained on the basis of neurophysiologically, physically and bio-mechanically based phenomena (individuality and non-repeatability of movements). A short but easily understandable insight into the methods used for this purpose is offered to the reader in the form of an excursus. Based on these phenomena, the development of differential learning (Schöllhorn, 1999) is traced. The possibilities of the practical implementation of differential learning and the presentation of its effects on the basis of several studies conclude the article. Der folgende Artikel fasst einen der Hauptvortrage der 9. Tagung der dvs-Kommission Leichtathle-lik am 9. und 10. Oktober 2008 in Mainz zusammen. Die Autoren geben einen kurzen Überbllck über Probleme, die in der unkritischen Übernahme von vermeintlich bewährten Trainingsprinzipien und -methoden liegen. In der Folge werden die Vorteile einer alternativen Betrachtung des Trainings und speziell des Bewegungslernens anhand von neurophysiologisch, physikalisch und bio-mechanisch begründeten Phänomenen (lndividualität und Nichtwiederholbarkeit von Bewegungen) erläutert. Ein kurzer, jedoch leicht verständlicher Einblick in die dafür verwendeten Verfahren wird dem Leser im Rahmen eines Exkurses geboten. Ausgehend von diesen Phänomenen wird die Entwicklung des Differenziellen Lernens (Schöllhorn, 1999) nachvollzogen. Die Möglichkeiten der praktischen Umsetzung des Differenziellen Lernens und die Darstellung seiner Etfekte anhand einiger Studien bilden den Abschluss des Beitrags.
Non-linearity is considered to be an essential property of complex systems. The associated high sensitivity of the result on the constraints leads to fundamental problems of a system description based on variables selected in the reductionist tradition. The attempt to compensate the problems by averaging data leads to the neglect of the individual and the moment. However, both is of enormous importance for effective therapy, training, and learning. The theory of differential learning suggests an alternative approach to dealing with these problems. With constantly changing complex whole-body movements, extensive decisions are demanded from the learner, which lead to brain states through an overstraining of the working memory, as it were, as they are also known after mindfulness meditation.
Current research demonstrates beneficial effects of physical activity on brain functions and cognitive performance. To date, less is known on the effects of gross motor movements that do not fall into the category of sports-related aerobic or anaerobic exercise. In previous studies, we found beneficial effects of dynamic working environments, i.e., environments that encourage movements during cognitive task performance, on cognitive performance and corresponding brain activity. Aim of the present study was to examine the effects of working in a dynamic and a static office environment on attentional and vigilance performance, and on the corresponding electroencephalographic (EEG) brain oscillatory patterns. In a 2-week intervention study, participants worked either in a dynamic or a static office. In each intervention group, 12 subjects performed attentional and vigilance tasks. Spontaneous EEG was measured from 19 electrodes continuosly before, during, and immediately after each experimental condition at the first, and at the last intervention session. Results showed differences in EEG brain activity in the dynamic compared to the static office at the beginning as well as at the end of the intervention. EEG theta power increased in the vigilance task in anterior regions, alpha power in central and parietal regions in the dynamic compared to the static office. Further, increases in beta activity in the attention and vigilance task were shown in frontal and central regions in the dynamic office. Gamma power increased in the attention task in frontal and central regions. After 2 weeks, effects on brain activity increased in the attentional and vigilance task in the dynamic office. Increased theta and alpha oscillations were obtained in anterior areas with higher activity in the beta band in anterior and central areas in the dynamic compared to the static office. EEG oscillatory patterns indicate beneficial effects of dynamic office environments on attentional and vigilance performance that are mediated by increased motor activity. We discuss the obtained patterns of EEG oscillations in terms of the close interrelations between the attentional and the motor system.
The influence of physical activity on brain and heart activity dependent on type and intensity of exercise is meanwhile widely accepted. Mainly cyclic exercises with longer duration formed the basis for showing the influence on either central nervous system or on heart metabolism. Effects of the variability of movement sequences on brain and heart have been studied only sparsely so far. This study investigated effects of three different motor learning approaches combined with a single bout of rope skipping exercises on the spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity, heart rate variability (HRV) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Participants performed repetitive learning (RL) and two extremely variable rope skipping schedules according to the differential learning approach. Thereby one bout was characterized by instructed variable learning (DLi) and the other by self-created variable learning (DLc) in randomized order each on three consecutive days. The results show higher RPE after DLi and DLc than after RL. HRV analysis demonstrates significant changes in pre-post exercise comparison in all training approaches. No statistically significant differences between training schedules were identified. Slightly greater changes in HRV parameters were observed in both DL approaches indicating a higher activation of the sympathetic nervous system. EEG data reveals higher parietal alpha1 and temporal alpha2 power in RL compared to both DL schedules immediately post exercise. During the recovery of up to 30 minutes, RL shows higher temporal and occipital theta, temporal, parietal and occipital alpha, temporal and occipital beta and frontal beta3 power. In conclusion, already a single bout of 3 minutes of rope skipping can lead to brain states that are associated with being advantageous for cognitive learning. Combined with additional, cognitively demanding tasks in form of the DL approach, it seems to lead to an overload of the mental capacity, at least on the short term. Further research should fathom the reciprocal influence of cardiac and central-nervous strain in greater detail.
Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes.
Dance as one of the earliest cultural assets of mankind is practised in different cultures, mostly for wellbeing or for treating psycho-physiological disorders like Parkinson, depression, autism. However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unclear and only few studies address the effects of particular dance styles. For a first impression, we were interested in the effects of modern jazz dance (MJD) on the brain activation that would contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms. 11 female subjects rehearsed a MJD choreography for three weeks (1h per week) and passed electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements in a crossover-design thereafter. The objectives were to establish the differences between dancing physically and participating just mentally with or without music. Therefore, each subject realized the four following test conditions: dancing physically to and without music, dancing mentally to and without music. Each of the conditions were performed for 15 minutes. Before and after each condition, the EEG activities were recorded under resting conditions (2 min. eyes-open, 2 min. eyes-closed) followed by a subsequent wash-out phase of 10 minutes. The results of the study revealed no time effects for the mental dancing conditions, either to or without music. An increased electrical brain activation was followed by the physical dancing conditions with and without music for the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta and gamma frequency band across the entire scalp. Especially the higher frequencies (alpha-2, beta, gamma) showed increased brain activation across all brain areas. Higher brain activities for the physical dancing conditions were identified in comparison to the mental dancing condition. No statistically significant differences could be found as to dancing to or without music. Our findings demonstrate evidence for the immediate influence of modern jazz dance and its sweeping effects on all brain areas for all measured frequency bands, when dancing physically. In comparison, dancing just mentally does not result in similar effects.
Health Qigong is a common technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine applied to strengthen mental and physical health. Several studies report increases in EEG theta and alpha activity after meditative Qigong techniques indicating a relaxed state of mind. To date, little is known on the effects of dynamic Health Qigong techniques that comprise bodily movements on brain activity. In the current study, we compared effects of two dynamic Health Qigong techniques on EEG brain activity. Subjects performed the techniques Wu Qin Xi (five animals play) and Liu Zi Jue (six healing sounds) in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-min practice block. Additionally, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was administered at pretest, and after each 15-min practice block. Results show a decrease in alpha activity after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the Health Qigong technique Liu Zi Jue. Theta activity was decreased after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the technique Wu Qin Xi. Results of the POMS indicated an increased vigor-activity level with decreased fatigue and tension-anxiety levels in both techniques after 30 min of practice. Our results demonstrate different temporal dynamics in EEG theta and alpha activity for the Health Qigong techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue. We hypothesize that the found brain activation patterns result from different attentional focusing styles and breathing techniques performed during the investigated Health Qigong techniques.
The brain activity before, immediately after and ten minutes after the high-intensity interval training.
The brain activity before and immediately after Differential learning (DL) and repetitive training in soccer dribbling and shooting.
The general purpose of the study was to promote the research on effects of physical activity on mathematical performance and brain functions, which is of particular interest regarding children’s education as well as for all adults. Several studies have identified an influence of cycling on cognitive processes and brain activity. In the present study, we investigated effects of cycling training on a special bicycle on spontaneous EEG brain activity and on mathematical performance of young adults. Participants performed different interventions (special bicycle - NeuroBike, common bicycle, daily activity) in a two-week intervention with three 20-minute training sessions per week. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after each training condition at rest as well as during different mathematical tests (algebra, arithmetic, geometry) before and after the two-week intervention. Behavioral data show reduced mathematical performance in geometry after the NeuroBike and common bicycle intervention in comparison to daily activity. EEG data reveal increased temporal and occipital theta power, occipital alpha power, and parietal and occipital beta power after the two week intervention without acute influence of NeuroBike cycling at rest. Repeated NeuroBike training lead to increased frontal power in all frequency bands as well as temporal theta and alpha power during algebra performance. The results indicate that continuous training on a NeuroBike fosters a beneficial brain state for learning at resting state, but does not lead instantaneously to an optimum brain state for active spatial processing in mathematical problem solving.
Overall, cluster analysis and SOMs enjoy increasing popularity among movement scientists, owing to their capacity to explore and validate different qualities in movement science and match analysis. Both methods of analysis offer a fruitful basis for characterizing and interpreting high-dimensional datasets. The need to balance exploratory and confirmatory approaches in combination with time- continuous and time-discrete approaches is one of the biggest challenges for the coming years. The willingness to apply most recent methodological developments from related disciplines is growing and offers a promising wide new field of research. © 2014 Keith Davids, Robert Hristovski, Duarte Araújo, Natàlia Balagué Serre, Chris Button and Pedro Passos.
Abstract The differential learning approach (Schöllhorn 1999; Schöllhorn et al i.press ) as a consequent deduction from systems dynamics theory has received national and international acknowledgment in different areas. Main predictions with respect to individuality and situation specificity have been verified. Problems of movement learning that seemed to be solved and in consequence led to blindness towards selected trends are considered under a new light. Exceptions within former theories are now considered as constituents. Allegedly solved problems by the variability of pratice theory (Schmidt 1975), the closely related extrenal feedback as well as the contextual Interference approach (Battig 1966) are critically reflected. Different understandings of learning or training aims, differences in the understanding of fluctuations or noise as well as different consequences on the acquisition and learning phases are identified. Traditional learning approaches are considered as specific forms of differencial learning in a broader sense. It seems that we always have been learning from differences but in repetitive learning the differences were too small for optimal learning rates.
Mittlerweile sind fast zwei Jahrzehnte vergangen, seit das differenzielle Lernen in dieser Zeitschrift erstmals vorgestellt wurde (Schöllhorn, 1999). Umfangreiche Untersuchungen sind seitdem vorgenommen worden und bestätigen die Effektivität des Ansatzes in Theorie und Praxis. Trotz publizierter Unterstellungen und Polemik verbreitet sich der Ansatz national und international zunehmend. Zahlreich angewandt, oft als “Geheimwaffe” im Training eingesetzt, unterschiedlichst interpretiert und unter anderen Namen angewandt – wenige wissenschaftlich basierte Ansätze erfuhren solch emotionale und polarisierende Resonanz. Zeit und Anlass genug für eine Zwischenbilanz und – in der nächsten Ausgabe – die Präsentation jüngster Befunde auf neuronaler Ebene, die eine weitere Bestätigung der Wirksamkeit des Differenziellen Lernens aus neuem Blickwinkel liefert.
Der Ansatz des differenziellen Lernens verbreitet sich national und international zunehmend. Als „Geheimwaffe“ im Training eingesetzt, unterschiedlichst interpretiert und unter anderen Namen angewendet – wenige wissenschaftlich basierte Ansätze erfuhren solch emotionale und polarisierende Resonanz. Der Zwischenbericht aus Teil 1 (Leistungssport 1/2017) sowie jüngste Befunde auf neuronaler Ebene liefern weitere Bestätigung.
In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state.