added 3 research items
Water in Development and Ecosystems
- Ankit Pandey
- Somnath Bandyopadhyay
- Bhaskar Sinha
The Mekong is the lifeline for all the people residing in the Mekong River Basin, providing them with Water-Energy-Food security for growth which in turn is very important for their economic survival. But this river is now fated to experience some big changes because of climate change. This will make the MRB as one of the most vulnerable places on the planet. It’s the second most biologically rich and diverse region on the Earth, only second to the Amazon (Carew-Reid, Jeremy, 2007). The Mekong River Basin area is defenseless against the immediate effects of environmental change however for the most part because of the constrained abilities to adjust to environmental change ( Heikkila & Wolf, 2014). Mekong River Basin is developing fast in terms of water infrastructure and the socio-economic situation of the communities (IRIN, 2016). Human interventions can reduce the adverse impacts of short and medium-term climate variations, but also, climate change has the potential to increase the adverse effects of human interferences as well (National Geographic, 2015). The impact of CC is going to affect several communities in MRB in different ways, in turn, these communities will have diverse effects on the future flow of the Mekong ( Magiera, 2013) (Carew-Reid, Jeremy, 2007). So, this presentation tries to understand and comprehensively analyse via Nexus approach for a policy framework and water resource management of it.
Deep-sea mining is a relatively unconventional metal extraction method which is now on focus because of the huge economic potential that it can unleash. It involves mining of valuable metals like cobalt, copper, manganese and most importantly Rare Earth Elements (REEs) from sea-floors. And the huge repository of such minerals which includes Co, Zn, Mg and REEs are very important for any country as they are needed for technological, military and high-grade equipment as well as nation’s infrastructural development and advancement. These categories of metals that are available in deep-sea are widely used in smartphone industries, laptops as well as new emerging hybrid automobiles. Currently, China controls to about more than 85% of global REEs (Cheng Xu, 2017). In the recent decade, it has used this monopoly to drive the market in its way by controlling the production and price of REEs. So, the internal community is trying to find and explore new possibilities for such minerals from other unconventional extraction methods like deep-sea mining. One of the first country to get the license for deep-sea mining was Papua New Guinea. This country has a diverse population which in recent years has been seeing some late economic growth. PNG has huge reserves of natural resources including those of precious gold, copper, silver and gas. Problem with these reserves on land is that not all of them have been identified and due to the difficult terrain of PNG and high infrastructural development costs the mining of many of these reserves has not been possible. This has resulted in the inability of the PNG government to exploit such valuable metals and RREs from the land for their economy. This country is also blessed with rich forests and hence timber as well as great fisheries. But regardless of all this, estimates indicate that more than 50% of the population still lives in poverty (Papua New Guinea Overview, 2017). This presentation comprehensively discusses the potential, opportunities and challenges of deep-sea mining in Papua New Guinea.