Project log

Daniel R Brooks
added 12 research items
Climate change, emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and food security create a dangerous nexus. Habitat interfaces, assumed to be efficient buffers, are being disrupted by human activities which in turn accelerate the movement of pathogens. EIDs threaten directly and indirectly availability and access to nutritious food, affecting global security and human health. In the next 70 years, food-secure and food-insecure countries will face EIDs driving increasingly unsustainable costs of production, predicted to exceed national and global gross domestic products. Our modern challenge is to transform this business as usual and embrace an alternative vision of the biosphere formalized in the Stockholm paradigm (SP). First, a pathogen-centric focus shifts our vision of risk space, determining how pathogens circulate in realized and potential fitness space. Risk space and pathogen exchange are always heightened at habitat interfaces. Second, apply the document-assess-monitor-act (DAMA) protocol developing strategic data for EID risk, to be translated, synthesized and broadcast as actionable information. Risk management is realized through targeted interventions focused around information exchanged among a community of scientists, policy practitioners of food and public health security and local populations. Ultimately, SP and DAMA protect human rights, supporting food security, access to nutritious food, health interventions and environmental integrity.
Abdeljelil Ghram
added a research item
The H9N2 subtype of influenza A virus circulates frequently among poultry in Asian and North African countries causing economic loss in the poultry sector. The antigenic variations of the H9N2 virus were at the origin of its genetic evolution through the emergence of viral strains transmissible to humans and resistant to chemical antivirals, which require a strengthening of the fight means against this virus. In this study, we used a random linear hexapeptide library fused to the gene III protein of M13 filamentous bacteriophage to select new antiviral peptides that inhibit the infectivity of H9N2 virus. After three rounds of stringent selection and amplification, polyclonal phage-peptides directed against H9N2 virus were assessed by ELISA, and the optimal phage-peptides were grown individually and characterized for binding to H9N2 virus by monoclonal phage ELISA. The DNA of 27 phage-peptides clones was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and their amino acid sequences were deduced. Sixteen different phage-peptides were able to bind specifically the H9N2 virus, among them, 13 phage-peptides interacted with the hemagglutinin H9. Two selected peptides, P1 (LSRMPK) and P2 (FAPRWR) have shown antiviral activity in ovo and P1 was more protective in vivo then P2 when co-administered with the H9N2 virus. Mechanistically, these peptides prevent infection by inhibiting the attachment of the H9N2 virus to the cellular receptor. Molecular docking revealed that the peptides LSRMPK and FAPRWR bind to hemagglutinin protein H9, but interact differently with the receptor binding site (RBS). The present study demonstrated that the peptide P1 (LSRMPK) could be used as a new inhibitory molecule directed against the H9N2 virus.
Serageldeen Sultan
added a research item
This study targeted isolation and characterization of potential bacteriophages (phages) infecting MDR patho-genic bacteria recovered from chickens and analyzed their efficacy as bio-control agents. A total of 45 different bacterial isolates (18 E. coli, 16 Salmonellae spp., 5 Staphylococcus spp., 2 Pseudomonas spp., 1 Proteus mirbalis, 1 Citrobacter spp., 1 Enterobacter aerogenes and 1 Klebsiella pneumonia) were obtained from chickens in the current study and previous studies. The identified isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence genes and MDR using PCR and disc diffusion method, respectively. Nine purified phages classified morphologically into 3 families (Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae) using Transmission Electron Microscope were recovered from chicken intestinal contents and showed viability at wide pH range, resistance to organic solvents and thermostability at high temperatures (up to 80ºC). The potential phages exhibited various bacterial host ranges using the spot test and the efficiency of plating (EOP) assay. The results revealed the prevalent of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella serovars among the recovered isolates with different virulence and genotypic patterns. The lytic phages were highly stable and have the capacity to infect different pathogenic MDR bacterial strains. This study demonstrated that these promising phages of avian origin could be used to control the pathogenic MDR E. coli and Salmonella serovars which possess public concerns on human health and poultry industry.
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
World Society for Virology - Indian_Virological_Society joint publication #Monkeypox_virus https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/jmv.27902
Private Profile
 
Daniel R Brooks
added an update
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
The genome feature of SARS-CoV-2 leads the virus to mutate and creates new variants of concern. Tackling viral mutations is also an important challenge for the development of a new vaccine. Accordingly, in the present study, we undertook to identify B- and T-cell epitopes with immunogenic potential for eliciting responses to SARS-CoV-2, using computational approaches and its tailoring to coronavirus variants. A total of 47 novel epitopes were identified as immunogenic triggering immune responses and no toxic after investigation with in silico tools. Furthermore, we found these peptide vaccine candidates showed a significant binding affinity for MHC I and MHC II alleles in molecular docking investigations. We consider them to be promising targets for developing peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, we designed two efficient multi-epitopes vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2, the first one based on potent MHC class I and class II T-cell epitopes of S (FPNITNLCPF–NYNYLYRLFR–MFVFLVLLPLVSSQC), M (MWLSYFIASF–GLMWLSYFIASFRLF), E (LTALRLCAY–LLFLAFVVFLLVTLA), and N (SPRWYFYYL–AQFAPSASAFFGMSR). The second candidate is the result of the tailoring of the first designed vaccine according to three classes of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Molecular docking showed that the protein-protein binding interactions between the vaccines construct and TLR2–TLR4 immune receptors are stable complexes. These findings confirmed that the final multi-epitope vaccine could be easily adapted to new viral variants. Our study offers a shortlist of promising epitopes that can accelerate the development of an effective and safe vaccine against the virus and its adaptation to new variants.
Abdou Nagy
added a research item
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the costliest complex disease affecting the cattle industry worldwide, with significant economic losses. BRD pathogenesis involves several interactions between microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, and management factors. The present study aimed to characterize the nasal virome from 43 pooled nasal swab samples collected from Egyptian nonvaccinated cow-calf operations with acute BRD from January to February 2020 using metagenomic sequencing. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), first detection of bovine herpesvirus-5 (BHV-5), and first detection of bovine parvovirus-3 (BPV-3) were the most commonly identified in Egyptian cattle. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein B revealed that the BHV-1 isolate is closely related to the Cooper reference strain (genotype 1.1), whereas the BHV-5 isolate is closely related to the reference virus GenBank NP_954920.1. In addition, the whole-genome sequence of BPV-3 showed 93.02% nucleotide identity with the reference virus GenBank AF406967.1. In this study, several DNA viruses, such as BHV-1 and first detection BHV-5, and BPV-3, were detected and may have an association with the BRD in Egyptian cattle. Therefore, further research, including investigating more samples from different locations to determine the prevalence of detected viruses and their contributions to BRD in cattle in Egypt, is needed.
Serageldeen Sultan
added a research item
Human SARS-CoV-2 and avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are highly contagious and deadly coronaviruses, causing devastating respiratory diseases in humans and chickens. The lack of effective therapeutics exacerbates the impact of outbreaks associated with SARS-CoV-2 and IBV infections. Thus, novel drugs or therapeutic agents are highly in demand for controlling viral transmission and disease progression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secreted factors (secretome) are safe and efficient alternatives to stem cells in MSC-based therapies. This study aimed to investigate the antiviral potentials of human Wharton’s jelly MSC secretome (hWJ-MSC-S) against SARS-CoV-2 and IBV infections in vitro and in ovo. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50), cytotoxic concentration (CC50), and selective index (SI) values of hWJ-MSC-S were determined using Vero-E6 cells. The virucidal, anti-adsorption, and anti-replication antiviral mechanisms of hWJ-MSC-S were evaluated. The hWJ-MSC-S significantly inhibited infection of SARS-CoV-2 and IBV, without affecting the viability of cells and embryos. Interestingly, hWJ-MSC-S reduced viral infection by >90%, in vitro. The IC50 and SI of hWJ-MSC secretome against SARS-CoV-2 were 166.6 and 235.29 µg/mL, respectively, while for IBV, IC50 and SI were 439.9 and 89.11 µg/mL, respectively. The virucidal and anti-replication antiviral effects of hWJ-MSC-S were very prominent compared to the anti-adsorption effect. In the in ovo model, hWJ-MSC-S reduced IBV titer by >99%. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis of hWJ-MSC-S revealed a significant enrichment of immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Collectively, our results not only uncovered the antiviral potency of hWJ-MSC-S against SARS-CoV-2 and IBV, but also described the mechanism by which hWJ-MSC-S inhibits viral infection. These findings indicate that hWJ-MSC-S could be utilized in future pre-clinical and clinical studies to develop effective therapeutic approaches against human COVID-19 and avian IB respiratory diseases.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus, rapidly spreads Aedes mosquito-borne sickness. Currently, there are neither effective vaccines nor therapeutics available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. In this study, to address these unmet medical needs, we aimed to design B- and T-cell candidate multi-epitope-based subunit against ZIKV using an in silico approach. In this study we applied immunoinformatics, molecular docking, and dynamic simulation assessments targeting the most immunogenic proteins; the capsid (C), envelope (E) proteins and the non-stuctural protein (NS1), described in our previous study, and which predicted immunodominant B and T cell epitopes. The final non-allergenic and highly antigenic multi-epitope was constituted of immunogenic screened-epitopes (3 CTL and 3 HTL) and the β-defensin as an adjuvant that have been linked using EAAAK, AAY, and GPGPG linkers, respectively. The final construct containing 143 amino acids was characterized for its allergenicity, antigenicity, and physiochemical properties; and found to be safe and immunogenic with a good prediction of solubility. The existence of IFN-γ epitopes asserts the capacity to trigger strong immune responses. Subsequently, the molecular docking among vaccine and immune receptors (TLR2/TLR4) was revealed with a good binding affinity with and stable molecular interactions. Molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stability of the complexes. Finally, the construct was subjected to in silico cloning demonstrating the efficiently of its expression in E.coli. However, this study needs the experimental validation to demonstrate vaccine safety and efficacy.
Nadia Touil
added a research item
The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been hard to track in African countries, largely because of patchy data. Wilkinson et al. curated viral genomes collected in 2021 from several countries across the continent. Outbreaks during 2020 in each African country were initiated by imported cases, mostly from Europe. As the pandemic developed, case numbers in African countries were likely many times higher than reported, and subsequent waves of the pandemic appear to have been more severe. Consequently, high-transmission variants have emerged that have spread within the continent, and African countries must be included in global control efforts.
Bader Y Alhatlani
added a research item
The advancements in the field of nanotechnology have provided a great platform for the development of effective antiviral vaccines. Liposome-mediated delivery of antigens has been shown to induce the antigen-specific stimulation of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Here, we prepared dried, reconstituted vesicles (DRVs) from DPPC liposomes and used them as the vaccine carrier system for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease (DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro). MERS-CoV PLpro emulsified in the Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA-MERS-CoV PLpro) was used as a control. Immunization of mice with DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro did not induce any notable toxicity, as revealed by the levels of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood of immunized mice. Immunization with DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro induced greater antigen-specific antibody titer and switching of IgG1 isotyping to IgG2a as compared to immunization with IFA-MERS-CoV PLpro. Moreover, splenocytes from mice immunized with DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro exhibited greater proliferation in response to antigen stimulation. Moreover, splenocytes from DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro-immunized mice secreted significantly higher IFN-γ as compared to splenocytes from IFA-MERS-CoV PLpro mice. In summary, DRVs-MERS-CoV PLpro may prove to be an effective prophylactic formulation to prevent MERS-CoV infection.
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
To all #scientists and #virologists who are current #WSV #members and to all virologists worldwide [hoping to join us soon if you are not yet a member] - #HAPPY_NEW_YEAR_2022 #World_Society_for_Virology #WSVirology
 
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
Collaboration between World Society for Virology AND Indian Virological Society
 
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
The World Society for Virology is happy to share its meeting report published in its official JOURNAL #"Virology" This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16–18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different hosts. The first day included two sessions exclusively on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The other two days included one plenary and three parallel sessions each. Last not least, 16 sessions covered 140 on-demand submitted talks. In total, 270 scientists from 49 countries attended the meeting, including 40 invited keynote speakers.
You can download the article for free for the next 50 days. #WSVirology Thanks to our speakers attendees #sponsors Boehringer Ingelheim [Platinum] NanoString Technologies, Inc. [Gold], Optolane Technologies Inc [Gold] Inqaba biotec [Silver]
and the the organizer [VetLink]
 
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16–18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different hosts. The first day included two sessions exclusively on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The other two days included one plenary and three parallel sessions each. Last not least, 16 sessions covered 140 on-demand submitted talks. In total, 270 scientists from 49 countries attended the meeting, including 40 invited keynote speakers.
Abdallah Samy
added 4 research items
This book brings together expert opinions from scientists to consider the evidence for climate change and its impacts on ticks and tick-borne infections. It considers what is meant by 'climate change', how effective climate models are in relation to ecosystems, and provides predictions for changes in climate at global, regional and local scales relevant for ticks and tick-borne infections. It examines changes to tick distribution and the evidence that climate change is responsible. The effect of climate on the physiology and behaviour of ticks is stressed, including potentially critical impacts on the tick microbiome. Given that the notoriety of ticks derives from pathogens they transmit, the book considers whether changes in climate affect vector capacity. Ticks transmit a remarkable range of micro- and macro-parasites many of which are pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. The intimacy between a tick-borne agent and a tick vector means that any impacts of climate on a tick vector will impact tick-borne pathogens. Most obviously, such impacts will be apparent as changes in disease incidence and prevalence. The evidence that climate change is affecting diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens is considered, along with the potential to make robust predictions of future events. This book contains Expert opinions and predictions, Global coverage of trends in ticks and disease, and an in-depth examination of climate change and tick distribution links. This book is suitable for researchers and students studying zoology, biological sciences, medical entomology, animal health, veterinary medicine, epidemiology, parasitology, and climate change impacts; and for those concerned with public health planning or livestock management where ticks and tick-borne pathogens pose a threat.
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently the most invasive vector species, with a widespread global distribution. Aedes albopictus is the potential vector of diverse arboviruses, including Zika and dengue. This study updated the ecological niche model of Ae. albopictus and inferred the potential distribution of natural Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus in México. The ecological niche models were constructed based on diverse model settings to better estimate the potential distributions and uncertainty indices of both Ae. albopictus and its natural Wolbachia infections in México. The distribution of Ae. albopictus covered the states across Northern México, the Gulf of México, the Pacific Coast of México, Central México, and the southeast of México. The ecological niche model of the natural Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations anticipated occurrence of natural Wolbachia infections in the southeast of México, the Chiapas border with Guatemala, and Veracruz. These results can be used to prioritize vector surveillance and control programs in México for strategic and future decision-making; however, it is still necessary to establish active surveillance programs to assess model predictions based on independent sampling of Ae. albopictus from different invasion zones in México. Finally, vector surveillance should also screen the natural Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus to validate Wolbachia predictions across México, particularly in the southeast of México.
Dengue is a rapidly growing public health threat in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, entomological transmission indices, and socioeconomic risk factors associated with dengue in this region. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in four dengue-endemic sites; Khatmia, West Gash, Thoriba, and Shokriya between March 2016 to March 2017. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used to determine the prevalence of dengue virus among the study participants. An entomological survey was conducted using pyrethrum spray catch and dipping for the collection of adults and aquatic stages of Aedes aegypti, respectively. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the buffy coat of participants as well as from adult female Ae. aegypti to assess the possible circulation of dengue virus using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between potential risk factors and dengue seropositivity. A total of 409 persons were recruited to the study: 45.5% were in the 20-39 years' age category; 57.9% were living in houses with 6-10 persons; and 29.1% had at most secondary school education. In the majority (65.8%) of the households, the socioeconomic status was low (P<0.001). Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets were used in 56.5% of the households. Over three-quarters (77.8%) claimed not to have experienced febrile illness in the last three months. Routine entomological survey across Kassala state identified a total of 3,304 larvae and 390 pupae Ae. aegypti, respectively. The overall house index was 32.8% and Breteau Index was 35.96% (146/406). The overall pupal demographic index was 13.31%, and the pupal children index was 97.26%. Antibodies against IgG were detected from 66 (42.04%) out of a total of 157 sera. Twenty-two positive sera (75.9%) were collected from Khatmia. A total of 329 adults Ae. aegypti were identified but only one (0.3%) was positive for DENV in Khatmia. Finally, four independent risk factors were identified to derive dengue circulation in Kassala: elder age (> 60 years) (OR 6.31, CI 1.09-36.36); type of bathroom (OR 3.52, CI 1.35-9.20); using water-based air conditioner (OR 6.90, CI 1.78-26.85) and previous infection of any household member with dengue (OR 28.73, CI 3.31-249.63). Our findings suggest that Kassala state is facing an increasing occurrence of dengue and emphasizes the need for developing appropriate interventions to address the identified risk factors, and place control programs into actions. Establishment of routine dengue epidemiological and entomological surveillance, and climate warning systems will contribute to early warning and timely detection and response to emerging outbreaks.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added 2 research items
Background: To control the spread of the pandemic brought about by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it is necessary to have an automated reliable diagnostic assay. To date, the RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) has been the recommended laboratory method to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is a need for more automated and reliable tests. The aim of this real-life study was to assess the diagnostic performance of DiaSorin's LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) chemiluminescence immunoassay in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 300 nasopharyngeal swabs randomly collected from 31 May to 6 July 2021. Nasopharyngeal samples were assayed with DiaSorin's LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Ag and TaqPath™ COVID-19 multiplex RT-qPCR. Results: Of 300 participants, 150 had a RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of whom 113 (75.33%) were also detected by the DiaSorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Ag. Taking RT-qPCR as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of the DiaSorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay were evaluated as 75.33% (95% CI = 67.64-82) and 100% (95% CI = 97.57-100), respectively. When a viral load cut-off was applied for high viral load (median cycle threshold (Ct) < 18.57), the overall sensitivity was increased to 96.55% (95% CI = 88.09-99.58). Interestingly, median RT-qPCR Ct and SARS-CoV-2 Ag values were similar between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. Conclusions: Automated, quantitative LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay shows good performance to identify SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with moderate to high viral loads. LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Ag testing could be used as frontline testing for COVID-19 diagnosis and be more suitable for large utilization.
Basem M. Ahmed
added 2 research items
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is one of the commercially important diseases of ducklings worldwide. It is an acute and highly infectious disease of ducklings caused by three different sero-types (1-3) of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), and serotype 1 is the most common in poultry. To date, little is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV-1 in Egypt. In the current study, isolation and complete genomic analyses of DHAVs circulating in commercial duck farms in different Egyptian governorates were conducted. A total of eighteen samples were collected from six Egyptian governorates of 3-11 days old ducklings (Pekin and Mullard) with a history of nervous signs and high mortality rates. Five out of eighteen (5/18) samples were screened positive for the DHAV-1 based on the VP1 gene. These samples were individually used for virus isolation in embryonated duck embryos (EDE), followed by complete genome sequencing. Phylo-genomic analyses showed that DHAV serotype I; genotype I were diversified into four different groups (1, 2, 3 and 4). Most of the recent circulating Egyptian DHAV strains are clustered within group 4, while isolates characterised within this study were clustered within group 1. Recombina-tion analyses revealed that the emergence of a new recombinant virus-DHAV-1 strain Egypt-10/2019-through recombination. Likewise, the selective pressure analyses showed the existence, inside or near areas of the viral attachment or related functions, of positive scores highlighting the importance of natural selection and viral evolution mechanism at different protein domains. The findings of this study provide updated information on the epidemiological and genetic features of DHAV-1 strains and underscore the importance of DHAV surveillance as well as re-evaluation for currently used vaccines.
Marine and brackish water aquacultures are rapidly expanding in the Mediterranean basin. In this context, Egypt recently received a shipment of a 1.5 million juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from European Mediterranean facility. Within a few weeks of their arrival, 95% of the imported fish developed nodules on their skin and fins that lasted for several months. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical disease course, to identify the causative agent, and to investigate its origin. Preliminary diagnosis based on gross lesions and postmortem examination suggested lymphocystis disease (LCD), caused by the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV; genus Lymphocystivirus, family Iridoviridae). Histopathological and ultrastructural features were typical of LCDV infections. PCR followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a 306-bp fragment of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene demonstrated the presence of LCDV genotype I, originally associated with LCD in Northern European countries, with 99.7% and 100% nucleotide and deduced amino acid identity values, respectively. LCDV genotype I has neither been reported in this species nor in the region. Regardless of the source of infection, findings of this study add to existing knowledge about the ecology of LCDV genotype I and its host range.
Abdou Nagy
added a research item
The influenza A virus (IAV) is an important cause of respiratory disease worldwide. It is well known that alveolar epithelial cells are the target cells for the IAV, but there is relatively limited knowledge regarding the role of macrophages during IAV infection. Here, we aimed to analyze transcriptome differences in mouse lungs and macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines infected with either A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA09) or A/chicken/SD/56/2015 H9N2 (SD56) using deep sequencing. The uniquely differentially expressed genes (UDEGs) were analyzed with the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases; the results showed that the lungs infected with the two different viruses had different enrichments of pathways and terms. Interestingly, CA09 virus infection in mice was mostly involved with genes related to the extracellular matrix (ECM), while the most significant differences after SD56 infection in mice were in immune-related genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of RAW264.7 cells revealed that regulation of the cell cycle was of great significance after CA09 infection, whereas the regulation of the immune response was most enriched after SD56 infection, which was consistent with analysis results in the lung. Similar results were obtained from weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), where cell cycle regulation was extensively activated in RAW264.7 macrophages infected with the CA09 virus. Disorder of the cell cycle is likely to affect their normal immune regulation, which may be an important factor leading to their different prognoses. These results provide insight into the mechanism of the CA09 virus that caused a pandemic and explain the different reactivities of monocytes/macrophages infected by H9N2 and H1N1 IAV subtypes.
Ahmed Hassan
added a research item
Although mRNA vaccines prevent COVID-19, variants jeopardize their efficacy as immunity wanes. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective activity of historical (mRNA-1273, designed for Wuhan-1 spike) or modified (mRNA-1273.351, designed for B.1.351 spike) preclinical Moderna mRNA vaccines in 129S2 and K18-hACE2 mice. Immunization with high or low dose formulations of mRNA vaccines induced neutralizing antibodies in serum against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and several variants, although levels were lower particularly against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) virus. Protection against weight loss and lung pathology was observed with all high-dose vaccines against all viruses. Nonetheless, low-dose formulations of the vaccines, which produced lower magnitude antibody and T cell responses, and serve as a possible model for waning immunity, showed breakthrough lung infection and pneumonia with B.1.617.2. Thus, as levels of immunity induced by mRNA vaccines decline, breakthrough infection and disease likely will occur with some SARS-CoV-2 variants, suggesting a need for additional booster regimens.
Miguel angel Rojas montes
added 2 research items
Rotaviruses (RVs) have been identified as one of the main infectious causes of diarrhea in young pigs. We determined the prevalence of rotavirus A (RVA), C (RVC), and H (RVH) in pigs on a Brazilian farm. Samples were screened by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR, and samples positive for RVA were genotyped by PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. Of the 329 fecal samples analyzed, 102 (30.9%) were positive for RV, 25 (7.6%) contained RVA only, 32 (9.7%) contained RVC only, and 31 (9.4%) contained RVH only. Co-circulation, the presence of ≥ 2 RVs in a sample, was detected in 14 (4.2%) samples. Of the 15 animals with diarrhea, 6 (40%) were positive for RV, and of the 314 asymptomatic animals, 96 (30.6%) were positive for RV; there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.441). Genotyping of RVA strains showed co-circulation of genotypes G1, G3, G9-P[8]-I1, and I2-E1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of the RVA genotypes found in pigs had high percentages of identity when compared with reference strains from humans, which suggests interspecies transmission. Because RVs may be zoonotic, excretion of RVs into the environment can result in transmission to agricultural workers causing interspecies infections and allowing the emergence of new reassorted viruses.
Enteric infections are a major cause of neonatal death in South American camelids (SACs). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens among alpacas and llamas in Canchis, Cuzco, located in the southern Peruvian highland. Fecal samples were obtained from 80 neonatal alpacas and llamas and tested for coronavirus (CoV), mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV), and rotavirus A (RVA) by RT-PCR. Of the 80 fecal samples analyzed, 76 (95%) were positive for at least one of the viruses tested. Overall, the frequencies of positive samples were 94.1% and 100% among alpacas and llamas, respectively. Of the positive samples, 33 (43.4%) were monoinfected, while 43 (56.6%) had coinfections with two (83.7%) or three (16.3%) viruses. CoV was the most commonly detected virus (87.5%) followed by MRV (50%). RVA was detected only in coinfections. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MRV circulation in SACs or camelids anywhere. These data show that multiple viruses circulate widely among young alpaca and llama crias within the studied areas. These infections can potentially reduce livestock productivity, which translates into serious economic losses for rural communities, directly impacting their livelihoods.
Luis Rodrigo
added a research item
Objective: The best approach for Helicobacter pylori management remains unclear. An audit process is essential to ensure clinical practice is aligned with best standards of care. Design: International multicentre prospective non-interventional registry starting in 2013 aimed to evaluate the decisions and outcomes in H. pylori management by European gastroenterologists. Patients were registered in an e-CRF by AEG-REDCap. Variables included demographics, previous eradication attempts, prescribed treatment, adverse events and outcomes. Data monitoring was performed to ensure data quality. Time-trend and geographical analyses were performed. Results: 30 394 patients from 27 European countries were evaluated and 21 533 (78%) first-line empirical H. pylori treatments were included for analysis. Pretreatment resistance rates were 23% to clarithromycin, 32% to metronidazole and 13% to both. Triple therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin was most commonly prescribed (39%), achieving 81.5% modified intention-to-treat eradication rate. Over 90% eradication was obtained only with 10-day bismuth quadruple or 14-day concomitant treatments. Longer treatment duration, higher acid inhibition and compliance were associated with higher eradication rates. Time-trend analysis showed a region-dependent shift in prescriptions including abandoning triple therapies, using higher acid-inhibition and longer treatments, which was associated with an overall effectiveness increase (84%-90%). Conclusion: Management of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is heterogeneous, suboptimal and discrepant with current recommendations. Only quadruple therapies lasting at least 10 days are able to achieve over 90% eradication rates. European recommendations are being slowly and heterogeneously incorporated into routine clinical practice, which was associated with a corresponding increase in effectiveness.
Bader Y Alhatlani
added a research item
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infection that emerged in the Middle East in 2012. Symptoms range from mild to severe and include both respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. The virus is mainly present in camel populations with occasional zoonotic spill over into humans. The severity of infection in humans is influenced by numerous factors, and similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), underlying health complications can play a major role. Currently, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are coincident in the Middle East and thus a rapid way of sequencing MERS-CoV to derive genotype information for molecular epidemiology is needed. Additionally, complicating factors in MERS-CoV infections are coinfections that require clinical management. The ability to rapidly characterize these infections would be advantageous. To rapidly sequence MERS-CoV, an amplicon-based approach was developed and coupled to Oxford Nanopore long read length sequencing. This and a metagenomic approach were evaluated with clinical samples from patients with MERS. The data illustrated that whole-genome or near-whole-genome information on MERS-CoV could be rapidly obtained. This approach provided data on both consensus genomes and the presence of minor variants, including deletion mutants. The metagenomic analysis provided information of the background microbiome. The advantage of this approach is that insertions and deletions can be identified, which are the major drivers of genotype change in coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The virus is a serious threat to people not only in the Middle East but also in the world and has been detected in over 27 countries. MERS-CoV is spreading in the Middle East and neighboring countries, and approximately 35% of reported patients with this virus have died. This is the most severe coronavirus infection so far described. Saudi Arabia is a destination for many millions of people in the world who visit for religious purposes (Umrah and Hajj), and so it is a very vulnerable area, which imposes unique challenges for effective control of this epidemic. The significance of our study is that clinical samples from patients with MERS were used for rapid in-depth sequencing and metagenomic analysis using long read length sequencing.
Abdou Nagy
added a research item
Traditional veterinary virus vaccines, such as inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines, have achieved tremendous success in controlling many viral diseases of livestock and chickens worldwide. However, many recent viral outbreaks caused by different emerging and re-emerging viruses continue to be reported annually worldwide. It is therefore necessary to develop new control regimens. Nanoparticle research has received considerable attention in the last two decades as a promising platform with significant success in veterinary medicine, replacing traditional viral vector vaccines. However, the field of nanoparticle applications is still in its initial phase of growth. Here, we discuss various preparation methods, characteristics, physical properties, antiviral effects, and pharmacokinetics of well-developed nanoparticles and the potential of nanoparticles or nano-vaccines as a promising antiviral platform for veterinary medicine.
Abdou Nagy
added a research item
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein Q677P/H mutation and furin cleavage site (FCS) have been shown to affect cell tropism and virus transmissibility. Here, we analyzed the frequency of Q677P/H and FCS point mutations in 1,144,793 human and 1042 animal spike protein sequences and from those of the emergent variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429 + B.1.427, and B.1.525, which were deposited in the database of the GISAID Initiative. Different genetic polymorphisms, particularly P681H and A688V, were detected in the FCS, mainly in human isolates, and otherwise, only pangolin and bat sequences had these mutations. Multiple FCS amino acid deletions such as Δ680SPRRA684 and Δ685RSVA688 were only detected in eight and four human isolates, respectively. Surprisingly, deletion of the entire FCS motif as Δ680SPRRARSVA688 and Δ680SPRRARSVAS689 was detected only in three human isolates. On the other hand, analysis of FCS from emergent variants showed no deletions in the FCS except for spike P681del, which was detected in seven B.1.1.7 isolates from the USA. Spike Q677P was detected only once in variant, B.1.1.7, whereas Q677H was detected in all variants, i.e., B.1.1.7 (n = 1938), B.1.351 (n = 28), P.1 (n = 9), B.1.429 + B.1.427 (n = 132), and B.1.525 (n = 1584). Structural modeling predicted that mutations or deletions at or near the FCS significantly alter the cleavage loop structure and would presumably affect furin binding. Taken together, our results show that Q677H and FCS point mutations are prevalent and may have various biological effects on the circulating variants. Therefore, we recommend urgent monitoring and surveillance of the investigated mutations, as well as laboratory assessment of their pathogenicity and transmissibility.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) is a homolog of hepatitis C virus and has been isolated from dogs and horses. Data on NPHV prevalence and distribution are not complete, and there is a particular lack of reports from the African continent. The present study represents the first investigation of NPHV prevalence in horses and dogs in North Africa. Blood was collected from 172 horses and 36 dogs at different locations in Morocco, and screened for NPHV RNA using nested PCR targeting 5’UTR and NS3 regions and analyzed for anti-NPHV NS3 antibody using a Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system—to determine seroprevalence. Eight sequences of the NS3 region isolated from positive serum samples were targeted for phylogenetic analysis. Horses and dogs showed respective NPHV RNA positivity rates of 10.5% and 5.5%, and seroprevalences of 65.7% and 8.33%. Juvenile horses appeared more susceptible to infection, with a 23.5% NHPV RNA positivity rate. Seropositivity was more extensive in mares than stallions (77.14% vs. 46.27%, p < 0.0001). Phylogenetically, that NPHV NS3 genes isolated from horses and dog are clustered together. The NPHV strains we detected showed no correlation with geographic location within Morocco. In conclusion, Moroccan horses showed much evidence of previous and/or current NPHV infection, with young age and female sex as noted potential risk factors. Interestingly, NPHV is circulating in dogs as well as horses, suggesting that it has crossed species barriers and that horses and dogs are potential vectors by which an ancestor to hepatitis C virus was transmitted into human populations.
Idris N. Abdullahi
added a research item
Background There are no robust national prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Nigerian women despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The objective of study This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence and risk factors of genital HPV infection in Nigeria through a systemic review protocol. Methods Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and AJOL were searched between 10 April to 28 July 2020. HPV studies on Nigerian females and published from April 1999 to March 2019 were included. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results The pooled prevalence of cervical HPV was 20.65% (95%CI: 19.7–21.7). Genotypes 31 (70.8%), 35 (69.9%) and 16 (52.9%) were the most predominant HPV in circulation. Of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, northeast had the highest pooled prevalence of HPV infection (48.1%), while the least was in the north-west (6.8%). After multivariate logistic regression, duration (years) of sexual exposure (OR = 3.24, 95%CI: 1.78–9.23]), history of other malignancies (OR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.03–2.97]), history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.31–3.55]), coital frequency per week (OR = 5.11, 95%CI: 3.86–14.29), the status of circumcision of the sexual partner (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.62–9.05), and marital status (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.16–4.72), were significant risk factors of HPV infection (p < 0.05). Irregular menstruation, post-coital bleeding and abdominal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with HPV infection (p < 0.05). Conclusion HPV prevalence is high in Nigeria and was significantly associated with several associated risk factors. Rapid screening for high-risk HPV genotypes is recommended and multivalent HPV vaccines should be considered for women.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a global pandemic. Seroprevalence surveillance is urgently needed to estimate and monitor the growing burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among worker population residing in areas under lockdown in Kuwait and investigated their risk factors associated with a positive status. From April 18 to May 10, 2020 a randomly sampled, worker-based survey was conducted in 7 governorate in Kuwait (Ahmadi, Farwaniya, Hawali, Asma, Jahra, and Mubarak Alkabeer) among 10,256 workers. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies was assessed using a commercially point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay (Biozek medical COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette). We estimated an overall seroprevalence (IgG or IgM positive) of 5.9% (95% CI: 5.4–6.3). Notably, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was significantly higher in males (6.2%) than females (1.9%) (p<0.001). Furthermore, the seroprevalence was significantly different by age group, governorate, and nationality of the workers. These results highlighted that the relatively low prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in hotspot areas in a specific population. Thus, we emphasize to repeat the serosurvey in the general population to assess the magnitude of viral spread and monitor the growing burden of COVID-19 in Kuwait.
Serageldeen Sultan
added a research item
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficiency of different vaccines and vaccination programs against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens, in the field and the laboratory. In the field, three commercial chicken farms (LA, LB, and QC) used different types of live vaccines and vaccination programs via drinking water (DW) were serologically estimated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect the level of circulating antibodies against NDV. The laboratory study was carried out to assess whether the types of vaccine and their route of administration influence the HI level and viral shedding. Chicken groups (G1-G5) except for the control were challenged with velogenic NDV genotype VIIj circulating among vaccinated chickens in Egypt. The protection efficiency was evaluated by HI test pre-and post-challenge, and the virus shedding post-challenge was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. The results of the field study indicated that although LA and QC farms showed clinical signs accompanied with high mortality after the 2 nd (HI=2 2.1) and 3 rd (HI=2 3.2) vaccination doses, respectively, and velogenic NDV destroyed chickens in these farms, the LB farm showed no deaths with apparently healthy birds (HI=2 3.3). In the laboratory inactivated and alternative vaccinations have the highest protection HI titer with no virus shedding while live vaccination either in DW or eye drops showed low protection and the virus was detected in chickens from the DW live vaccinated group. In conclusion, the currently used in field vaccination programs and their routes of administration should be reconsidered to combat NDV infection.
Abdou Nagy
added a research item
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan city, China. An effective vaccine is urgently needed to protect humans and to mitigate the economic and societal impacts of the pandemic. Despite standard vaccine development usually requiring an extensive process and taking several years to complete all clinical phases, there are currently 184 vaccine candidates in pre-clinical testing and another 88 vaccine candidates in clinical phases based on different vaccine platforms as of April 13, 2021. Moreover, three vaccine candidates have recently been granted an Emergency Use Authorization by the United States Food and Drug Administration (for Pfizer/BioNtech, Moderna mRNA vaccines, and Johnson and Johnson viral vector vaccine) and by the UK government (for University of Oxford/AstraZeneca viral vector vaccine). Here we aim to briefly address the current advances in reverse genetics system of SARS-CoV-2 and the use of this in development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Additionally, we cover the essential points concerning the different platforms of current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates and the advantages and drawbacks of these platforms. We also assess recommendations for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics using the benefits of genetic engineering technology to design effective vaccines against emerging and re-emerging viral diseases with zoonotic and/or pandemic potential.
Serageldeen Sultan
added 4 research items
Rift valley fever (RVF) is a notifiable zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants. RVF virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne, segmented, negative sense single stranded RNA belongs to genus Phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The RVFV genome consists of three segments; the large segment, the small segment and the medium segment, which encode the RNA dependent RNA polymerase, nucleoprotein and envelope glycoproteins, respectively. The RVFV has been detected in many African countries such as Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, Senegal, Mauritania, South Africa, Madagascar and Mayotte, also in the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV has been reported in Egypt for the first time in 1977 during an outbreak spread up from Aswan to Sohag, Assiut, Mina, Giza, Sharqiya and Qalyobia causing more than 200,000 human infections and 600 deaths. After that three waves of RVFV have been documented in 1993 in Aswan governorate, in 1997 in Aswan and Assiut governorates and in 2003 in Seedy Salim district, Kafr El-sheikh governorate. Camels consider the carrier of RVFV without developing clinical signs. Also, camels play an important role in the spreading of RVFV as reported in the 1977 outbreak where camels were spread the infection from northern Sudan to southern Egypt. Various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of IgG and IgM in human and animal species. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a suitable method for virus detection when the availability of virus isolation is restricted. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of RVFV antibodies in serum samples from Camels, the molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the RVFV obtained from the positive serum samples.
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chicken, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) have been proposed to overcome this problem. In the current study, we compared the thermal stability of 6 commercially available ND vaccines. Subjected to 37°C as lyophilized preparation, two vaccines containing I-2 strains were more sensitive to inactivation than a third I-2 vaccine or when compared to three other vaccines based on different strains. However, after reconstitution strains proved to have a comparable tenacity. Interestingly, all vaccines retained a sufficient virus dose for protection (106 EID50) after 1 day at 37°C, still. However, experiments exposing ND-vaccines to elevated temperatures of 51°C and 61°C, clearly demonstrated inactivation of all dissolved vaccines within 2 to 4 hours. The data indicate preparation that specific factors may influence thermal stability rather than strain specific characteristics. Regardless of the ND strain used, the appropriate cold chain is mandatory for live ND-vaccines.
Brain samples were collected from 33 animals of different species, including buffalo, cattle, dog, donkey, fox and wolf, that had been suspected to be infected by rabies virus (RABV) in different geographical regions of Aswan and Luxor governorates in Egypt. The samples were submitted for histopathological examination and the presence of the nucleic acid and antigens of RABV was tested by RT-PCR and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), respectively. Sixteen samples were found positive by all the three examinations. Three samples were selected for further study from animals in which the highest virus loads were detected. The partial sequence of the RABV N gene was determined and analysed from the samples of a buffalo, a cow and a donkey. The viruses in the samples were found to share 95–98% and 95–97% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities, respectively. In comparison to reference sequences, a few amino acid substitutions occurred in the N protein antigenic sites I and IV in the immunodominant epitopes of the viruses detected in the cow and the donkey but not in the one from the buffalo. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the RABVs sequenced from the samples belonged to genotype 1, Africa-4 clade, and formed two distinct sub-clades within the Egyptian clade. These findings indicate the circulation of RABV among livestock animals in the southern part of Egypt and raise public health concerns. The amino acid changes detected in this work may contribute to the antigenic diversification of RABVs.
Ishtiaq Qadri
added a research item
Minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) belongs to the minichromosome maintenance family that is important for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Overexpression of the MCM7 protein is relative to cellular proliferation and responsible for aggressive malignancy in various cancers. Mechanistically, inhibition of MCM7 significantly reduces the cellular proliferation associated with cancer. To date, no effective small molecular candidate has been identified that can block the progression of cancer induced by the MCM7 protein. Therefore, the study has been designed to identify small molecular-like natural drug candidates against aggressive malignancy associated with various cancers by targeting MCM7 protein. To identify potential compounds against the targeted protein a comprehensive in silico drug design including molecular docking, ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion), toxicity, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches has been applied. Seventy phytochemicals isolated from the neem tree (Azadiractha indica) were retrieved and screened against MCM7 protein by using the molecular docking simulation method, where the top four compounds have been chosen for further evaluation based on their binding affinities. Analysis of ADME and toxicity properties reveals the efficacy and safety of the selected four compounds. To validate the stability of the protein–ligand complex structure MD simulations approach has also been performed to the protein–ligand complex structure, which confirmed the stability of the selected three compounds including CAS ID:105377-74-0, CID:12308716 and CID:10505484 to the binding site of the protein. In the study, a comprehensive data screening process has performed based on the docking, ADMET properties, and MD simulation approaches, which found a good value of the selected four compounds against the targeted MCM7 protein and indicates as a promising and effective human anticancer agent.
Ahmed Hassan
added a research item
The deployment of a vaccine that limits transmission and disease likely will be required to end the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We recently described the protective activity of an intranasally-administered chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a pre-fusion stabilized spike (S) protein (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Here, we show the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this vaccine in non-human primates. Rhesus macaques were immunized with ChAd-Control or ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S and challenged one month later by combined intranasal and intrabronchial routes with SARS-CoV-2. A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses and limited or prevented infection in the upper and lower respiratory tract after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. As this single intranasal dose vaccine confers protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates, it is a promising candidate for limiting SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in humans.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
It is our pleasure to invite you to the first World Society for Virology conference (WSV2021), under the theme of “Tackling Global Viral Epidemics”. The conference will be hosted online, allowing participants to join and connect with people from all over the world! The 2021 WSV scientific program will include special symposia on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 and other important viral pathogens as well as sessions on different disciplines of virology including human, animal, plant, fungal, insect, archaeal, and bacterial viruses. To register for this conference, please click here.
If you would like to submit an abstract for this conference, please go to:
https://wsv2021.com/abstract-submission/ More than# 40_keynote speakers are present.
We look forward to seeing you there!
 
Idris N. Abdullahi
added a research item
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms ‘COVID-19’, ‘Serological assay’, ‘Laboratory Diagnosis’, ‘Performance characteristics’, ‘POCT’, ‘LFA’, ‘CLIA’, ‘ELISA’ and ‘SARS-CoV-2’. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
Yassien Badr
added a research item
Milk small extracellular vesicles (sEV) contain proteins that provide potential information of host physiology and immunology. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic virus that causes progressive B-cell lymphosarcoma in cattle. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic profile of milk sEV from BLV-infected cattle compared with those from uninfected cattle. Milk sEV were isolated from three BLV-infected and three uninfected cattle. Proteomic analysis was performed by using a comprehensive nanoLC-MS/MS method. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were used to evaluate the candidates for uniquely or differentially expressed proteins in milk sEV from BLV-infected cattle. Proteomic analysis revealed a total of 1330 common proteins in milk sEV among BLV-infected cattle, whereas 118 proteins were uniquely expressed compared with those from uninfected cattle. Twenty-six proteins in milk sEV were differentially expressed proteins more than two-fold significant difference ( p < 0.05) in BLV-infected cattle. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that the candidates for uniquely or differentially expressed proteins in milk sEV had been involved in diverse biological activities including metabolic processes, cellular processes, respond to stimulus, binding, catalytic activities, cancer pathways, focal adhesion, and so on. Taken together, the present findings provided a novel insight into the proteomes of milk sEV from BLV-infected cattle.
Ahmed Hassan
added a research item
The development of an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, is a global priority. Here, we compared the protective capacity of intranasal and intramuscular delivery of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a pre-fusion stabilized spike protein (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in Golden Syrian hamsters. While immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induced robust spike protein specific antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus, antibody levels in serum were higher in hamsters vaccinated by an intranasal compared to intramuscular route. Accordingly, against challenge with SARS-CoV-2, ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S immunized hamsters were protected against less weight loss and had reduced viral infection in nasal swabs and lungs, and reduced pathology and inflammatory gene expression in the lungs, compared to ChAd-Control immunized hamsters. Intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provided superior protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. These findings support intranasal administration of the ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease, and possibly transmission.
Abdeljelil Ghram
added 10 research items
This study aims to investigate the thermoprotective properties of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis. Extracts were prepared from cladodes (CE) and mesocarps (ME), then subjected to a spectrophotometric and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of non-stressed sheep, supplemented with CE, ME, betanin or α-tocopherol, and subjected to two thermal treatments: 40 and 41 °C, for 6 h. Viable lymphocytes and H 2 O 2 production were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of ME was 3.43 folds higher than CE. The LC-MS analysis of CE and ME allowed identifying 11 phenolic acids, 2 flavanones, 6 flavones, 3 flavonols and 1 betanin type betacyanin. Lymphocytes mortality increased linearly as function of the severity and the duration of heat stress. This mortality was correlated with H 2 O 2 production. At 41 °C, only ME allowed maintaining lymphocytes viability. Moreover, ME was more efficient than CE in reducing H 2 O 2 production. This thermoprotection was ensured by betaxanthin and betacyanin pigments. Interestingly, betanin was more efficient than α-tocopherol in preventing hyperthermia-induced lymphocytes’ mortality. We report here for the first time the thermoprotective properties of cladodes and mesocarps of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis. Betanin was able to maintain lymphocyte viability through reducing H 2 O 2 production, and therefore the oxidative-induced heat stress.
The interaction between a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/CK/TUN/145/2012), a H9N2 Tunisian isolate, and a vaccine strain (H120) of avian infectious bronchitis, administered simultaneously or sequentially three days apart to chicks during 20 days, was evaluated using ELISA antibody levels, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses and histopathology examination. First, the in vivo replication interference of avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was evaluated using qRT-PCR to detect accurately either AIV or IBV genomes or viral copy numbers during dual infections. Second, we have determined the amount of specific antibodies in sera of chick's infected with AIV alone, IBV alone, mixed AIV + IBV, IBV then AIV or AIV IBV 3 days later using an ELISA test. Finally, histopathological analyses of internal organs from inoculated chicks were realized. Quantitative results of AIV and IBV co-infection showed that interferences between the two viruses yielded decreased viral growth. However, in the case of super-infection, the second virus, either AIV or IBV, induced a decrease in the growth of the first inoculated virus. According to our results, vaccine application was safe and do not interfere with AIV H9N2 infection, and does not enhance such infection. In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
The clinical severity, rapid transmission and human losses due to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) have led the World Health Organization to declare it a pandemic. Traditional epidemiological tools are being significantly complemented by recent innovations especially using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. AI‐based model systems could improve pattern recognition of disease spread in populations and predictions of outbreaks in different geographical locations. A variable and a minimal amount of data are available for the signs and symptoms of Covid‐19, allowing a composite of maximum likelihood algorithms to be employed to enhance the accuracy of disease diagnosis and to identify potential drugs. AI‐based forecasting and predictions are expected to complement traditional approaches by helping public health officials to select better responses against Covid‐19 cases. AI‐based approaches have helped address the key issues but a significant impact on the global healthcare industry is yet to be achieved. The capability of AI to address the challenges may make it a key player in the operation of healthcare systems in future. Here, we present an overview of the prospective applications of the AI model systems in healthcare settings during the ongoing Covid‐19 pandemic.
Bader Y Alhatlani
added 6 research items
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV), a major public health issue worldwide with the potential for transmission via blood transfusion, in blood donors in the Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n = 1,078) were collected from volunteer blood donors from January to April 2019 and tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Overall, the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM among blood donors was 5.7% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, the seropositive rates of anti-HEV IgG and IgM were significantly higher in non-Saudi donors (22.1% and 7.8%) than in Saudi donors (3% and 0.2%). The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG increased with age; however, there was no correlation between gender and anti-HEV IgG and/or IgM. The seroprevalence of HEV among blood donors in the Qassim Region was lower than previous estimates for other regions of the country. Further studies covering a wider geographical area are needed to validate and expand the findings and to determine the importance of HEV screening in the region.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infection that emerged in the Middle East in 2012. Symptoms range from mild to severe and include both respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. The virus is mainly present in camel populations with occasional spill overs into humans. The severity of infection in humans is influenced by numerous factors and similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underlying health complications can play a major role. Currently, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are co-incident in the Middle East and a rapid way is required of sequencing MERS-CoV to derive genotype information for molecular epidemiology. Additionally, complicating factors in MERS-CoV infections are co-infections that require clinical management. The ability to rapidly characterise these infections would be advantageous. To rapidly sequence MERS-CoV, we developed an amplicon-based approach coupled to Oxford Nanopore long read length sequencing. The advantage of this approach is that insertions and deletions can be identified-which are the major drivers of genotype change in coronaviruses. This and a metagenomic approach were evaluated on clinical samples from patients with MERS. The data illustrated that whole genome or near whole genome information on MERS-CoV could be rapidly obtained. This approach provided data on both consensus genomes and the presence of minor variants including deletion mutants. Whereas, the metagenomic analysis provided information of the background microbiome.
Aim: The aim of this study was to computationally predict conserved RNA sequences and structures known as cis-acting RNA elements (CREs) in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome. Materials & methods: Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze and predict CREs by obtaining viral sequences from available databases. Results: Computational analysis revealed the presence of RNA stem-loop structures within the 3' end of the ORF1ab region analogous to previously identified SARS-CoV genomic packaging signals. Alignment-based RNA secondary structure predictions of the 5' end of the SARS-CoV-2 genome also identified conserved CREs. Conclusion: These CREs may be potential vaccine and/or antiviral therapeutic targets; however, further studies are warranted to confirm their roles in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle.
Yassien Badr
added a research item
Milk extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoparticles that contain proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs, DNAs, and lipids that involved in several biological functions. Milk EVs provide proteins that could represent relevant novel biomarkers for monitoring of different diseases such as breast cancer and mastitis in humans and animals, respectively. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic virus that causes progressive B-cell lymphosarcoma in cattle. Here, we aimed to identify proteins in milk EVs from BLV-infected cattle compared with those from uninfected cattle. Proteomic analysis was performed by using a comprehensive nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC- MS/MS) approach. Identified proteins were analyzed by using a proteomic software, Scaffold-Data Independent Acquisition (Scaffold-DIA).
Vincent Lacoste
added 4 research items
The Caribbean and South American French Overseas Territories (CSAFOT) are the region most heavily affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in France. Although dominated by HIV-1 subtype B, the detection of non-B subtypes and the great proportion of HIV-positive persons born abroad demonstrated the potential for local spread of non-B subtype strains in CSAFOT. To reconstruct the epidemiologic dynamics of major non-B subtype clusters spreading in CSAFOT. We conducted phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of 2,523 HIV-1 pol sequences collected from patients living in Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Guiana from 1995 to 2018. A large variety of HIV-1 non-B subtype strains (eight subtypes, twelve CRFs and multiple URFs) have been introduced in CSAFOT and their prevalence significantly increases over time in Martinique and Guadeloupe. We identified twelve major transmission networks of non-B subtypes (CRF02_AG and subtypes A3, C, D, and F1) that probably arose in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana and mainland France between the late 1970s and the middle 2000s. Phylogeographic analyses support frequent non-B subtype viral transmissions within CSAFOT as well as transatlantic transmission between CSAFOT and mainland France. Domestic transmission networks of non-B subtype variants in CSAFOT comprise both men having sex with men and heterosexual individuals from different age groups. Different HIV-1 non-B subtype variants were sequentially introduced in CSAFOT between the late 1970s and the middle 2000s and are currently spreading through domestic, regional and/or transatlantic networks of individuals from different age and risk groups.
Since 2005, we have recorded annual episodes of alphaherpesvirus outbreaks in chicks of magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificens on the Ile du Grand Connétable Nature Reserve in French Guiana. In 2009, we found sooty terns, Onychoprion fuscatus, that live sympatrically with frigatebirds, with visible clinical signs of a potential viral infection. To determine if the symptoms observed in sooty terns could be associated with an alphaherpesvirus previously identified in frigatebirds, we carried out molecular screening of samples collected from seven individuals. We identified and characterized a novel viral sequence from five birds. BLAST searches, pairwise nucleotide, and amino acid sequence comparisons, as well as phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the sequence belonged to the Herpesviridae family, of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. We observed that it clustered with strains isolated from Podargidae (Caprimulgiformes), Columbiformes, and Falconiformes, but was distinct from the frigatebird herpesvirus. We have tentatively named it Onychoprion fuscatus alphaherpesvirus 1, (OfusAHV1). These two sequences, although found syntopic on the Ile du Grand Connétable, belong to two distinct alphaherpesvirus strains. Thus, the clinical symptoms showed by sooty terns do not likely result from a cross-species transmission event. Future work is needed to better characterize the virus and to investigate herpesvirus prevalence in healthy, free-ranging sooty terns, and to assess the impact of the virus on population viability.
In the past decade, a large number of studies have detected herpesvirus sequences from many bat species around the world. Nevertheless, the discovery of bat herpesviruses is geographically uneven. Of the various bat species tested to date, only a few were from the New World. Seeking to investigate the distribution and diversity of herpesviruses circulating in neotropical bats, we carried out molecular screening of 195 blood DNA samples from 11 species of three bat families (Phyllostomidae, Mormoopidae, and Molossidae). Using polymerase chain reaction amplification, with degenerate consensus primers targeting highly conserved amino acid motifs of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase and Glycoprotein B genes, we characterized novel viral sequences from all tested species. BLAST searches, pairwise nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons, as well as phylogenetic analyses confirmed that they all belonged to the Herpesviridae family, of the Beta- and Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. Fourteen partial DNA polymerase gene sequences, of which three beta- and 11 gamma-herpesviruses, were detected. A total of 12 partial Glycoprotein B gene sequences, all gamma-herpesviruses, were characterized. Every sequence was specific to a bat species and in some species (Desmodus rotundus, Carollia perspicillata, and Pteronotus rubiginosus) multiple viruses were found. Phylogenetic analyses of beta- and gammaherpesvirus sequences led to the identification of bat-specific clades. Those composed of sequences obtained from different bat species belonging to distinct subfamilies follow the taxonomy of bats. This study confirms the astonishing diversity of bat herpesviruses and broadens our knowledge of their host range. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes the fact that, to better appreciate the evolutionary history of these viruses, much remains to be done at various taxonomic levels.
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim
added an update
#Virology" is the #official_journal of the #World_Society_for_Virology. #AGREEMENT made as of 1 October 2020 by and between Elsevier INC, and the #World_Society_for_Virology. The WSV and #Virology [Elsevier] will work together to make science easily available to #virologists #worldwide. WSV provides #free_membership to virologists and #Virology" does not require a fee for publishing articles. Both bodies have joint objectives that are shared by making life simple for virologists regardless of borders or economic status. We invite #virologists worldwide to #join the #WSV to share our #NOBEL objectives and to submit your #manuscripts to #Virology". Narayan Rishi Hafez Mohamed Hafez Walid H Kilany Ahmed Samy Hussein A.M Al. Bayati . Al. Baiati Ulrike Blohm Thierry Morin Samy Kasem Sayeh Ezzikouri Sayed Abdelwahab Munir Iqbal Ahmed Hassan Adelina Rosca Abd Arafa Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla Benani Bennani Abdelouaheb Bader Y Alhatlani Yassien Badr Deleted Profile Hoang Xuan Su Musa Abidemi Muhibi Yassine Kasmi Yashpal S. Malik Ana Matos Jean Carlos Bettoni William C Wilson Mahmoud M. Naguib Maria Söderlund-Venermo Michael Nevels Miguel A. Martín-Acebes Mary Louise Penrith Private Profile Private Profile Stacey Human Nadia Storm Idris N. Abdullahi Mohamud Sheek-Hussein Azeem Mehmood Butt Ziad Memish Carmen San Martín Jesús L Romalde Jens P Teifke Private Profile Basem M. Ahmed David Polo David Suarez Daniel Perez Janet M Daly Janusz Tadeusz Paweska Marietjie Venter Matthew D Moore Denis Korneev @Anupam Varma Fernando Rodriguez Ahmad F Eweas Faruku Bande Helena Lage Ferreira Sibnarayan Datta Hicham Sid Irina Isakova-Sivak Anna Serquina Antonio Lavazza Jinyang Zhang Elif Aral Brenda Eugenia Aguilera Gloria Ramirez-Nieto Cristina W Cunha Deleted Profile Radmila Metlas Yashpal S. Malik Olga St. Latinovic Kirill Sharshov Vasiliy Yu Marchenko Fernando Rosado Spilki John L Spouge
 
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become fatal for the world with affected population crossing over 25 million in more than 217 countries, consequently declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Unfortunately, neither specific prophylactic or therapeutic drugs nor vaccines are available. To address the unmet medical needs, we explored a strategy identifying new compounds targeting the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro crystal structure (PDB ID: 6LU7) a combination of in silico screening, molecular docking, and dynamic approaches, a set of 5000 compounds of the ZINC database were screened. As a result, we identified and ranked the top 20 compounds based on the scores of ligand-interaction, their drug-likeness properties, and their predicted antiviral efficacies. The prominent drug-like and potent inhibitory compounds are 2-[2-(2-aminoacetyl) aminoacetyl] amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanamide (ZINC000004762511), 6′-fluoroaristeromycin (ZINC000001483267) and cyclo (L-histidyl-L-histidyl) (ZINC000005116916) scaffolds. Further in vitro and in vivo validations are required to demonstrate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities.
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus is capable of human-to-human transmission, and is spreading rapidly round the globe, with markedly high fatality rates. Unfortunately, there are neither vaccines nor specific therapies available to combat it, and the developments of such approaches depend on pursuing multiple avenues in biomedical science. Accordingly, in this paper we highlight one such avenue—nanobodies—for potential utility in therapeutic and diagnostic interventions to combat COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
Sayeh Ezzikouri
added a research item
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) and represents a global pandemic affecting more than 26 million people and has claimed >870,000 lives worldwide. Diagnostic tests for SARS-COV-2 infection commonly use nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). As an alternative specimen, we investigated the potential use of the real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-COV-2 in saliva samples in large suspected-COVID-19 patients in Kuwait. NPS and saliva samples pairs were prospectively collected from 891 COVID-19 suspected patients in Kuwait and analyzed using TaqPath™ COVID-19 multiplex RT-PCR. Of the 891 patients, 38.61 % (344/891) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 4.83 % (43/891) were equivocal, and 56.56 % (504/891) were negative with NPS by RT-PCR. For saliva, 34.23 % (305/891) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 3.14 (28/891) were equivocal, and 62.63 % (558/891) were negative. From 344 confirmed cases for SARS-CoV-2 with NPS samples, 287 (83.43 %) (95 % CI, 79.14–86.99) were positive with saliva specimens. Moreover, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in saliva were 83.43 % (95 % CI: 79.07–87.20) and 96.71 % (95 % CI: 94.85–98.04 %), respectively. An analysis of the agreement between the NPS and saliva specimens demonstrated 91.25 % observed agreement (κ coefficient = 0.814, 95 % CI, 0.775–0.854). This study demonstrates that saliva can be a noninvasive specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR.
Feray Alkan
added 4 research items
Numerous viruses, including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpes virus 4 (BoHV-4), and other pathogens are the most common causes of reproductive disorders and are responsible for huge economic losses in livestock production. This study investigates the aetiological role of BoHV-4 in fertility problems such as abortions, stillbirth and birth with unviable calves. Retrospective samples from 38 animals, including 17 aborting cows, 17 aborted foetuses, three stillborn calves and one unviable newborn calf were analysed. The BoHV-4 genome was detected in 25 (65.7%) animals by polymerase chain reaction. In 14 of these infected animals, we detected co infection with BVDV, while the co-presence of BoHV-1 was also detected in one animal. In addition to the high prevalence of BoHV-4 genome in materials related to fertility problems, isolation of BoHV-4 from the brain of one stillborn calf indicated a causal link between BoHV-4 and fertility problems, such as abortion, stillbirths or birth with unviable calves.
Although members of rotavirus group A (RVA) are major enteric pathogens of humans and animals of many species, their impact on the health of small ruminants is not well documented. In this study, we conducted a molecular analysis of VP4, VP7, VP6 and NSP4 genes of RVAs detected using a commercial antigen ELISA in small ruminants with or without diarrhea in Turkey. Of the RVAs detected in sheep, one strain (Kutahya) was characterized as genotype G8P[1]-I2-E2. Two others (Ankara-1 and Ankara-2) were identified as NSP4 E2 and VP6 I2 genotypes, although they were untyped for the VP4 and VP7 genes. The RVAs from two goats were characterized as genotype G6P [1]-I2-E2. This is the first detection of in goats RVA genotypes G6P [1], which had previously only been found in cattle in Turkey, and of RVA in sheep. The study extends our current knowledge about the circulation of two RVA G genotypes, G6 and G8, in goat herds, and the detection of the G8 genotype in sheep in Turkey. This provides further information about the molecular epidemiology of RVAs in different animal species and indicates that additional surveillance programs are needed to determine the epidemiology of RVA in small ruminants and other species.
To investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine enteric caliciviruses, a total of 167 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened. Bovine noroviruses (BoNoVs) and neboviruses were detected in 56 (33.5%) and 37 (22.1%) fecal samples, respectively. Sequences of the RdRp and capsid gene of selected BoNoVs showed that the GIII.1 and GIII.2 genotypes were in circulation in Turkey. Two of the BoNoV strains were identified as recombinant strains (GIII.P1/GIII.2). All examined neboviruses possessed a Nebraska-like RdRp gene. The two nebovirus strains were classified into lineage 4 based on phylogenetic analysis of VP1 amino acid sequences. One of them showed evidence of a recombination event within the S domain. This study is thus the first to reveal the presence of the BoNoV GIII.1 genotype and recombinant strains of BoNoV and neboviruses in Turkey.
Emad Elgendy
added 14 research items
Close interaction between avian influenza (AI) viruses and humans in Egypt appears to have resulted in many of the worldwide cases of human infections by both H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses. Egypt is regarded as a hot spot of AI virus evolution. Although no natural reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses has been reported so far, their cocirculation in Egypt may allow emergence of reassortants that may present a significant public health risk. Using reverse genetics, we report here the first comprehensive data showing that H5N1-N9N2 reassortants have fairly high genetic compatibility and possibly higher pathogenicity in mammals, including humans, than the parental viruses. Our results provide insight into the emergence potential of avian H5N1-H9N2 reassortants that may pose a high public health risk.
Microbial proteases are responsible for proteolytic cleavage activation of Influenza A Virus (H5N1 and H9N2) hemagglutinin (HA). We examined the proteolytic activities of some pathogenic bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The contribution of endogenous and microbial proteases (exogenous proteases) in the avian influenza pathogenicity were studied by inoculation of three groups of embryonated chicken eggs (SPF). The first group was inoculated simultaneously with either viruses; H5 and H9, with different concentrations of bacterial proteases. The second group was inoculated with pre-incubated viruses with different concentrations of the bacterial proteases. The third group was control (virus only, protease only and PBS). An increase in viruses’ titer was observed in eggs inoculated with virus treated with microbial proteases incomparable to that inoculated with untreated viruses. These results confirmed the synergism between influenza virus and pathogenic bacteria based on proteolytic activation of the hemagglutinin by bacterial proteases. Further, H9N2 virus titer was significantly increased as compared to H5N1 virus titer in eggs with prominent increase of H9N2 virulence that was noted in the death time of the eggs reaching that of H5N1. M. gallisepticum showed an increase in virus titer but lower than that caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealing the difference between serine and cysteine proteases in cleavage activation of influenza virus HA.
This study aimed to prepare hyper-immune chicken IgY against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and studying its immunogenicity against field isolates of NDV. Ten white Hy-line layers, and ten local house breeds were used. The birds received an initial immunization followed by two booster doses at time intervals of 2 weeks. Throughout the experiment (8-11) weeks, serum samples were collected weekly with daily egg collection. The purified IgY specificity and titers in sera and egg yolk were determined using HI and neutralization tests against NDV vaccinal strain and field isolates. Significant titers of IgY were detected against NDV with comparable neutralization efficacy for the two breeds. Thus, both hen breeds can be efficiently used for production of protective IgY against NDV field isolates.
Yassien Badr