Project

WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network (www.waterlat.org)

Goal: WATERLAT-GOBACIT is an inter-and trans disciplinary (X-disciplinary) network dedicated to teaching, research, and practical interventions in the fields of water politics and management. Its strategic objetives are:

Contributing to the theoretical and methodological debate on water-related research

Consolidating an international research network dedicated to the study of the conditions and requirements for sustainable and democratic water management

Contributing towards enhancing the chances for practical achievements in the reduction of structural inequality and injustice in relation to the control of and the access to water sources and essential water services

Date: 1 January 2005

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Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
Introdução Este texto tem por objetivo discutir alguns dos obstáculos e oportunidades centrais que enfrentam a política e a gestão dos serviços públicos essenciais de saneamento básico. Dado o caráter sucinto do trabalho, o texto está organizado a partir de 5 Proposições para estimular o debate. Trata-se de Proposições articuladas em torno a controvérsias concetuais, perguntas e achados de pesquisa, com ênfase em contradições entre mitos, crenças, falsas "verdades" (fake "truths") e realidades empiricamente demonstráveis com respeito ao tema abordado. Proposição 1 O estado da política, gestão, provisão e acesso aos serviços públicos essenciais de saneamento básico não é somente um indicador central do nível de "desenvolvimento", mas, ainda mais importante, é um indicador do estágio do processo de democratização das sociedades. Ciente das contradições e críticas legítimas e necessárias feitas à noção de "desenvolvimento" dominante, por exemplo no campo das políticas públicas e outras áreas de conhecimento e intervenção prática, neste texto desconsidero as concepções teleológicas do desenvolvimento como um processo "inevitável", "linear", intrinsecamente benéfico ou, como acontece frequentemente, como sinônimo de "crescimento 1 Em nome da brevidade do artigo, não menciono as formas neocoloniais e neoimperiais que se estabeleceram depois da independência dos países da região desde o Século XIX, mas que tem obviamente grande relevância para compreender em profundidade a influência dos "condicionantes sistêmicos econômico" um dos vários reducionismos que permeiam a noção de "desenvolvimento" dominante, neste caso o reducionismo economicista. Em minha pesquisa, retomando a perspectiva do sociólogo alemão Norbert Elias sobre o tema, eu resgato o conceito de "desenvolvimento", entendido como um processo resultante dos complexos entramados gerados pelas interdependências entre seres humanos, e que forma parte de processos de mudança social de longo prazo (ELIAS, 2012). Nessa perspectiva, o "desenvolvimento" corresponde ao tipo de mudanças sociais progressivas que implicam alguma forma de melhoramento das condições sociais, como no exemplo dos processos que Elias denominava "democratização funcional" que pressupõe mudanças nos balances de poder entre setores e classes sociais, que, no período histórico considerado por este autor, durante a transição das ordens sociais feudais à formação dos estados nação na Europa, particularmente tomando os exemplos de Grã-Bretanha, França, e Alemanha, se caracterizaram, segundo ele, por uma diminuição relativa das assimetrias de poder, em favor das grandes maiorias(Ib.). Neste sentido, historicamente América Latina teve uma experiência muito limitada com relação ao processo de "democratização funcional" já que a região se caracteriza pela persistência de desigualdades estruturais extremas, de longo prazo, um processo que inclusive a independência de Espanha e Portugal 1 , não só não resolveu, mas em muitos casos aprofundou como resultado dos e "forças inerciais" que, em grande medida, determinam o ritmo e direção dos processos de democratização e desenvolvimento em nossa região, incluídos os processos relativos ao tema central deste artigo (CASTRO, 2012). Gesta, V.10, N.2, pp. 1-14 (2022). https://periodicos.ufba.br/index.php/gesta.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
The present article has the following problems to be addressed: what are the transformations of the new sanitation framework on inter-federative relations? With the general objective of analyzing the interfederative relations from the new sanitation framework, supported by the following specific objectives: a) to point out the changes in our federative framework at the level of interfederative relations; b) verify how the public administration literature addresses the issue of sanitation. proposed, the methodology designed was composed of a bibliometric analysis, documentary research and analysis of secondary data. In this way, it was possible to perceive a modification, or subversion, of the notion of federalism in order to implement the regionalization of sanitation. The various micro regional models have their peculiarities that only seem similar.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
Thus, within the scope of the Privaqua project, it was possible to draw up an analytical framework of the most relevant details of each enacted law. This is extremely relevant, as it helps us to reflect on this phenomenon, which is still marked by uncertainties. However, this analytical framework, represented here by a small portion in the Table, points to details that need to be deepened over the next few years as regionalization models are implemented in the States.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
A bibliometric analysis was carried out through a systematic search of scientific information, using the specialized Scopus® database as a source. In preliminary research some key expressions were obtained that were fundamental for achieving the objectives: basic sanitation, water security, climate change and disasters. Table 1, presented in the results with the respective quantities of documents generated, shows some examples of initial search combinations that were used in the database of Scopus® data. After carrying out the searches with the equations in table 1, it was observed that the excessive use of the OR connective could be biasing the searches and so new test equations were formulated, seen in table 2, also presented in the results with the respective quantities of documents generated. As an additional tool for the construction of the state of the art, the VOSviewer software was used to visualize bibliometric networks, through the which bibliographic maps were obtained. It is worth noting that all surveys were surveyed in English and Spanish. The Mendeley software was also used as an aid tool. for verification of document information. The search criteria for information were as follows: a) use only of keywords in English and Spanish; b) publications in an interval not exceeding ten years (2010 to 2020), keeping up to date; c) articles were considered as priority sources of analysis; and d) the keyword smart city (or plural) must appear in the title or research summary, as a determinant of the object of study.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
O período pandêmico no Brasil foi bastante movimentado no campo das reformas no setor de saneamento. Primeiro, em 2020, veio a lei n. 14.026, nomeado como “novo marco do saneamento”, que na prática promoveu um processo de grandes mudanças na lei 11.445/2007 e outras leis, como o Estatuto das Cidades e das Metrópoles. Bom, como se sabe, nada é tão ruim que não possa piorar. Pois bem, está tramitando no Congresso Nacional o PL 4546/2021, que está sendo considerado um novo marco da água no país. Esse projeto de lei tem como escopo a criação da Política Nacional de Infraestrutura Hídrica (PNIH). Essa proposta tem o poder de provocar mudanças no atual marco da água, lei n. 9.433/97, e na lei que criou a Agência Nacional de Água e Saneamento Básico (ANA). Assim como o marco do saneamento, esse projeto tramita sem uma discussão mais aprofundada e democrática, de modo a incluir todo o Sistema Nacional de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos (SINGREH), sendo mais uma medida top down do governo federal, tendo em vista que a proposta se originou no executivo. The pandemic period in Brazil was very busy in the field of reforms in the sanitation sector. First, in 2020, law n. 14,026, named as “new sanitation landmark”, which in practice promoted a process of major changes in law 11.445/2007 and other laws, such as the Statute of Cities and Metropolises. Well, as you know, nothing is so bad that it can't get worse. Well, PL 4546/2021 is being processed in the National Congress, which is being considered a new water milestone in the country. This bill has as scope the creation of the National Water Infrastructure Policy (PNIH). This proposal has the power to bring about changes in the current water mark, law n. 9,433/97, and in the law that created the National Water and Basic Sanitation Agency (ANA). As with the sanitation framework, this project is being processed without a more in-depth and democratic discussion, in order to include the entire National Water Resources Management System (SINGREH), being another top-down measure of the federal government, considering that the proposal originated in the executive.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
The new legal framework for basic sanitation in Brazil (law no. Basic, which has not expired and has not become obsolete, having been partially revoked. In summary, the new law plans the management of sanitation in areas that cover drinking water supply, sanitary sewage, urban drainage and management
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added 3 research items
The management and governance of water resources is essential to ensure the conservation of water shared between countries that make up a transboundary watershed. The environmental, social and economic complexity of the Pan-Amazon region requires that the management of the uses of water in its hydrographic basin be effective, in order to guarantee the quality and quantity adequate for its various purposes. Thus, the present work aimed to analyze the complexity related to the management of transboundary water resources in the Amazon Basin in a context of crisis. The research method used was the deductive, scientific procedure, using bibliographic research. It is concluded that despite the strategic relevance of the Amazon Basin and the existence of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, there are difficulties in the implementation of an international approach to the management of shared water resources.
The management and governance of water resources is essential to ensure the conservation of water shared between countries that make up a transboundary watershed. The environmental, social and economic complexity of the Pan-Amazon region requires that the management of the uses of water in its hydrographic basin be effective, in order to guarantee the quality and quantity adequate for its various purposes. Thus, the present work aimed to analyze the complexity related to the management of transboundary water resources in the Amazon Basin in a context of crisis. The research method used was the deductive, scientific procedure, using bibliographic research. It is concluded that despite the strategic relevance of the Amazon Basin and the existence of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, there are difficulties in the implementation of an international approach to the management of shared water resources.
Um dos problemas mais graves que tem afetado a popula- ção brasileira, nas últimas décadas, é o modelo de reprodução desigual de acesso à água potável de qualidade. O cenário se configura como uma das principais tensões e geradora de confli- tos sociais. O lócus social urbano é a arena mais conflitante pela falta de infraestrutura de acesso à água, o que tem resultado em situações de riscos e vulnerabilidade das populações mais caren- tes, historicamente marcadas por desigualdades sociais, econô- micas além de espaciais. Em relação a premissa elucidada, um obstáculo importante é a dificuldade de reconhecimento por parte da população da necessidade premente de se criar novos mecanismos, canais de diálogo e garantia do direito de acesso à água. O enfrentamen- to dessa situação se depara com a necessidade de construção de processos democráticos e éticos, de representação social que fos- sem capazes de ampliar a organização do cidadão, assim como a articulação de saberes e experiências. Não obstante, a estrutura de gestão da água não tem pautado por estratégias participati- vas, que visem o reconhecimento da justiça social, da garantia de direito à água e do meio ambiente sustentável. Existem obstá- culos para a ampliação de mecanismos institucionais no sentido de modificar os campos de decisões, regulações e políticas de Estado para o acesso equitativo da população à água potável e ao esgotamento sanitário. Nesse contexto, procura-se enfatizar a presença ainda forte da obsolescência dos sistemas, da morosidade das ações de polí- ticas de ampliação dos serviços e do planejamento no campo da gestão hídrica. Esse mesmo sistema de gestão carece por ações educativas. A segurança hídrica de qualidade é um direito essen- cial do cidadão, relacionada aos fins como “universalidade, equi- dade e qualidade”, o que representa uma cidadania emancipada no sentido de promover a essência da natureza pública, além de sua inserção social. Portanto esta coletânea, tem o intuito de examinar a dinâ- mica e os modelos de governança da água implantados no Se- miárido Paraibano, Bacia Amazônica, Bacia do Rio Itajaí (Santa Catarina), Campina Grande (Paraíba) e Imaruí (Santa Catarina), na perspectiva de analisar de um lado as condições agudas de desigualdade e injustiça em torno do acesso à água, com ênfase na construção e efetivação da cidadania hídrica no país; e, de ou- tro, mapear conflitos engendrados no processo de governança da água. Destarte, pretendeu-se identificar até que ponto demandas e interesses de grupos sociais com baixa capacidade de represen- tação nos fóruns políticos e institucionais interferem no desenho das políticas hídricas, nos aspectos normativos e legais diante do amplo espectro de fatores que precisam ser considerados na gestão de recursos hídricos. Esse trabalho é fruto de um projeto intitulado “Arenas, disputas e desafios nos múltiplos arranjos de gestão das águas” (MCTIC/CNPQ n° 28/2018 UNIVERSAL, processo n° 424330/2018-0. A inspiração da equipe nasceu de um projeto que antecedeu a esse, quando os pesquisadores tiveram oportuni- dade de contextualizar este problema de pesquisa em diversas missões de estudo e pesquisas. Nesse contexto, os trabalhos que compõem esta coletânea são resultado de uma seleção que levou em consideração a temática, a qualidade teórica-metodológica e identificação de avanços e desafios na questão do direito de acesso à água. Destaca-se aqui o registro de diferentes experi- ências e vivências em três regiões brasileiras (Nordeste, Norte e Sul) nos estados Paraíba, Santa Catarina e Amazonas. Portanto, a partir do projeto de pesquisa “Arenas, disputas e desafios nos múltiplos arranjos de gestão das águas”, a equipe que envolve a Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), Fundação Universi- dade Regional de Blumenau (FURB) e Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, se viu integrada a partir de um tema comum: a questão dos conflitos, disputas e desafios em torno da água. Apresentada da questão central da obra, resta então fazer uma breve apresentação dos treze capítulos que fazem parte desta coletânea. Na primeira parte foram selecionados artigos que contemplam diferentes conceitos teórico-metodológicos em gestão e governança da água. Na segunda parte faz-se alusão a algumas experiências em gestão da água, incluindo um artigo in- ternacional que compara a experiência de Aprendizagem social para governança da Água de Xalapa, do México, com a experiên- cia do Programa Novos Talentos, Blumenau (SC). Sobre os capítulos que integram esta coletânea O primeiro capítulo elaborado por Larissa Truccolo e Cleide Cálgaro, ambas estudiosas no campo do direito humano à água, teve como objetivo central analisar a gestão da água como um direito supra-humano para reduzir a crise da disponibilidade hídrica e os conflitos socioambientais por água. O capítulo traz que o ser humano, causador dos problemas socioambien- tais, ainda é o foco prioritário do direito à água, de modo que a reversão deste enunciado auxilia numa compreensão mais holís- tica da água, facilitando a redução da crise hídrica e dos conflitos socioambientais por água. Essa perspectiva amplia o escopo dos conceitos teórico-metodológicos no campo da gestão e gover- nança da água. No segundo capítulo, Amilson Albuquerque, Erivaldo Mo- reira e Wilton Maia resolveram discorrer acerca da necessidade de mudança de paradigma, uma vez que o Direito de Águas tem assumido papel central e estratégico no atual contexto de crise hí- drica experenciada, evidenciando a existência de convergências e discrepâncias que apontam tanto para constante interferência entre as esferas estatais, quanto para ações vertidas na busca pelo equacionamento de demandas, soluções de conflitos e tomadas de decisões. Eles trouxeram no corpo do trabalho os seguintes questionamentos: quais os limites da tutela jurídica do direito de acesso à água? Reconhecidos tais limites, como solucioná- los juridicamente? São questões cruciais para o engendramento da gestão e governança da água. Segundo os autores, observou-se a existência de poucos estudos sobre o tema e a necessidade de aprofundamentos, voltados à otimização da educação hídrica e participação popular em processos de tomada de decisões mul- tilaterais. O terceiro capítulo de Júlia Bastos Souza, Lucas da Silva Rudolpho e Cristiane Mansur traz uma abordagem que insere os serviços ecossistêmicos como variável essencial para ser pensada no âmbito do planejamento urbano. O texto teve como objetivo analisar a produção científica sobre serviços ecossistêmicos no planejamento urbano a partir de buscas de artigos científicos dis- poníveis no Portal de Periódicos da Capes, no período de 2010- 2021, usando os seguintes termos-chave em português, espanhol e inglês: “serviços ecossistêmicos” e “planejamento urbano”. Essa é uma estratégia interessante para se ter uma visão pano- râmica acerca da questão proposta. A maior parte dos trabalhos nesse campo envolve a avaliação dos serviços ecossistêmicos em planos e processos de planejamento urbano, avaliação de servi- ços ecossistêmicos urbanos e projetos de cenários futuros. Por- tanto, esse capítulo auxiliará na contextualização dos serviços ecossistêmicos até como variável a ser considerada na gestão e governança da água. O quarto capítulo elaborado por Ana Alice De Carli e Leo- nardo de Andrade insere o saneamento como direito fundamen- tal no contexto da gestão e governança. Um dos objetivos é abor- dar a importância do papel do Estado Regulador no segmento dos serviços de saneamento básico para que, além de impor li- mitações quanto à cobrança dos serviços, cobrar que os mesmos sejam prestados de forma contínua (como deve ser todo o serviço de natureza pública), responsável e eficiente. O capítulo chama a atenção para a necessidade de concretização do direito funda- mental ao saneamento. No quinto capítulo, entabulado por Pedro Curvello e Lívia Soalheira, aborda-se a competência legislativa quanto ao reuso da água, tema de suma importância para consecução de uma economia circular da água. Diante de um vácuo legislativo e de uma indefinição constitucional, procurou-se estabelecer alguns parâmetros no sentido de sabermos quem deve (ou deveria) le- gislar e regulamentar tecnicamente o reúso de água. Os autores procuraram estabelecer diretrizes interpretativas para solucio- nar aparentes (ou reais) conflitos normativos que podem surgir do quadro acima. Margherita Paolo Poto e Giulia Parola escrevem o sexto capítulo, apontando para a importância de se discutir a gover- nança dos oceanos. Reforçar e melhorar o diálogo entre a natu- reza e os seres humanos e, assim, abrir as portas da governança ambiental aos defensores do nosso planeta (principalmente, mas não apenas, ONGs ambientais, comunidades indígenas e locais que reconhecem a água e a terra como uma parte inseparável da existência) pode servir para transformar os seres humanos, de executores coercitivos da soberania do Estado a administrado- res da natureza e de seus direitos. A necessidade de expandir os horizontes de investigação além do pensamento de coordenadas espaço-temporais em termos de uma arena global e fluida pre- para o cenário para a construção de um modelo de governança baseado em direitos. O sétimo capítulo abre a segunda parte do livro que trata das experiências de gestão da água, elaborado pelos professores José Irivaldo e Talden Farias, e pelo doutorando Leonardo Nasci- mento, traz a questão da gestão e governança da bacia amazôni- ca, a mais importante no nosso país e também no contexto inter- nacional. O capítulo teve como objetivo analisar a complexidade relacionada à gestão dos recursos hídricos transfronteiriços da Bacia Amazônica em um contexto de crise. Apesar da relevância estratégica da Bacia Amazônica e da existência do Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, há dificuldades na implementação de uma abordagem internacional para gerenciamento dos recursos hídricos compartilhados. O oitavo capítulo traz a experiência do comitê da bacia do Vale do Itajaí, em Santa Catarina, sob a escrita de Stella Maris Martins, Hiago de Souza e Gilberto dos Santos, o texto aponta questões que devem ser consideradas na gestão e governança a partir dos comitês de bacia, menor unidade de gestão no Sistema Nacional de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos. O Comitê do Itajaí, com atribuições deliberativas e consultivas, deve propor- cionar a gestão participativa e integrada da água, permitindo a conciliação de diferentes interesses e a construção coletiva de pos- síveis alternativas na preservação desse recurso. O Comitê tem desempenhado um papel importante em suscitar e movimentar os debates em relação aos Recursos Hídricos, à Educação Am- biental, bem como à implementação de regulamentações como o Plano de Recursos Hídricos de acordo com as necessidades da Bacia do Rio Itajaí. O nono capítulo, elaborado por Bruno Jandir, Cristiane Mansur, Gerardo Alatorre, Loni Hensler e Anaid Lobato, abor- da a questão da aprendizagem social aplicada à governança da água. O trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar uma análise des- critiva e avaliativa sobre duas experiências práticas em governança dos recursos hídricos: 1) a experiência de extensão sobre gestão de risco de desastres Novos Talentos e STEM, realizada entre a Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB e comuni- dades escolares de cinco escolas situadas em áreas de risco de Blumenau/Santa Catarina, Brasil; e 2) a experiência participativa na gestão da água de uma rede cidadãos no México, para ilustrar como na prática a aprendizagem social contribui na co-gestão e governança dos recursos hídricos. O décimo capítulo escrito por Jéssica Teixeira Fraga Jere- mias, Patrícia Dornelles de Aguiar e Cristiane Mansur de Mo- raes Souza, teve como objetivo principal analisar a capacidade de desenvolvimento sustentável da cidade de Imaruí, no Esta- do de Santa Catarina. No processo de desenvolvimento da hu- manidade, nota-se que a ânsia por construir riqueza sempre foi fator determinante nas ações do homem na busca pelo poder. Estas ações têm refletido diretamente no meio físico, por meio da exploração dos recursos naturais, ocasionando impactos am- bientais sem precedentes. Nesse contexto, a utilização de po- luentes, agrotóxicos e a produção de resíduos despejados nos rios, lagos e oceanos resultam na poluição do maior patrimônio da humanidade, a água. Partindo desta perspectiva, realizou-se uma avaliação da resiliência do sistema socioecológico do mu- nicípio de Imaruí (SC, Brasil), baseada nos estudos de Walker & Salt (2012), tendo por objetivo analisar e identificar a capacidade de desenvolvimento sustentável do município. A análise consta- tou que o município demonstra baixa capacidade de desenvol- vimento sustentável, permanecendo em estado de estagnação. Fato este verificado pela avaliação de resiliência do sistema, que demonstrou perdas tanto no sistema socioeconômico como no sistema socioecológico causados pela poluição da água Lagoa do Imaruí. Rafael Galvão de Souza e Sabrina Nunes Locken elabora- ram o décimo primeiro capítulo do presente livro, resultante de uma pesquisa exploratória qualitativa, com base em documentos e processos dos 33 tribunais de contas do país, entre 2015 e 2021, com o objetivo de sistematizar as ações que esses órgãos têm adotado, de forma autônoma, para avaliar, induzir ou orientar os diversos níveis de governos relativamente às políticas dire- tamente relacionadas com o ODS 6. O estudo demonstrou a for- te relevância dos tribunais de contas, órgão de controle externo, para tornar exequível a implementação dos objetivos do desen- volvimento sustentável e, consequentemente, o ODS 6. O décimo segundo capítulo escrito por Lucas Ribeiro No- vais de Araújo e Ângela Maria Cavalcanti Ramalho, e teve como objetivo analisar os cenários sócio histórico hídrico de Campina Grande - PB na perspectiva de contribuir para um conjunto de problemas e entraves no acesso a água e avançar em estratégias de planejamento e gestão na distribuição e uso da água, tendo em vista o desenvolvimento regional. O trabalho sinaliza para a importância da governança hídrica e dos mecanismos governa- mentais na tomada de decisão e planejamento com metas para garantir as condições de fornecimento de água para o abasteci- mento dos núcleos urbanos e comunidades rurais, na perspecti- va de viabilizar o desenvolvimento regional por meio de gestão integrada e participativa. Maria Aparecida de Souza, Ângela Maria Cavalcanti Rama- lho e Cristiane Mansur de Morais Sousa escreveram o décimo terceiro e último capítulo da obra, que teve como escopo cons- truir cenários prospectivos de acesso à água no município Cubati - PB, sob a ótica da gestão, distribuição e apropriação. Os dados da pesquisa tornaram visíveis os eventos que podem trazer sus- tentabilidade no acesso à água, o que demanda mudanças de pa- radigmas, através de um sistema integrado de gestão ambiental e hídrica no âmbito nacional, estadual e municipal, tendo em vis- ta alterações na elaboração e implementação de políticas hídricas para o semiárido, somado aos demais eventos, considerando que todos os sistemas estão interligados.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
The question to be addressed in this work is what is the general design of the regionalization of sanitation in the Northeast in light of the new framework? The objective was to present an initial analysis of the models already approved in the Brazilian northeast. As a methodology, we use documental and bibliographical research as instruments, and the inductive method. There are still many uncertainties about whether these models will result in the effective universalization of the most vulnerable areas in the northeast, which are many in the semiarid region. Therefore, the effects of regionalization are still unknown, but its beginning was not in line with a dialogued and, therefore, participatory project.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
El año 2020 se marca por el avance de la COVID-19 y por demonstrar la vulnerabi- lidad mundial a la diseminación global de enfermedades infecciosas. En enero de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) discutía la situación de Emer- gencia de Salud Pública en razón de la emergencia de un nuevo coronavirus en China. El 11 de marzo de 2020, esa organización clasificó a la COVID-19, enferme- dad causada por el coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, como una pandemia (Santos, 2020). En Brasil el primer caso fue registrado el 26 de febrero de 2020, y a final de año se registraban casi 195 mil muertos y más de 7.5 millones de personas infectadas (Ministerio da Saúde do Brasil, 2020). En ese contexto se declaró el estado de Emergencia en Salud Pública de im- portancia nacional (Ministerio de la Salud, 2020a) y la situación de emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional (Ley Federal No 13.979, 6 de febrero 2020). El acontecimiento de una pandemia presupone una situación de interés público y de responsabilidad generalizada que desafía a la Administración Públi- ca y la gestión de diversos sectores (Santos, 2020). Entre los sectores impactados se encuentra la gestión de los recursos hídricos, pues la disponibilidad de agua es un elemento central en la prevención y diseminación de esta enfermedad. Sin agua no es posible el lavado de manos, la limpieza de las mercancías, zapatos y máscaras o garantizar la salubridad de los ambientes, que son medidas funda- mentales para contener el virus. Agua, saneamiento e higiene son fundamentales para mitigar los efectos de la pandemia (Dutra & Smiderle, 2020).Teniendo en cuenta la importancia del agua en la lucha contra la pandemia, este artículo pretende analizar cómo la COVID-19 ha impactado en la gestión de los recursos hídricos y qué acciones jurídicas nacionales se tomaron para mitigar esos efectos. El foco de este trabajo son las iniciativas organizadas prioritariamente por el Gobierno Federal para sus recursos hídricos o que tengan incidencia nacional. Eso se justifica por tres motivos: (a) la mayor capacidad de articulación del gobierno federal para organizar una respuesta rápida de enfrentamiento; (b) la disparidad de acciones de enfrentamiento en un contexto de 26 estados federativos y el Distrito Federal; y (c) el papel de coordinación y de estímulo del gobierno federal en influenciar las políticas hídricas provinciales4. Se utilizó como metodología el análisis documental de la bibliografía, legislación y documentos producidos por el Poder Público.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added 2 research items
For the methodological proposal focusing on rural water resources management, there are six bases that support the managers' initiative for decision-making: (i) identification of communities and quantitative survey of households, (ii) application of a form for data collection; (iii) action planning, (iv) budget and origin of financial resources; (v) implementation of structural measures; (vi) monitoring via structural measures.
É com muita alegria que entregamos à comunidade uma obra com a intenção de trazer apontamentos de soluções para o grande problema vivenciado pela humanidade: a crise de água. Essa, sem dúvida, a maior crise já presenciada por todos. É uma crise essencialmente de acesso que atinge especialmente os mais vulneráveis. Essa crise aponta para outras crises, dentre elas a crise energé- tica em países que dependem da energia produzida pelos cursos de água como o Brasil. Aponta também para um crise de alimentação, pois sem água não há como produzir alimentos. Com base nisso, a Editora da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, em mais uma atitude pioneira, buscou trazer uma discussão dos nos- sos tempos focando nas bases para a mudança, em 17 trabalhos, divididos em 12 segmentos ou eixos, contando com a participação de 34 especialistas do mais alto nível, de várias regiões do país, da Colômbia e Espanha. A intenção é iniciar um ciclo de publicações propositivas, que visam apresentar soluções para o problema do acesso ao saneamento no país, com destaque para à água potável, coleta e tratamento de esgoto. O problema é profundo e expõe o quão injusto é ainda a implementação de certas políticas públicas. A universalização ainda está distante da realidade de muitos brasileiros, sendo alvo de críticas e tendo consequências dramáticas para a saúde com reflexos no trabalho e na educação, equivalente aos efeitos de uma pandemia persistente em nosso território. A despeito da meta 6 dos Objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável das Nações Unidas, certamente não chegaríamos à uni- versalização, mesmo sem a pandemia do COVID 19, muito menos agora com mais essa tragédia que se abate sobre o planeta. O acesso à água, à coleta e ao tratamento de esgoto são direitos humanos que precisam se traduzir em realidade na vida das pessoas. Não se pode aceitar que em pleno século XXI mulheres tenham que caminhar quilômetros para ter acesso a um reservatório de água. Além disso, é preciso incluir nas estratégias públicas do Estado o saneamento rural, que vem sendo relegado a um terceiro plano, o que destoa do que se preconiza na essência de uma gestão integrada dos recursos hídricos. Portanto, esperamos que todos possam ler a presente obra com um olhar prospectivo de futuro, sem a intenção de abranger todas as dimensões relacionadas com a água, mesmo porque pretendemos que esse seja um primeiro volume de muitos.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
In this study, an approach will not be made from all points of view, but through bibliometrics to understand what the trends are, and within these, how public management can act and what is the place of the public in a new model of urban spaces and how to transform this into a legislative, legal, legal response that can influence decision makers as public managers and the Judiciary as a protagonist in the inspection and even implementation of public policies.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
Available for downloading at: https://waterlat.org/working-papers-series/volume-7-2020/vol-7-no-3/ In this issue we feature five articles focused on experiences from Bolivia, Chile, France, and Spain, presenting research results, some originated in doctoral dissertations. Article 1 was authored by Christelle Pezon, from the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts (CNAM), at the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Action-oriented Sciences (LIRSA), Paris, France. The paper presents a synthetic historical overview of the changing institutional arrangements for the provision of water and sanitation services in France. The focus is on the expected far-reaching impacts of the 2015 NOTRe Law, which prompted a historical reform by transferring the responsibility over water services from 36,600 municipalities to 2,000 urban and rural communities. The author argues that the reform presents unprecedented challenges for rural areas and small towns but may also end the long-standing dichotomic choice between public and private management of water services facing local governments since the 19th century and induce the development of more complex arrangements dependent on political negotiations between local authorities, service providers, and users. Article 2 was written by Cristian Flores Fernandez from the Integrative Institute of Research on Transformations of Human-Environmental Systems (IRI THESys), and Department of Geography, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. The paper addresses the Chilean model of privatized urban water and sanitation services, and presents a critical assessment aimed at exposing the “myths” associated with this experience. The author provides a historical overview of the Chilean model of privatization and uses the 2019 sanitary crisis that affected over 140 thousand people in the city of Osorno as an empirical example of the failures and risks associated with the privatization of essential water and sanitation services. The Chilean case is also the object of Article 3, by Melissa Bayer, from the Institute of Geography, University of Münster, Germany. The author examines the situation affecting informal settlements in the city of Antofagasta, one of the wealthiest regions in Chile, measured by per capita income, but also presenting the highest levels of inequality. These settlements are not included in the formal system of water provision, which is run by a public water utility from Colombia operating in Antofagasta as a private concessionaire. The author examines how the alternative arrangements developed by people in these informal settlements to get water is associated with the search for social inclusion, and the recognition of their citizenship rights. In Article 4, Francesca Minelli, currently an Independent Research in Munich, Germany, presents a synthetic analysis based on her recent doctoral dissertation completed at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom, on the histories and prospects facing water cooperatives in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The paper places emphasis on the role played by cooperatives in developing water services in areas of Cochabamba that lacked formal access to essential services, and how they established legitimate forms of control over their territories and water sources. The article also discusses the diversity of challenges facing the cooperatives in rapidly changing circumstances, including a consideration of the threats and risks to their survival owing to a decline in the active participation of members in several cooperatives, the increasing competition with other actors over water sources, and the financial pressures posed by maintenance and replacement of ageing infrastructures. Finally, Article 5, by Noelia Rodriguez Prieto, from the University of Alcala, Spain, examines the links between water politics and nationalism from a historical perspective. The author discusses the significant role played by water politics after the “1898 Disaster” derived from the war between Spain and the United States that accelerated the end of the Spanish Empire with the loss of its main remaining colonies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Establishing control over water sources through large-scale infrastructures became a central strategy in the search to reorganize Spanish society, rebuild its economy, and reinvent its national identity. The paper provides a synthetic analysis of the contrasting forms of “nationalism” associated with this water-management-based transformation of Spanish society between the late 19th century and the 1970s. The argument focuses on the contrast between the modernizing water politics proposed by the intellectual, professional, and political elite of “regenerationists” (regeneracionistas) after 1898 and the extremely conservative nationalism grounded on the construction of large-water infrastructures developed by the Dictatorship of General Francisco Franco (1940-1975).
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
Definition Public access to information is the unrestricted concession to any information necessary for decision making by citizens, groups, or communities, which mainly relates to it or to issues related to the conduct of state agents or actions originated by the state. In this way, we will discuss public transparency , types of public transparency, the importance of access to qualified information, the impact of information on the responsibility of state agents and on the formation of full citizenship, the levels of this information, and the relevance of accessible information for intelligent public management and for the formation of smart cities to materialize the sustainable development in what concerns to health security, to the environment, to poverty eradication, and to anti-corruption within the scope of the sixteenth goal from the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
This is the second issue developed by members of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network’s Thematic Area 10, Water and Violence (https://waterlat.org/thematic-areas/ta10/). Research done by members of this TA focuses on how violence, whether systemic-structural, subjective, symbolic, or in any other of its many forms, has become the key mechanism through which the relations between human beings, and between humans and Nature, are de-structured and reconfigured, and new kinds of relations are created, producing new forms of territorial, social and political power and domination. TA10 aims to explore, examine, and contribute to a better understanding of the often-traumatic experiences emerging from these processes of social reordering, whose consequences of socio-ecological dispossession can be observed in the form of environmental deterioration and destruction of the material basis of life, and most notably in the case of water sources. Its objective is to also contribute towards the development of conceptual and methodological frameworks that place the emphasis on understanding and explaining how the use of violence as a mechanism has an impact in the evolving forms of water politics and management currently being implemented worldwide, particularly looking at the consequences of these processes, as well as at the potential alternatives to confront the rapid increase of inhuman and anti-democratic practices and discourses in the processes of water control and accumulation. Within this framework, the present issue, organized by Dr Karina Kloster, from the Autonomous University of Mexico City (UACM), includes four articles that are the result of ongoing research covering experiences of water-related violences and injustices identified in Brazil, Guatemala, and Mexico. Many of these events are the result of criminal activities carried out by governments’ security forces, illegal groups, and other violent actors, often working jointly to impose the appropriation of land, water, and other resources belonging to rural, indigenous and peasant communities. The issue is an important contribution to ongoing debates.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
Resumen-Millones de personas sufren de escasez de agua en Brasil, lo que puede dar lugar a conflictos por la falta de una adecuada participación pública de los usuarios en la toma de decisiones. El Proyecto de Integración del río São Francisco (PISF) tiene como función principal aumentar el suministro de agua en las ciudades y en las áreas rurales. Este trabajo pretende analizar la participación del Comité de la Cuenca del río Paraíba (CBH-PB) y la gestión de cuencas con la llegada del trasvase, a través del estudio documental, así como verificar el desempeño de los actores que participan en el proceso de discusión dentro del Comité, identificando sus impactos ambientales. Los documentos analizados abarcan un período de tiempo comprendido entre 2007 y 2016. Se concluye que no hubo una participación efectiva del Comité en el proceso de toma de decisiones con respecto a las obras del trasvase y del saneamiento. Palabras clave: participación, cuencas, agua, escasez. Abstract-Millions of people suffer from water shortages in Brazil, which can lead to conflicts due to the lack of correct participation of users in decision-making. The main objective of the São Francisco River Integration Project (PISF) is to increase the water supply in cities and rural areas. The objective of this work was to analyze the participation of the Paraíba River Basin Committee (CBH-PB) and the management of basins with the arrival of the transfer, through the documentary study and verify the performance of the actors participating in the process for discussion within the committee and identify the committee's environmental concerns. The documents analyzed were those between 2007 and 2016. There was no effective participation of the committee in the decision-making process regarding the transfer work and sanitation.
Jose Esteban Castro
added 4 research items
Este capítulo aborda a importância dos condicionantes sistêmicos para o desenvolvimento, organização e funcionamento dos Serviços de Água e Esgotos (SAE), com especial ênfase nas condições e limitações sociais mais negligenciadas, ou até ignoradas, nas práticas tradicionais de política pública e gestão nesse setor de atividade. A análise da influência dos condicionantes sistêmicos tem uma longa tradição nas ciências sociais, em particular com respeito ao entrelaçamento entre fatores estruturais e relacionados à dinâmica dos agentes, individuais ou coletivos, em quase todas as esferas da interação social. Ela também tem sido usada em diversos campos, desde a análise das barreiras e restrições enfrentadas pela introdução de políticas preventivas de saúde pública (Berkeley; Springett, 2006) até estudos empresariais que examinam as restrições impostas pelos sistemas de mercado aos agentes econômicos, que têm de escolher entre a busca da maximização do lucro e “alternativas preferíveis em termos morais”, como a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente (Alexander, 2007, p. 155). Nas últimas décadas, a análise dos condicionantes sistêmicos no setor dos SAE foi dominada por estudos que almejam superar os obstáculos à implementação de políticas de desregulamentação, societarização, liberalização e privatização, tais como as barreiras reguladoras, as restrições jurídicas e institucionais, ou a resistência cultural à expansão dessas iniciativas (ver, por exemplo, Richard; Triche, 1994; Farley, 1997; Brook Cowen; Cowen, 1998; GWP, 2003; Moss et al., 2003). Todavia, fala-se muito menos do impacto exercido pelos condicionantes socioeconômicos e políticos em questões como a falta de acesso a SAE confiáveis, o que afeta uma grande parcela da população mundial, e este capítulo pretende contribuir para preencher essa lacuna. Dada a limitação de espaço, o capítulo concentra-se principalmente em dois aspectos: as desigualdades sociais estruturais e as políticas de água e esgotos da corrente dominante como condicionantes sistêmicos que afetam a universalização desses serviços essenciais.
This chapter addresses the import of systemic conditions on the development, organization and functioning of water and sanitation services (WSS), with particular emphasis on the social conditions and constraints that are mostly neglected or even ignored in traditional public policy and management practices in this sector of activity. The analysis of the influence of systemic conditions has a long tradition in the social sciences, particularly in relation to the intertwining of structural and agent-driven factors in almost all spheres of social interaction. It has also been deployed in a number of fields, from the analysis of the barriers and constraints facing the introduction of preventive health public policies (Berkeley and Springett, 2006) to business studies examining the constraints posed by market systems on economic agents who have to make choices between the pursuit of profit maximization or ‘more morally preferable alternatives’ such as environmental sustainability (Alexander, 2007). In recent decades, the analysis of systemic conditions in the WSS sector has been dominated by studies seeking to overcome the obstacles to the implementation of deregulation, commercialization, liberalization and privatization policies, such as regulatory barriers, legal and institutional constraints, or cultural resistance to the expansion of these initiatives (see, for instance, Richard and Triche, 1994; Farley, 1997; Brook Cowen and Cowen, 1998; GWP, 2003; Moss et al, 2003). However, much less has been said about the impact that socio-economic and political conditions have on such issues as the lack of access to reliable WSS affecting a large section of the world population, and this chapter makes a contribution towards addressing this gap. Given the limited space available, the chapter focuses mainly on two aspects: structural social inequalities and mainstream WSS policies as systemic conditions affecting the universalization of these essential services.
The book is structured on the basis of several assumptions that provide a common framework to the different contributions, although these presuppositions are the responsibility of the editors and they are not fully shared by all of the participating authors. First, we assume that WSS policies must be grounded on the principle that these services constitute a social right of citizenship – that is, it is a state obligation to guarantee their universal access. This conceptualization is underpinned by the principles of universality and equity, according to which all citizens, independently of their social class, gender, ethnic origin or any other factors of social differentiation, have the unrestricted right to those goods and services deemed to be essential for sustaining life in a civilized society. The countries in the developed North were able to achieve the universalization of essential WSS during the 20th century thanks to the adoption of these principles, which were defended by a broad range of social and political forces. There is no reason to believe that the universalization of these services at a global scale could take place in the absence of a similar commitment. However, we are aware that by adopting this assumption we are distancing ourselves from rival positions that argue for the organization of WSS on the basis of market principles, where these services must be considered a private good, a commodity and no longer a public or social good. These positions are defended, among others, by multilateral institutions, international organizations, academics and practitioners, who emphasize market efficiency as the primary objective in the management of WSS over the principles of universality, equity and social efficacy. We strongly believe that the organization and delivery of WSS cannot be subordinated to market interests, should not be subject to market criteria as their main organizing principle, and that the pursuit of sound and sustainable management of WSS’ economic, financial and techno-infrastructural aspects does not require treating these essential services as private goods. The access to essential WSS constitutes a fundamental right that cannot be subject to the payment capacity of individual users and must be guaranteed by the state. Second, we assume that public policy and management in the field of WSS depend upon the historically specific configurations of physical–natural, socio-economic, political and cultural conditions characterizing different countries and regions. In particular, there exist fundamental disparities between and within countries and regions with regard to the socio-economic conditions that provide the basis for the organization and delivery of WSS and other essential public services. For instance, the bulk of the world population without access to WSS is concentrated in poor developing countries. A recent report suggests that many of these countries will not be able to achieve the MDGs, including the WSS targets, because they have ‘fragile states … with weak governance and institutions’ (WHO, 2005, pp27, 71). Institutional fragility and weakness are the expression of structural socio-economic and political processes, but conventional WSS policies often adopt a technocratic, supposedly neutral, approach that fails to incorporate these processes within the analysis. Therefore, the implementation of models of public policy and management must consider the existence of systemic conditions – that is, factors and processes that are external to the specific field and internal logic of essential public services, but that shape and even determine the ways in which these services are organized and delivered.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
O problema que ensejou o presente ensaio parte da necessidade de se tutelar a água no âmbito do seu ciclo urbano, o que preocupa bastante, na medida em que os países, incluindo-se o Brasil, são essencialmente urbanos. O objetivo do trabalho é justamente descrever o ciclo urbano da água, abordando de que forma ocorre a tutela jurídica do mesmo. O método utilizado foi o indutivo dedutivo, apoiado numa pesquisa bibliográfica e em dados secundários. Verifica-se que há uma fragilizada na tutela do ciclo urbano da água, certamente, por uma precária gestão e regulação dos recursos hídricos.
Antonio Rodriguez Sanchez
added 2 research items
Temas relacionados com a política e a gestão da água "A transgressão empresarial na política da água e seu impacto nas bacias, territórios e espaços hidrosociais" Área Temática 6: Bacias, Territórios e Espaços Hidrosociais (http://waterlat.org/pt/areas-tematicas/at6/) Data para enviar resumos: até 30.08.2020 Enviar resumos ou consultas:
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
Among the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, SDG 6 focuses on access to clean water and sanitation for all. Data are not available on the status in meeting these goals that are specific to the basin of the Paraná River, but the national data generated for the three countries that primarily share the basin (i.e. Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) can give an indication of the capacity to meet these goals. A critical review of the data collected to date by the SDG Global Database indicates that, although Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay officially report that they are very close to meeting the SGD 6 targets for providing universal access to safe drinking water and eliminating open defecation, in reality, these countries may fail to achieve these targets. These nations, particularly Argentina and Brazil, report very high levels of service coverage in urban areas, but these data fail to reflect real coverage levels, as shanty towns and favelas are often not included or are not adequately reported. In addition, the water delivered is not always safe for human consumption, which leaves people with no other option than using water from unsafe sources or expensive bottled water. Moreover, these countries face significant challenges in addressing the target to provide universal access to facilities for sanitation and hygiene, particularly among the poorer segments of the population living in rural areas or in urban slums. The situation is particularly acute for Afro-American and Indigenous communities. In meeting the goals to improve water quality (i.e. SGD target 6.3), Brazil appears to be an active participant in programs to monitor water quality and report these data to the Global Database. However, Argentina and Paraguay need to be more active in participating in this process. All three countries are lagging behind in treating domestic and industrial wastewater before discharge into aquatic ecosystems. The level of participation in integrated water resource management programs in all three countries is equal to or less than 50%. However, because of the lack of incentives among stakeholders to participate in these programs, there are significant barriers to expanding these types of water management programs. Although at the country-level, water stress is not a significant threat, large areas of the nations within the basin are affected by medium-to-severe water stress, and a substantial share of the urban population is located in water-stressed regions, particularly in Brazil. Although the three countries appear to have the basic institutions, regulations and organizational mechanisms to meet the SGD 6 targets, they face multiple obstacles for making significant progress. In particular, a lack of commitment to tackle long-standing structural inequalities is a major problem that may prevent these countries from meeting SGD 6; a situation that has been emphasised in recent reports by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). The annual meetings of the Forum of the Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean on Sustainable Development convened under the auspices of ECLAC may provide the impetus for Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay to participate in the process of meeting the objectives of SGD 6.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
It is about the 20th anniversary of the foundation of the Graduate Program in Legal Sciences, which coincides with the 70th anniversary of the founding of the UFPB Law School, that this book was designed. During this period, Environmental and Urban Law have been highlighted, notably in view of the growing demands related to cities. Since the advent of the Federal Constitution of 1988, which in 2018 completed 30 years, these two branches of Legal Science have gained prominence in the national legal system articulating issues related to various public policies, whether in the area of housing, mobility, use and land occupation, highlighting the need for an ever closer relationship between them. In these necessary interfaces, water has been a crucial issue for life in cities, especially in the most populous urban agglomerations, seeing how fragile the distribution of water among the different layers of the population is, and how far we are from having concretely water as a human right. Based on this, we chose water as the line to be addressed in this work. Hence, we invited great specialists in studies related to water and Environmental Law and cities, organizing this collection of breath about the theme, so that it is a contribution to the legal thinking and decision making of public managers. Thus, following these guidelines, we divided the work into seven chapters, the first three of which are essentially propaedeutic in character, bringing to the center of the discussion fundamental fundamental lines for thinking about the issue of water in cities. The last four chapters will address the issue of water with case studies, giving a more applied bias to the approach.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
With an area of 838,071 km2, the municipality has about 16,060 inhabitants, according to data from (IBGE, 2010). The population's income is essentially based on agriculture with an economy focused on the agricultural sector, based on the production of vegetables - tomatoes, lettuce, coriander, among others - and the employability generated by the municipal, state and federal government. The absence of effective public policies for harmonious coexistence between man and the natural adversities inherent in this region, has led governments to implement emergency actions to combat drought. Throughout the cariri in Paraíba, such measures concern the supply of water to the urban and rural community, from Pipa trucks, socio-educational measures for rationalization and the exploitation of underground water sources, through the drilling of wells associated with use of desalination instruments. Thus, we seek to identify what are the public policies and the barriers that permeate access to water in the municipality of Sumé-PB. Based on accounting data made available by the municipal government to the National Treasury Secretariat, public policies approved by the Local Legislative Power, in the period from 2009 to 2012, and the financial data collected on the Federal Government's transparency portal website, referring to the investments aimed at accessing water in the municipality. In this way, it was possible to correlate primary and secondary data and to draw an explanatory line about the subject in question. Thus, based on the analysis of the data, we sought to gather indicators that highlight the delay in investments and the obstacles that hover over issues involving water management and water resources in the municipality.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
Life in cities today has been the target of a deleterious process that is mainly harming the most vulnerable urban and rural communities. This brings instability to the consolidation of a regional development project. This panorama has been a tonic in the northeastern semiarid. Therefore, we decided to analyze and make a diagnosis of the municipalities of the inter- municipal consortium São Saruê, located in the semi-arid in Brazilian state, Paraíba. Thus, with secondary and primary data extracted from the observation made through the listening, that is, a moment of hearing of the actors involved in public health, education, environment and other sectoral policies that relate to them. Consequently, this study inevitably provokes a relationship through the presence of arboviruses in municipalities lacking basic infrastructure and the lack of a consistent regional development project.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added an update
The problem raised by this essay stems from the need to protect water within its urban cycle, which is of great concern, as countries, including Brazil, are essentially urban. The objective of this work is precisely to describe the urban water cycle, addressing how the legal protection of the water occurs. The method used was the deductive inductive, supported by bibliographic research and secondary data. It is verified that there is a weakened in the tutelage of the urban water cycle, certainly, by a
precarious management and regulation of the water resources.
 
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
A few years of research in Social and Legal Sciences allow me to affirm that we are experiencing a disaster of planetary proportions and whose speed is often not perceived by us, mere mortals, who are going on with our lives as if nothing had related to each other. I speak not only of pandemics, but of the destruction of the planet's waters at an accelerated pace and that nature can no longer purify polluted water efficiently as would be expected in sustainable systems. Would more global stops like this be necessary for a greater regeneration of nature?
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
The full copy can be freely downloaded from: http://waterlat.org/working-papers-series/volume-6-2019/vol-6-no-3/ This issue of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network Working Papers is the product of the activities of the Network’s Thematic Area 7 (TA7), Art, Communication, Culture, and Education (http://waterlat.org/thematic-areas/ta7/). This is the second issue of the TA7 Series. It features three articles presenting research results from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. Article 1, by Ximena I. Cabral, is a long piece developed in a format close to that of a photographic essay, as the author seeks to capture and analyse the “expressive resources” used by the actors during a cycle of social protests against inequality and injustice related to water Politics and management in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina, between 2005 and 2007. The article examines in detail the conflicts arising from the privatization of Cordoba’s water and sanitation utility in 1997, when the government granted a 30-year long concession to a private consortium led by a multinational water company to deliver these services. After the large-scale crisis that affected the country in 2001, caused by a decade of highly destructive neoliberal policies implemented during the 1990s, Argentina’s currency was heavily devaluated, prompting a renegotiation of the contract that in practice amounted to a dollarization of the tariff, which was strongly rejected by the population. This triggered a long cycle of popular protests that faced a very determined alliance between politicians and local and international businesses, which would eventually impose its conditions through different means, including repression. In Article 2, Zenaida Luisa Lauda-Rodríguez examines a successful case of “precautionary” social struggle against a mining project in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The local community, in alliance with other actors, succeeded in preventing the implementation of the mining project through a campaign based on a demand to apply the “precautionary principle”, which passed the burden of demonstrating that the project would not cause harm to the local people and their environment to the mining company, a burden normally loaded on the affected communities in similar cases. The article examines in detail how the use of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) by the community allowed it to create, expand and consolidate networks of solidarity that eventually helped them to achieve their objectives. Finally, Article 3, by J. Carlos Domínguez Virgen, is also an innovative contribution presenting a theatre work, including critical comments by two specialists. The author, who completed a PhD where he had examined the implementation of large-scale infrastructure projects, decided that the language and communicational dynamics of theatre could provide a better chance to raise awareness and simultaneously contribute to the critique of development policies based on the construction of megaprojects. The piece adopts a satirical approach to explore how policy decisions of such scale are often taken and implemented, delivering a sarcastic analysis, grounded on a real case whose details were anonymized.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
The Brazilian legislator instituted the National Policy on Basic Sanitation (PNSB) in 2007, Law 11.445, ten years after the creation of the National Policy on Water Resources, Law n. 9433/1997. The metropolitan region of Florianópolis (RMF), Santa Catarina, Complementary Law n. 636, which established a framework that proposes a change in the quality of life of the population. The aim of this article is to present a problematic panorama of urban planning that violates the human rights of an invisible population that is literally sidelined on hillsides and hillsides in areas far from the most valued urban areas. Design/methodology/approach-Bibliographic review, documentary analysis, secondary data and participant observation were used as methodology. Findings-However, there are a number of situations that characterize these regions, namely: lack of water, lack of sanitary sewage, lack of drainage, construction of houses in risk areas. Such conditions become more significant with the climate change context we are experiencing, with a higher incidence of rainfall in this region and, therefore, the need for a more effective disaster protection system in Santa Catarina Island. Originality/value This essay is not restricted to problems in a particular state of the Brazilian federation , but can be extended to other Brazilian regions, as well as to other regions in various parts of Brazil, by presenting factors related to urban planning that are essential for environmental balance and risk of living in a large city, considering that the tendency is for extreme events to occur more frequently.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
A pandemia tem sido o assunto do momento, falado e decantado em todos os cantos, artigos acadêmicos e jornalísticos em todas as áreas tem tido destaque quase às 24 horas do dia. Porém, temos visto o aumento dos casos no Brasil concentrado em grandes regiões metropolitana e um menor nível de incidência no interior do Brasil. A pandemia tem sido o assunto do momento, falado e decantado em todos os cantos, artigos acadêmicos e jornalísticos em todas as áreas tem tido destaque quase às 24 horas do dia. Porém, temos visto o aumento dos casos no Brasil concentrado em grandes regiões metropolitana e um menor nível de incidência no interior do Brasil, como demonstra a figura 1. Entretanto tem chamado a minha atenção a quantidade de decretos de calamidade pública que estão sendo editados pelo país, destacando o interior do nordeste. Esse decreto libera o poder público de contratação de servidores através de concurso, como determina o art. 37 (https://juridmais.com.br/constituicao-federal-37) da Constituição Federal (https://juridmais.com.br/constituicao-federal-1), e dispensa a licitação, procedimento utilizado como obrigação legal em tempos de normalidade para aquisição de bens e serviços. Figura 1-Mapa do Covid19 no território nacional Fonte: José Irivaldo Alves Oliveira Silva (/busca/fonte/?keyword=Jose-Irivaldo-Alves-Oliveira-Silva) Comentários: (0)
Jose Esteban Castro
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Fully downloadable at: http://waterlat.org/working-papers-series/volume-6-2019/vol-6-no-1/ This issue of the Working Papers was developed by members of the WATERLATGOBACIT Network’s Thematic Area 6, Hydrosocial Basins, Territories, and Spaces. The main focus of TA6, as the name suggests, is the co-construction of hydrosocial processes, manifested as basins, territories or spaces. Within this broad remit, TA6 members address the far-reaching transformations of the interrelations between humans and water systems, for instance in the resistance of artisanal fishing communities facing the disappearance of their water-based means of subsistence because owing to the pollution of water bodies, the uncontrolled commercial exploitation of fisheries or owing to their forced displacement from their territories by the, often violent, advance of industrialization and urbanization processes, among other issues. In this connection, the present issue is a dossier presenting research results on the situations affecting artisanal fishing communities in Latin America and Europe. It features four articles covering cases from Colombia, Mexico and Spain. This is the second dossier on the topic produced by TA6 members. The first issue, published as Volume 2, No 4 in 2015, was titled “Inequality, injustice, and social change: the fate of artisanal fishing communities in Latin America”, and included papers from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. This issue addresses artisanal fishing as an ancestral cultural heritage that has become a territory of conflict and rapid social transformation. Artisanal fishing is one of the oldest trades in the world, a small-scale activity involving families and local communities, and developed in intimate interaction with marine or freshwater bodies. Artisanal fishermen and women depend on the activity for their family sustenance, both as a source of income to acquire necessary goods, but also because fish are a nutritious source of food that they can secure at a low cost. Artisanal fishing is also significant as an ancestral heritage that constitutes a way of life centered around the relationship between humans, water, and nature more generally, expressed in a range of maritime, riverine, lacustrine and other forms of hydrosocial identities.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
Out 24 4 minutos para ler Há décadas que o Brasil vem patinando no campo da gestão da água e do saneamento básico que, como o próprio nome diz é BÁSICO BÁSICO. Entretanto, boa parte da população não tem esse tão sonhado básico. É importante lembrar que houve avanços, lentos, mas houveram, porém muito aquém do que poderia ter sido, o que, certamente resultará no não atendimento do objetivo 6 (Água potável e saneamento) dos Objetivos do milênio da Agenda Objetivos do milênio da Agenda 2030 2030, estabelecida pela Organização das Nações Unidas. É bom lembrar que esse objetivo não está aí à toa, mas porque água e saneamento como um todo (acesso à água potável, esgoto tratado, limpeza urbana, drenagem e disposição correta de resíduos sólidos) deveria ser acessível a todos o que, pasmem, não é uma realidade. Estamos muito distantes de atingirmos o Estamos muito distantes de atingirmos o princípio da universalização princípio da universalização, que está nas nossas políticas nacionais de recursos hídricos e de saneamento, que são duas leis. Outra questão que nos chama atenção é a ausência reiterada do tema da água e do saneamento das agendas dos candidatos a cargos no legislativo e no executivo, para se ter essa certeza é só assistir os programa eleitorais veiculados nos meios de comunicação e Fonte: Tetra Pak
Jose Esteban Castro
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The full book can be freely downloaded from: http://waterlat.org/publications/books/water-territorialities/ This edited book presents eleven chapters addressing the politics of water in Latin America. It brings together contributions from members of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network (www.waterlat.org) from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, the United Kingdom and Uruguay. In addition to academics, the contributors also include members of public sector and civil society organizations engaged in debates and activities connected with the democratisation of water politics. The title of the book reflects a concern with the historical processes of appropriation, control, distribution, etc., of water and water-based services, which can be examined as processes of water territorialization, which includes the territorialization of the production of knowledge about water. The chapters cover a range of empirical examples, from the impacts of large-scale water infrastructures and extractivist activities (mining, agribusinesses), the (mis)management of water-related risks and disasters, the complex and conflictive character of water management in metropolitan areas, the social and political struggles featuring social movements and other actors confronting powerful public and private interests in their quest to democratise water politics and management, among other issues.
Alex Ricardo Caldera Ortega
added 2 research items
La presente aportación es una breve revisión del proceso político por el cual ciertos valores, creencias y orientaciones en torno a la crisis del agua se han convertido en visiones competitivas por parte de los actores relevantes en el orden internacional para estructurar una política hídrica a nivel global que busca incidir en el orden local. El centro de atención por un lado es la disputa por los significados en torno a la naturaleza del agua, la cual se debate entre una visión del agua como bien económico y otra que concibe el recurso vital como un derecho humano. Por otro lado, se trata de una revisión del cómo la Gestión Integral de los Recursos Hídricos (GIRH) se posicionó como un paradigma aceptado por la mayoría de los actores internacionales, pero que lejos de ser un mero instrumento técnico para un manejo más eficiente y sustentable del agua a nivel de cuencas, está impregnado por el conjunto de ideas que subyacen en cada una de la visiones que sobre la naturaleza del agua compiten en el subsistema de la política hídrica.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added a research item
This essay aimed at discussing one of the most serious crises experienced in the world today, the water crisis, and placing it at the center of the State from the discussion about citizenship and democracy, considering that access to water is a human right, and its absence may indicate fragility in contemporary democracies and, therefore, precariousness in the full exercise of citizenship. Thus, the central objective was to analyze the access to water, as a fundamental right, in the face of the concept of citizenship. The methodology was developed from access to secondary data and bibliographic research. Thus, it can be affirmed that the contemporary Democratic State of Law has not been able to universalize access to water, although legal instruments and public policies have been formulated and implemented, presenting a framework of injustice that imposes on the most vulnerable the lack of water supply, intermittent supply, poor water quality, and lack of basic sanitation.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
The issue and its articles are fully downloadable at: http://waterlat.org/publications/working-papers-series/vol5/vol-5-no-4/ This issue is part of the activities of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network’s Thematic Area 3 (TA3), the Urban Water Cycle and Essential Public Services (http://waterlat. org/thematic-areas/ta3/). TA3 brings together academics, students, professionals working in the public sector, workers’ unions, practitioners from Non-Governmental Organizations, activists and members of civil society groups, and representatives of communities and users of public services, among others. The remit of this TA is broad, as the name suggests, but it has a strong focus on the political ecology of urban water, with emphasis on the politics of essential water services. Key issues addressed within this framework have been the neoliberalization of water services, social struggles against privatization and mercantilization of these services, the politics of public policy and management in the sector, water inequality and injustice in urban areas, and the contradictions and conflicts surrounding the status of water and water services as a public good, as a common good, as a commodity, as a citizenship right, and more recently, as a human right. The publication is a product of a long-term collaboration with the Capacity Development of Water and Environmental Services (CADWES) Research Group, which holds the UNESCO Chair in Sustainable Water Services at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in Finland under the coordination of the issue’s co-editor, Prof. Tapio S. Katko. The idea of developing a series of publications on the history and relevance of water-service cooperatives around the world has been an important component of our common research plans and initiatives, and we decided to start with this issue on the challenges and opportunities facing cooperatives in the current context. Consistently with our Network’s inter- and transdisciplinary approach, the authors include academics and post-graduate students from the social sciences, history, and engineering, as well as professionals and leaders of civil society organizations working in areas relevant to the topics addressed in the publication. The issue features four articles, two of them addressing the situation of water-service cooperatives in Finland, and the other two focused on experiences from Argentina. Article 1 is authored by Pekka E. Pietilä from CADWES-TUT and Joni Vihanta, who is the Managing Director of Kannus Water Cooperative in Kannus Municipality, Finland and simultaneously a PhD student doing research on water cooperatives at TUT. The paper presents a synthetic overview of the situation of water cooperatives in Finland, including an analysis of the challenges and opportunities they face in a context of rising consumer expectations and stricter service standards. Article 2 by Petri S. Juuti and Riikka P. Rajala, also from TUT, complements the first paper by focusing attention on the case of the first water cooperative created in Finland, Pispala Water Cooperative, which was founded in 1907 near the city of Tampere in the south of the country. Both articles highlight the fact that in the late Nineteenth Century, before becoming independent from Russia in 1917, Finland decided that essential water and sanitation services should be delivered by municipal public bodies or cooperatives run by users and community organizations, rather than by profit-making private companies, which remains a significant principle for the organization of these services in the country until today. Article 3 is led by Melisa Orta, a PhD student in Politics at the National University of Rosario (UNR) on a studentship from the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Argentina, and was co-authored with Margarita Portapila, from the International French-Argentinean Centre of Information Sciences and Systems (CIFASIS), CONICET and UNR, Alberto Muñoz, from Argentina’s Union of Users and Consumers, and Iván Pérez, from the country’s Cooperative Funds Managing Institute (IMFC). The article discusses in some detail the history of the cooperative movement in Argentina since the late Nineteenth Century, and the development of water-service cooperatives in the country. It focuses on the case of water-service cooperatives in the Province of Santa Fe and highlights the significance of cooperatives in the provision of services in small and medium cities and rural areas. The authors also address the wide range of obstacles and threats facing water cooperatives, from the lack of safe water sources and adequate financial and technical resources to the systematic antagonism showed since the 1980s by neoliberal governments that seek to erode and eventually dismantle the cooperative movement, which they see as an obstacle to their plans to fully privatize essential services and other important areas. Finally, Article 4 was authored by Joaquín Ulises Deon, a PhD student in Social Agrarian Studies at the National University of Cordoba (UNC) on a studentship from CONICET, Argentina, also working on a joint PhD on Urban-Regional Studies between the Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Germany, and UNC, Argentina. The article partly complements the previous one by addressing important aspects of the history of the cooperative movement in Argentina, highlighting the fact that not all cooperatives adhere to cooperative principles, and many are in fact private enterprises in disguise. The paper addresses the development of cooperatives, and particularly water-service cooperatives, in the arid Province of Cordoba, Argentina, and focuses in more depth on four cases that the author considers are examples of genuine cooperative experiences. The article presents a very critical assessment of government policies against water-service cooperatives at the national, provincial and local levels, and shows evidence of the multiple pressures facing the cooperative movement in the province. Cooperatives have developed successful strategies to cope with these pressures, by establishing alliances with social movements and civil society organizations, exercising legitimate leadership in local and regional struggles to defend their water sources from the aggressive expansion of extractivist activities, including mining, agribusinesses, and private urbanizations.
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added 2 research items
The chapter of professor José Irivaldo and his guide André Luís, the authors undertake a review of the literature on sustainability in academic environments. In addition to showing how the issue of sustainability is seen within organizations, it brings to the public agenda, an issue that is the order of the day in debates about the environment and environmental impacts. Their greatest contribution is the composition of a bibliometric study that helps greatly to design future research that undertakes analyzes on sustainability in social organizations, such as universities.
A área de estudos das políticas públicas no Brasil nasce com a transição do autoritarismo para a democracia entre os anos de 1970 e 1980, buscando-se um conhecimento maior sobre as instituições, regras e modelos que regem seus processos de decisão, elaboração, implementação e avaliação, principalmente nos Países da América Latina, onde, os problemas de coalizão política têm dificultado o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas capazes de impulsionar sua economia e, ao mesmo tempo, a inclusão social. Esse estudo tem, portanto, foco principal e preliminar nas Políticas Públicas desenvolvidas na região semiárida paraibana, especialmente no cariri ocidental e oriental, especificamente nos anos de 2008 a 2010. Busca-se apresentar uma fotografia da realidade regional. O objetivo é verificar o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas geradas no seio da gestão municipal (se há ou não) e, até que ponto, a gestão federal colabora com os fins. Esse artigo encontra-se no campo das Ciências Sociais e resulta da inquietação e curiosidade despertada nos alunos que compõem o Laboratório de Políticas Públicas, formado por bolsistas do PET/CONEXÕES 1 , discentes do curso de Gestão Pública, Ciências Sociais e Educação do Campo, campus da UFCG/CDSA 2 , a partir da percepção de que não há um efetivo planejamento acerca da formulação de políticas públicas, considerando que "obviamente, o município é o espaço territorial e a tarefa de governo mais próxima do cidadão. Neste sentido,
Jose IRIVALDO Alves Oliveira Silva
added 3 research items
as UNIdadEs dE CoNsErvaÇÃo, CoNForME a lEI Nº 9.985/2000: sUas CaraCTErÍsTICas E rEGIME JUrÍdICo-aMBIENTaIs PrEsErvaTIoN UNITs aCCordING To THE laW No. 9.985/2000: CHaraCTErIsTICs aNd ENvIroNMENTal lEGal sYsTEM José Irivaldo a. o. silva * RESUMO: A questão ambiental no Brasil e no mundo é premente. O Estado tornou-se o artífice das políticas públicas mais importantes, dentre elas aquelas voltadas ao meio ambiente. Neste artigo, destacamos a criação das unidades de conservação, numa discus-são acerca da Lei nº 9.985/2000, como estratégia principal de conservação da natureza, buscando traçar o regime jurídico das mesmas. Dessa forma, partimos de três modalida-des, aquelas públicas, as privadas e as mistas. Sendo assim, a leitura desta contribuição ao pensar jurídico-ambiental nos leva a refletir acerca das políticas ambientais praticadas em território nacional. ABSTRACT: The environment question is urgent in Brazil and in the world. The State is one of the most important creators of public policies, one of them with environmental approach. In this article, it is highlighted the creation of conservation units, in a discussion about the law 9.985/2000, like a principal strategy of nature conservation, trying to analyze the most important characteristics. Thus, we begin with three modalities: public, private and a modality that put private and public together. The discussion of this environmental thought contributes to make us think about the environmental policies in Brazil.
If we make a cut in history we can think of the globalization of nature as a model of exploration that prevailed from the beginning of the great navigations until today, passing through a period of colonization, gunpowder, invention of the steam engine, Fordist model of production, taylorism, cybernetics, in short, all processes that directly or indirectly aid production. Thus, in a didactic way, we could say that the process of modernity in the world to this day would be divided into four phases: the first would be that permeated by colonialism and the implantation of modern coloniality; the second, with fossilist capitalism and imperialism; the third would be the fossilist Fordist state capitalism; and the fourth phase, neoliberal globalization.
Environmental crimes are not criminal offenses that are related only to those deprived of capital, but also orbit the holders of economic power, with major impacts on the environment. It is a type of crime that often relates to a specific group of individuals located and positioned at the top of the pyramid in the country. The logic of politics in the country runs through a relationship between political agents and economic agents, which is reflected in a similar way in environmental policy. The Brazilian legal system is constantly put in a "check" when analyzing its effectiveness, especially when it comes to second and third generation rights. Family interests and economic groups have almost always overlapped with the interests of the collectivity in the present republic. This proposal aims, albeit exploratory, to verify: to what extent the projects with a great impact on environmental policy: 1) Reform of the Brazilian Forest Code; 2) Mining Regulatory Framework; 3) Licensing simplification project, General Licensing Law; 4) Provisional measures that reduce conservation areas; 5) Are the draft constitutional amendment of the vaquejada approved by parliamentarians, and / or relatives and businesses, who have unlawful acts related to environmental crimes? We have as assumptions that the flexibilization of the Brazilian Forest Code, for example, arises from the expressive interests of economic agents and political agents who act in the National Congress, contrary to the interests of the collectivity. In this way, we intend to map and present the parliamentarians (and to which families they belong) favorable to the approval of such legislations, as well as the branches of activities that act, and which crimes have committed and / or are indicted for environmental crimes, or are benefiting agents from them. The research will be based on secondary data provided by the environmental agencies and the intersection with the data made available by Congress about the votes and data provided by the Courts in terms of cases whose indications or crimes are related to the environmental dimension. Keywords: Environmental Policy. Environment. Environmental legislation.
Jose Esteban Castro
added 2 research items
Latin American and the Caribbean (LA&C) is a region of striking contrasts. It is one of the world’s richest regions in the availability of water resources, but large sections of the population continue to suffer lack of access to essential water and sanitation services (WSS) owing to long-standing socio-economic and political factors and processes, which made the region one of the most unequal in the world. This chapter presents a synthetic picture of the overall situation in the region, and discusses the main challenges facing LA&C countries in relation to the goals of universalizing the access to essential WSS. The first section presents the general context, looking at the patterns of population growth and urbanization, the situation of water and sanitation services, and the prospects for universalization of these services by 2030, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted in 2015. The second section discusses briefly what I consider are the most crucial challenges facing the region to achieve the SDGS, which are not primarily related to physical-natural, climatic or financial constraints, but are rather fundamentally Political, in the highest sense of the term. A succinct concluding section summarizes the main arguments.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
Policy brief on: Confronting the Politics of Inequality in the Social Construction of Disasters: the case of mining waste dams. Available in English, Portuguese and Spanish: English Confronting the Politics of Inequality in the Social Construction of Disasters: the case of mining waste dams DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.267672. https://sandbox.zenodo.org/record/267673 En español: "Confrontando la Política de la Desigualdad en la Construcción Social de los Desastres: el caso de las represas de desechos de la minería" DOI: 10.5072/zenodo.267675 https://sandbox.zenodo.org/record/267675 Em português: Confrontando a Política da Desigualdade na Construção Social dos Desastres: o caso das barragens de rejeitos de mineração DOI: 10.5072/zenodo.267677 https://sandbox.zenodo.org/record/267677
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
The issue features four articles, three covering topics from Brazil, in Portuguese, and one from Argentina, in Spanish. Article 1 is authored by Suyá Quintslr, Antonella Maiello, and Ana Lúcia Britto, from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and addresses the situation of unequal access to water and environmental vulnerability more generally in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region. The article is based on research carried out in Queimados municipality, in the Baixada Fluminense, as part of the Network’s DESAFIO Project (http://waterlat.org/projects/desafio/), which was developed between 2013 and 2015. Article 2 was authored by Marcelo Aversa, Vanessa Lucena Empinotti, and Jeroen Johannes Klink, from the Federal University of the ABC in Sao Paulo. It presents a critical discussion of the notion of human right to water adopted by the International System of Human Rights, exposing the contradictions of the concept and of the normative structure behind it, which among other issues simultaneously promotes the human right to water and water privatization as a possible option. The authors also emphasise the contradictions between the privatization-friendly approach to the human right to water promoted by international organizations and national governments and the “philosophy of Living in Plenitude (Buen Vivir)” grounded on Andean indigenous cultures, which inspired pioneering constitutional reforms on this issue in Ecuador and Bolivia. Article 3, by Ana Paula Fracalanza and Mariana Gutierres Arteiro da Paz, from the University of Sao Paulo, focuses on the “crisis of water governance” reflected in the catastrophic water shortages affecting the metropolitan regions of the State of Sao Paulo since 2014. The authors emphasise the contradictions in the urban politics of water and sanitation services, particularly in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, where these services are run on a commercial basis. Among other issues, the article discusses the deepening of the conditions of vulnerability, inequality and injustice affecting the poorer sectors of the population, which according to the authors are caused by the dominant capitalist approach to water management and the lack of implementation of democratic principles and mechanisms enshrined in the 1988 Constitution, such as effective social participation in the control and monitoring of the management of essential services. Article 4 was authored by Ana Núñez, from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina, and proposes a critique of prevailing approaches to public-policy analysis using examples from the history of water and sanitation services in Argentina. The author argues that there is a need to transcend what she terms “the hegemonic academic literature that places emphasis on the techno-bureaucratic and physical aspects of management” and proposes to focus on how public policies are generated and developed, giving analytical pre-eminence to the study of these policies “as a process and an instrument of social struggle” in the context of a capitalist social order grounded on the production and reproduction of social inequalities. The topics covered by the four articles are of the highest relevance. They address problems that are among the key factors accounting for the failure in meeting the 2015 Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation services, and contribute to the ongoing debates about the obstacles and opportunities that we face in relation to the new challenges set by the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to universalise the access to water, sanitation and hygiene.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
The full pdf file is available at: http://waterlat.org/WPapers/WGWPVol5No2.pdf. This issue of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Working Papers features two articles presenting edited materials based on the original reports from the case studies carried out in Kenya and Tanzania. These two cases provide examples that have important lessons for current debates on the privatization of essential public services in developing countries, as we currently experience a revival of the water politics implemented worldwide in the 1990s, often with complete disregard for the lessons learned from the recent past. The two Kenyan cases examined in Article 1 provide excellent information about the overall situation of essential water services in the country, and a detailed account of the process of privatization launched by the government in the mid-1990s with the support of international financial institutions and development agencies. In practice, the two cases under consideration in the article, the experiences of Nyeri Town and Tala Town, are mostly cases of commercialization of water supply services. Article 2 discusses the implementation of privatization policies in Tanzania, which took place around the same time than in Kenya, and under relatively similar circumstances, with a strong presence of international financial institutions and development agencies providing support and funding for the required reforms. The article focuses on the privatization of the capital city Dar es Salaam's public utility, DAWASA, which was a very difficult experience and took almost six years to be completed. Differently from the Kenyan cases, where the participating private companies were local, in Dar es Salaam there was a strong presence of multinational water companies.
Jose Esteban Castro
added an update
The fifth call for applications to the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Student Prize was for dissertations approved between 1 January and 31 December 2017 and closed on 28 February 2018. We had 8 applications, 5 for the Masters Prize and 3 for the Doctoral Prize. The results of the competition were announced on 5 September 2018 during the IX International Meeting of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network.
Doctoral Prize 2018
Cindy Claudia McCulligh. Thesis title: “Sewer of progress: Industry and State in the pollution of the Santiago river, Jalisco, Mexico” (in Spanish). PhD in Social Sciences, with specialization in Social Anthropology, Centre for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology (CIESAS), Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, 2017.
Masters Prize 2018
Alma Rosa Barranco Salazar. Thesis title: “Knowledges, values and social organization of community management of the Drinking Water System in Zothe, Huichapan, Hidalgo, Mexico” (in Spanish). MA in Sustainable Water Management, El Colegio de San Luis (COLSAN), San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 2017.
See detailed information about the Prize at:
 
Jose Esteban Castro
added an update
The IX International Meeting "Water, rights, and utopias: priorities in the process of democratization of water politics" took place on 3-7 September 2018 in João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil (http://waterlat.org/meetings/public-meetings/waterlat-gobacit-ix-2018/).
The video records of the Plenary Sessions, short interviews with participants, and the 2018 Short-video Competition are available in our YouTube Channel.
Plenary sessions playlist:
Interviews with participants playlist:
2018 Short-video Competition playlist:
 
Tapio Katko
added 2 research items
This book is an updated and extended version of José Esteban Castro and Léo Heller (Eds.), Water and Sanitation Services: Public Policy and Management (Earthscan, 2009; Routledge, 2012) and contains 5 new chapters on Brazil and 1 on Venezuela. Substantially reducing the number of human beings who lack access to clean water and safe sanitation is one of the key Millennium Development Goals. This book argues and demonstrates that this can only be achieved by a better integration of the technical and social science approaches in the search for improved organization and delivery of these essential services. It presents a historical analysis of the development of water and sanitation services in both developed and developing countries, which provides valuable lessons for overcoming the obstacles facing the universalization of these services. Among the key lessons emerging from the historical analysis are the organizational and institutional diversity characterizing the development of water and sanitation internationally, and the central role played by the public sector, particularly local authorities, in such development. It also explores the historical role played by cooperatives and other non-profit institutions in reaching rural and peri-urban areas, as well as the emergence of new forms of organization and provision, particularly in poor countries, where aid and development agencies have been promoting the self-organization of water systems by local communities. The book provides a critical exploration of these different institutional options, including the interaction between the public and private sectors, and the irreplaceable role of public funding as a condition for success. The book is divided into two parts: the first reviews theoretical and conceptual issues such as the political economy of water services, financing, the interfaces between water and sanitation services and public health, and the systemic conditions that influence the provision of these services, including the diversity of organizational and institutional options characterizing the governance and management of water and sanitation services. The second section presents a number of country or regional case studies, each one chosen to highlight a particular problem, approach or strategy. These case studies are drawn from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe, covering a wide range of socio-economic and political contexts. The book will be of great interest to advanced students, researchers, professionals and NGOs in many disciplines, including public policy and planning, environmental sciences, environmental sociology, history of technology, civil and environmental engineering, public health and development studies.
Javier Gonzaga Valencia Hernandez
added 4 research items
Este artículo es resultado de una investigación teórica aplicada con metodología de estudio de caso. A través de un análisis socio-jurídico se exponen dos conflictos ambientales: el aprovechamiento forestal de la reserva forestal protectora de río Blanco y el proyecto de construcción del trasvase del río Guarinó al río La Miel, ambos en el departamento de Caldas, Colombia. La primera parte describe el origeny la mutación de los conflictos, triangulando los principales referentes teóricos, normativos y jurisprudenciales con los hechos y las etapas de las disputas objeto de estudio. La segunda, expone la participación y la educación jurídica ambiental como elementos transformadores del conflicto. Finalmente se evidencia como se comprendieron las transformaciones de los dos casos, orientadas a la incidencia de la educación jurídica ambiental y a la participación para lograr el acceso a la justicia y la resignificación del alcance de las pugnas ambientales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22518/16578953.279
Climate change has brought many challenges during the last decades facing scenarios under which it occurs, the consequences and victims left and the response by the States and the International communities trying to prevent or mitigate the harm caused by these phenomena. This article which is the product of the research macroproject that is being carried out jointly with the universities belonging to the Legal and Socio-Legal Research Groups and Centers Network, Coffee Triangle Node with the title "Environmental Displacement of the population settled in the Coffee Triangle Eco-Region: Incidence of factors associated with effects of climate change", is intended to explain the emergence and meaning of relatively new concepts in the legal and social knowledge, such as displaced people due to environmental causes and their relationship with environmental and climate justice in order to provide general guidelines about the relationship-interaction of these terms and how they directly reflect the issue of access to justice by both, the victims and the means they can use to get it, and the new challenges that environmental law is facing to develop diagnosis on that line and propose academic debate around other disciplines.
This article is the result of a theoretical research applied with a case study methodology. Through socio-legal analysis are exposed two environmental conflicts: forestry of Forest Reserve of Blanco River and the construction project of the transfer of Guarino River to La Miel River, both in the department of Caldas, Colombia. The first part describes the origin and mutation of conflicts, triangulating the main theoretical, normative and legal points of reference with the facts and stages of disputes under study. The second part presents the participation and legal environmental education as transforming elements of the conflict. The findings show how the transformations of the two cases, aimed at the incidence of environmental legal education and participation to achieve access to justice and the redefinition of the scope of environmental struggles were understood.
Jose Esteban Castro
added an update
Water, rights, and utopias: priorities in the process of democratization of water politics
 
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
This is a special issue dedicated to the widespread mobilizations to oppose further privatizations of water services and to bring back under public control those systems that had been privatized, which have been taking place in Spain over the last decade. It features 6 articles.
Antonio Rodriguez Sanchez
added a research item
The general balance of the review of some proposals related to the analysis of the hydrosocial configuration suggests that they draw from space production theory, given that it is a historical process by which water is appropriated through the exercise of power, the construction of infrastructure, and the dissemination of legitimating discourses, among other mechanisms. From this perspective, water and society establish a dialectic relationship in which they influence each other. Although the analysis tends to use indistinctly categories such as: territory, landscape or space, it can be argued that they are not synonymous. This assertion can be examined by observing how these categories are constituted during the process of spatial production, which can provide the basis for the construction of a concept that may allow a thorough analysis of the Hydrosocial Configuration.
Javier Gonzaga Valencia Hernandez
added 2 research items
Climate change has brought many challenges during the last decades facing scenarios under which it occurs, the consequences and victims left and the response by the States and the International communities trying to prevent or mitigate the harm caused by these phenomena. This article which is the product of the research macroproject that is being carried out jointly with the universities belonging to the Legal and SocioLegal Research Groups and Centers Network, Coffee Triangle Node with the title "Environmental Displacement of the population settled in the Coffee Triangle Eco-Region: Incidence of factors associated with effects of climate change", is intended to explain the emergence and meaning of relatively new concepts in the legal and social knowledge, such as displaced people due to environmental causes and their relationship with environmental and climate justice in order to provide general guidelines about the relationship-interaction of these terms and how they directly reflect the issue of access to justice by both, the victims and the means they can use to get it, and the new challenges that environmental law is facing to develop diagnosis on that line and propose academic debate around other disciplines.
Los proyectos hidroeléctricos generan importantes impactos en el medio ambiente y en las comunidades que se encuentran localizadas en su área de influencia. Dentro de los impactos negativos esta la vulneración a los derechos colectivos e individuales, especialmente a los derechos al medio ambiente adecuado y especialmente al derecho al agua potable. A partir de la revisión de fuentes bibliográficas y de la metodología de observación participante, se pretende demostrar la conexión directa que existe entre la construcción de proyectos hidroeléctricos y la vulneración al derecho humano al agua de las personas y las comunidades. Igualmente demostraremos a importancia que tiene la participación de la comunidad en la reclamación de sus derechos, a partir del uso de los mecanismos del acceso a la justicia ambiental y la eficacia de estos al momento de ser ejercidas ante las autoridades administrativas o judiciales, en el caso concreto de la construcción de hidroeléctricas en el departamento de Caldas-Colombia.
Alex Ricardo Caldera Ortega
added a research item
Este artículo se basa en un estudio que muestra la disputa entre proyectos políticos en torno a la gestión del agua en dos acuíferos del centro de México afectados por sobreexplotación. Los casos se refieren al acuífero del Valle de León, Guanajuato, y del Valle de Aguascalientes. Analíticamente la atención se pone en el tipo de relaciones entabladas entre los actores públicos y privados involucrados en la gestión del agua subterránea, así como en los arreglos institucionales que moldean dichas relaciones a partir de la perspectiva llamada “análisis de redes de política pública”. El presente trabajo tiene el objetivo de resaltar no sólo el conflicto distributivo del agua en México, sino el de identificar condiciones estructurales de la persistencia de la crisis del agua. Los resultados de esta investigación permiten expresar dos ideas generales en este sentido: Primero, las políticas y estrategias basadas en la perspectiva que ve al agua como un bien económico son insuficientes y parciales al dejar fuera soluciones basadas en una mayor justicia distributiva y comprometidas con la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente; y segundo, el desarrollo de soluciones efectivas a la crisis del agua requerirá la consolidación de arreglos institucionales basados en reglas del juego que configuren un sector agua más inclusivo y que incida integralmente en las estrategias de desarrollo local.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
This issue of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network Working Papers includes six contributions. The first article, by Mark Drakeford, presents a historical analysis of the changing arrangements for the provision of essential water and sanitation services in Wales. The second article, by Ross Beveridge, discusses the troubled process that characterized the privatization of Berlin’s Water Company (BWB) in 1999, in the aftermath of the reunification of Germany. In the third article, Emmanuel Akpabio, Eti-ido Udofia, and Kaoru Takara discuss some aspects of the interrelations between people and water in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. The fourth article, by Melina Tobias, Damiano Tagliavini, and Melisa Orta, addresses the current global wave of re-publicization of formerly privatized water and sanitation companies, looking at the experiences of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe in Argentina. In the fifth article, Luisa Arango and Jorge Rowlands provide and introduction to meta-studies of water-related research carried out by French and British anthropologists. They include a translation of work previously published in French by Barbara Casciarri and Mauro Van Aken. The sixth and final article, by Ladislau Dowbor and Arlindo Esteves Rodrigues, focuses on the contradictions characterizing the conceptualization of water by different social actors, in particular the contradictions between market-driven notions of water as a commodity and civil-society understandings of water as a common good. The six articles composing this edition, from authors based in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America, provide important contributions to current debates about the politics of essential water-related services. They also offer important insights about new avenues for research on water issues, aiming to enhance our knowledge of both empirical experiences and academic traditions that often remain isolated from each other whether because of geographical, national or cultural obstacles and distances.
Alice Poma
added a research item
This book contributes to the knowledge about experiences of struggles against the impacts of dam building on communities, from the viewpoint of “common” people who self-organize themselves to defend their territory. From this perspective, analyzing the experience of people who defended their territory, the objective of the study is to understand how the experience of struggle has an impact on the lives of the subjects. Although there exist studies that give a voice to those who resist and struggle to defend the territory, this research does not analyze the discourse of the affected but their individual and collective life experiences of the protest. Under this approach, the fact that it is a conflict to defend the territory in relation to the extraction of a natural resource and common good as water does not lead us to analyze ecological problems or the extractivist logic behind these conflicts but rather the relationship of these subjects with the territory and how this relationship influences the conflict’s dynamics. The fact that we do not analyze the meso and macro dynamics characterizing these conflicts nor do we address the extractivist model, water policy, and related topics, does not mean that we dismiss the importance of the dimensions of analysis, but we consider that there is a gap in the literature about socio-environmental conflicts, which has not paid sufficient attention to the micro-political dynamics of these experiences. This study is an effort to contribute towards the knowledge of the experience of protest as a moment of individual and collective change, introducing the emotional dimension of the experience of protest. -------------------------- Este libro se suma a la necesidad de proporcionar conocimiento sobre las experiencias de luchas contra los impactos de la construcción de represas sobre las comunidades, desde la perspectiva de las personas “comunes y corrientes” que se auto-organizan para defender su territorio. El objetivo del estudio es comprender cómo la experiencia de lucha tiene un impacto en las vida de los sujetos. Si bien hay estudios que aportan la voz de los que resisten y luchan para defender el territorio, esta investigación no analiza el discurso de los afectados, sino su vivencia individual y colectiva de la experiencia de protesta. Bajo este enfoque, el hecho de que se trate de un conflicto en defensa del territorio por extracción de un recurso natural y bien común como el agua, no nos lleva a analizar los problemas ecológicos o la lógica extractivista que está detrás de estos conflictos, sino la relación de los sujetos con el territorio y cómo esta relación influyen en la dinámica del conflicto. El hecho que en este trabajo no se analicen las dinámicas meso y macro que caracterizan los conflictos analizados, ni se hable de modelo extractivista, de política hidráulica, etc. no significa que quitemos importancia a lo que sucede en estas dimensiones de análisis, pero consideramos que una laguna de la literatura que analiza los conflictos socioambientales resida en no haber prestado suficiente atención a las dinámicas micro-políticas de estas experiencias. El estudio aquí presentado es así un esfuerzo para contribuir al conocimiento de la experiencia de protesta como momento de cambio individual y colectivo, incorporando la dimensión emocional de la experiencia de protesta.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
Resumo: A politização da água, denunciando as desigualdades de poder envolvidas nas situações de conflito e na gestão das fontes de água e dos serviços baseados no uso da água, emergiu também como resposta aos esforços de " comodificação " da água, ou seja, sua transformação em mercadoria ou commodity, através da privatização de empresas distribuidoras e de saneamento, da mercantilização das formas de operação das próprias empresas públicas e de outras políticas neoliberais, buscaram estabelecer, desde a década de 1980, um mercado global desregulado de águas e de serviços de água e esgotamento sanitário. Este artigo busca contribuir com a construção de uma alternativa aos enquadramentos dominantes do debate hídrico no semiárido brasileiro: das secas, do desenvolvimento e da convivência, todos eles vinculados ao " paradigma da oferta " , através da análise da experiência da Waterlat-Gobacit, da transposição do São Francisco e do acesso à água no semiárido através das cisternas, com ampla revisão bibliográfica e coleta de dados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Tratar o tema da água em termos de direitos, cidadania e democracia, força, necessariamente, uma reflexão sobre o papel que o Estado tem desempenhado neste início de Século XXI na América Latina e no semiárido brasileiro. A análise foi feita a partir da experiência de pesquisa e a vivência em campo conjugada às leituras e discussões em fóruns nacionais e internacionais. A América Latina está vivenciando um momento de incertezas no que se refere à água e outros serviços. palavras-chave: água; cidadania; gestão; estado.
Jose Esteban Castro
added a research item
The book features 11 chapters that contribute to the debate on the tensions and contradictions between social justice and environmental justice at different levels. The chapters are grounded on a range of political-ecological perspectives and present conceptual debates based on empirical evidence from research on water-related topics from Europe and Latin America.
Jose Esteban Castro
added an update
Several members of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network, jointly with colleagues working on similar topics, co-authors and collaborators, participated in the Seminar "Human right to water. An interdisciplinary focus and contributions on the central role of public policies in water and sanitation management", organised by the Chair of Dialogue and Culture of Encounter, which took place at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in the Vatican on 23-24 February 2017.
The event was organized with a broad approach, with the participation of social actors with diverse and contradictory visions, which included multinational companies, institutions that represent the interests of the large private water corporations, workers unions, academics, and of course representatives of the Catholic Church, including Pope Francisco, who gave a short speech.
Among other members of the network and colleagues working closely, Leandro del Moral, Rutgerd Boelens, and Farhana Sultana.
The complete videos of the discussions can be watched here:
 
Jose Esteban Castro
added 2 research items
Water, Power and Citizenship investigates the interrelationship between water politics and institutions and the development of citizenship rights from a historical-sociological perspective. The evolution of water's manifold social character and values, as a source of power, as a public good, as a commodity, or as a universal right is examined in the light of ever changing and mutually binding social and ecological processes. The Basin of Mexico's rich water history becomes the vantage point to cast light on one of the most crucial challenges facing the international community - that of eliminating water inequality and injustice. Visit: http://www.palgrave.com/br/book/9781403948793
Substantially reducing the number of human beings who lack access to clean water and safe sanitation is one of the key Millennium Development Goals. This book argues and demonstrates that this can only be achieved by a better integration of the technical and social science approaches in the search for improved organization and delivery of these essential services. It presents a historical analysis of the development of water and sanitation services in both developed and developing countries, which provides valuable lessons for overcoming the obstacles facing the universalization of these services. Among the key lessons emerging from the historical analysis are the organizational and institutional diversity characterizing the development of water and sanitation internationally, and the central role played by the public sector, particularly local authorities, in such development. It also explores the historical role played by cooperatives and other non-profit institutions in reaching rural and peri-urban areas, as well as the emergence of new forms of organization and provision, particularly in poor countries, where aid and development agencies have been promoting the self-organization of water systems by local communities. The book provides a critical exploration of these different institutional options, including the interaction between the public and private sectors, and the irreplaceable role of public funding as a condition for success. The book is divided into two parts: the first reviews theoretical and conceptual issues such as the political economy of water services, financing, the interfaces between water and sanitation services and public health, and the systemic conditions that influence the provision of these services, including the diversity of organizational and institutional options characterizing the governance and management of water and sanitation services. The second section presents a number of country or regional case studies, each one chosen to highlight a particular problem, approach or strategy. These case studies are drawn from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe, covering a wide range of socio-economic and political contexts. The book will be of great interest to advanced students, researchers, professionals and NGOs in many disciplines, including public policy and planning, environmental sciences, environmental sociology, history of technology, civil and environmental engineering, public health and development studies.
Jose Esteban Castro
added an update
Water, power and impunity: social resistances and emerging alternatives in the construction of egalitarian and inclusionary water politics
VIII International Meeting of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network, San Jose, Costa Rica, 3-4 April 2017
Justification of the theme of the VIII International Meeting
The relationship between structural social inequalities, water control, and the accumulation of social power in its diverse manifestations, cultural, economic, epistemic, political power, etc., is a fact that has been firmly established by a long-standing tradition in the social sciences dating back at least to the XVIII Century. Regrettably, our vast knowledge of this topic, and particularly of the concrete mechanisms that account for the processes of reproduction of inequality and injustice in relation to the access to and the control of water in their various aspects has not been translated in a greater capacity of human societies to reverse these processes and replace them by more egalitarian, rational and democratic social forms of relating to water and, through water, with the other species and the rest of nature. In fact, the growing evidence suggests that, in relation to the politics and management of water, we are witnessing a stage of deepening and acceleration of the processes of accumulation of social power grounded on the structurally unequal control of water at world level. This finds expression, among other issues, in the artificial production of scarcity, in the advance of the commodification of water and water-based services, in the anthropogenic generation of diverse kinds of disasters related to water management issues and their negative consequences that time and again affect the most vulnerable sectors, in the forced or induced displacement of whole populations subject to the expropriation or spoiling –for different reasons– of their water sources, among many other problems of high social relevance. In Latin America and the Caribbean, these processes take place in a context where the regional economies’ subordination to the model based on primary exports is being deepened, which includes the re-primarization of those economies that in recent decades had achieved some degree of diversification. In this regard, since 1990s the region has become a large experimental field for the advance of extractivist activities, including large-scale open cast mining, transgenic and mono-cropping agriculture with their associated technological packages of monopolization of seed production and agrochemicals (often termed agrotoxics owing to their socio-ecological impact) and the massive construction of large infrastructure works, among other crucial topics.
On the one hand, the processes of production and reproduction of structural inequalities in relation to the control and access to water sources and to water-related services are often manifested, clearly visible, very often in a brutal fashion. This happens, for example, through the diversion of rivers depriving human populations of their water sources to deliver water to extractivist projects such as large-scale mining or the production of hydrocarbons through technologies of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). It also happens through the construction of massive infrastructures, too often without consultation, without properly considering social and ecological impacts, which produce profound transformations in our societies and that are implemented in the absence of adequate democratic controls. An example in Central America and Mexico is the Mesoamerican Integration and Development Project (MIDP) (previously known as Puebla-Panama Plan), and in the South the Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA). It also happens through the generalized expansion of intensive agriculture or through the elimination of public policies predicated on the notion of social rights and their replacement with policies that seek to convert water into a commodity, for instance through the privatization and mercantilization of essential water and sanitation services in cities, just to mention some conspicuous examples. However, and to a large extent, the production and reproduction of inequalities has been historically consolidated in ways that tend to be unseen and that too often have been internalized, even naturalized by human populations, such as in the example of unequal water rationing or the unacceptable quality of the water distributed for human consumption affecting large sectors of the population, which have a disproportionate negative impact on the most vulnerable sectors.
In this connection, the implicit or even explicit role of the production of scientific knowledge in the invisibilization, when not the justification or naturalization of structural inequality in relation to water is also a fundamental factor in these processes. For example, we have the case of scientists, when not even whole departments and even disciplines, entirely dedicated to the role of organic intellectuals of the process of monopolization of water sources and water-related services. It is a case of science at the service of private capital accumulation rather than contributing to the socially equitable distribution of the benefits derived from the uses of water and of the protection against the threat and dangers associated with water, be it disasters, epidemics, and other phenomena that regularly affect human populations. Also, it must be highlighted the prevailing reductionisms and determinisms, particularly though not only in the techno-scientific disciplines, which continue to pose obstacles to the process of re-integration of knowledge and the development of higher levels of interdisciplinary coordination that may allow us to render observable the interrelations between the processes of production and reproduction of structural inequality in relation to water and their manifestations in the form of poverty, destitution, vulnerability, defenselessness, marginality, and exclusion, among other relevant aspects. The weight of techno-centric determinism and reductionism is strongly manifested, for example, in the direction given to scientific policy internationally and in the formulation of public policies. As an example it can be mentioned the meager concrete results of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 21) that took place in Paris, which beyond the excellent declarations of good will tended to consolidate the promotion of techno-centric and mercantilistic solutions, while the decisions taken with regard to the actions needed to reduce global warming were limited to statements of good intentions that are not binding for the signatory countries. This has potentially grave consequences for Latin America and the Caribbean, and most particularly for Central America, given the growing catastrophic impacts of climate change in the region, with the intensification of diverse processes such as changes in the rainfall regimes, in the temperature patterns, in the regularity and intensity of extreme climatic events, or in the rise of the sea level, which have a disproportionate impact on the most vulnerable sectors. Regrettably too, for many scientists, including many in the progressive political camp, the disciplinary enclosures and reductionisms often constitute sanctuaries, comfort zones, which become epistemic traps and, given the resulting social consequences, political traps, that pose formidable obstacles to the advance of forms of knowledge that can have liberating effects, that may allow the advancements towards the development of more egalitarian social forms. In this regard, we must highlight the scientificist reductionism and determinism that devalues, when not directly rejects, the possibility of the dialogue of knowledge and transdisciplinarity, as it clings on an elitist and conservative understanding of science and imposes a hierarchical, exclusionary approach to the process of knowledge production that denies the need to promote the co-production of knowledge involving non-scientific actors, especially in relation to the social groups most affected by the inequalities and injustices related with the control and management of water in their different forms. This elitist understanding of science, even in those cases where it takes benign, paternalistic, even nominally progressive forms, constitutes a formidable epistemological and political obstacle for the development of more egalitarian and democratic social forms and contributes to the production and reproduction of structural inequalities in this field.
Historically, the processes that produce and reproduce structural inequalities in relation to the control and the access to water have been the source of social conflicts and struggles, often leading to processes of cooperation and democratization of water management, but very often too ending in the deepening of the forms of monopolistic accumulation of social power and the expropriation of the material living conditions of vast majorities of human beings, including the tacit, when not explicit, negation of the few daily liters of clean water needed for a modicum of dignified life. The discussion of these and other problems related to water, and particularly of the processes and social actors involved in the accumulation of power in relation to the control and management of water and water-related services very seldom finds space in the public debate, and when it does there is a tendency to marginalize and postpone it in one way or another. In fact, the attempt to bring this debate into the public domain, an attempt often led by the affected populations and by solidary actors such as social movements, different types of civil organizations (NGOs, user and consumer groups), labour unions, committed academics, socially sensitive political representatives, among others, too often becomes a risky endeavor, subject to intimidation, verbal and physical aggression, in a prevailing context of great impunity. This is often expressed in the systematic criminalization, repression and, in the extreme, assassination of those who participate in the struggle to stop and reverse these inequalities and injustices. The Central American region is one of the places in the world where these processes take place with much intensity, as crudely illustrated by the assassination of the environmental activist Berta Cáceres in Honduras on 3 March 2016 and the subsequent unjustified detention of the also environment activist Gustavo Castro, from Mexico, who was later liberated by the Honduran government in April. Likewise, the systematic repression and assassination of labour leaders connected with the defense of water and water services in the region, one of the most dangerous in the world to be a labour union member, constitute one the permanent threats confronting the democratization process in our countries. These examples are, regrettably, the tip of the iceberg of a structural situation, which is obviously not limited to Central America but is rather also present in different forms and to different extents in many other regions.
On the basis of the previous reflections, the VIII Meeting of the WATERLAT-GOBACIT Network will place emphasis on the discussion of these processes in Latin America and the Caribbean, giving a prominent place to the situation of Central American countries.
The main objectives that led to the adoption of the theme are:
Making visible the processes of structural inequality, power accumulation, impunity, confrontation, and social proposals, establishing a dialogue, making observable their mechanisms, actors, and concrete consequences;
Promoting the production of knowledge over these processes, with the object of strengthening the capacities to confront and reduce the negative effects of these processes over the populations and their living conditions;
Contributing to the development of social forms of water control and management grounded on the principles of equality and the substantive democratization of our societies.