Project

Visuals in Geography and Homeland study Textbooks and Their Influence on the Genesis of Misconception

Goal: 1. Suggest a procedure for the evaluation of the visual elements (visuals) in geogprahy and homeland study textbooks in terms of their usability .
2. Apply this proposed assessment to visuals related to physical-geographic phenomena and processes.
3. Implement a practical survey among the users (pupils), which will focus on the discovery of the influence of selected visuals on the genesis of misconceptions among primary and lower-secondary pupils.

Updates
0 new
1
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
4
Reads
1 new
56

Project log

Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
One of the most important components of the textbook is visuals which might facilitate the learning process. In some cases, however, due to their inconvenient structure, misconceptions might arise. The aim of this study is to analyse and evaluate how convenient the structure of visuals represented in the curriculum in Czech geography textbooks is. For this purpose, we have used an expert evaluation of visuals in 16 textbooks by the quantitative content analysis method. Visuals were categorised into groups based on four analysis criteria: type of visual, headline, thematic focus and colour. We were also interested in the space assigned to visuals in the textbook. The results of the analysis show that the key visual feature in geography textbooks is photographs, whose educational value is far less in comparison to other kinds of visuals. The amount of visuals without any caption is rather alarming. In contrast, there is a high proportion of coloured visuals which might have a positive effect on the learning outcome.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Economic maps in school atlases are specific types of maps that represent extra-complex maps with multi-layer and fast-developing content over time. The objective of this article is to discuss a multi-stage curriculum in connection with the results of an assessment of the usability of economic maps by lower and upper secondary school students. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and didactic test on a sample of 120 lower secondary school and 73 upper secondary school students in Czechia. Differing results among two age groups were mainly in the identification of cartographic signs; as a key factor for the correct identification of cartographic signs, a combination of alphanumeric and geometric features has been shown. On the other hand, significant differences were not identified in the question of suitability of colouring cartographic signs. The survey results show that the map key of economic maps should be designed in multiple stages with regard to the appropriateness and comprehensibility of cartographic signs for students of both age groups. This study proves that preparing specific geographic atlases for lower and upper secondary school students can play a key role in the teaching of geography
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
The aim of the article is to discuss the results of the assessment of economic maps in school atlases of lower and upper secondary school pupils in relation to the opinions of teachers and the results of other empirical investigations. Results of the questionnaire and didactic test among 193 respondents show that alphanumeric cartographic signs with chemical elements used in atlases of Kartografie Praha are less suitable for lower secondary school pupils. At the end of the article, two learning activities are presented, which can contribute to the understanding of the concept of mining of mineral resources maps.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
An analysis of the historical development of the map of industry in Czech school atlases: The aim of this article is to give an overview of the historical development of the maps of industry in Czech and Czechoslovak school atlases. An expert assessment of cartographic works was used on the basis of predefined criteria, using the scaling method. These methods were complemented by a verbal evaluation and map comparison from eight school atlases. The quality of Czech maps of industry has increased substantially over the past hundred years because these maps from atlases issued in the past 20 years have achieved higher levels of compliance in all evaluated criteria of usability than those in older atlases
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Učebnice vlastivědy a zeměpisu jsou geografickými didaktickými prostředky obsahující velké množství různých typů vizuálií. V současnosti je problémem absence komplexní analýzy vizuálií jako klíčové strukturní složky učebnic. Expertní komparativní analýza má potenciál identifikovat problémy vizualizace geografických fenoménů v těchto materiálních didaktických prostředcích a upozornit tak na nevhodné postavení, koncepci či kvalitu vizuálií v učebnicích, jež mohou vést až ke vzniku miskoncepcí u žáků různých věkových skupin. Cílem příspěvku je analyzovat postavení vizuálií ve struktuře učebnic vlastivědy a zeměpisu a zároveň zhodnotit kvalitu vizuálií hydrologických, geomorfologických a zemědělských fenoménů z hlediska použitelnosti. V rámci prezentovaného šetření bylo využito expertního hodnocení vizuálií odborníkem metodou kvantitativní obsahové analýzy. Bylo analyzováno celkem šestnáct českých učebnic vlastivědy a zeměpisu. V první fázi bylo analyzováno postavení vizuálií ve struktuře učebnice (např. počet a podíl z hlediska typu vizuálií, přítomnosti titulku apod.). V druhé fázi byla hodnocena (analyzována) kvalita vybraných vizuálií z hlediska jejich použitelnosti metodou škálování na základě předem definovaných kritérií. Důležitost kritérií byla stanovena na základě výsledků párového srovnávání mezi 19 vysokoškolskými odborníky (geografy a pedagogy). Výsledky analýzy ukazují, že klíčové postavení v učebnicích vlastivědy i zeměpisu mají fotografie. Podíl abstraktních a kvantitativních vizuálií je v učebnicích zeměpisu vyšší než v učebnicích vlastivědy, v čemž se pravděpodobně odráží předpoklad autorů učebnic o kognitivním vývoji žáků. Výsledky škálování naznačují, že vizuálie v učebnicích zeměpisu jsou kvalitnější z hlediska jejich použitelnosti než v učebnicích vlastivědy. Mezi klíčové problémy vizuálií identifikované na základě škálování patří častá absence titulku, relativně nízký vztah vizuálie k textu a nečitelnost některých map. Nejnižších kvalit dosahují vizuálie z učebnic relativně nových nakladatelství nemající dlouholetou tradici, naopak nejvyšší kvalitou se vyznačují vizuálie v učebnicích nakladatelství ČGS.
Jan Daniel Bláha
added a research item
Geographical didactic aids traditionally contain a large number of visuals. Unfortunately, authors of didactic aids are not able to ensure adequate usability of visuals sometimes. The evident example is simple illustrative function that prevails over the didactic one. The other problems could be named that many visuals are inadequate relating to pupilsʼ age, they are not well-considered and thus the undesirable formation of misconceptions is encouraged. The object of presented expert analysis are the visuals in sixteen Czech textbooks with a geographical content. The analysis was provided by multi-criteria assessment. The scaling method was used according to predefined criteria, considering of the weights previously proposed by experts (pair comparison method). Beside the general assessment of visuals, the specific comparison of selected examples of maps, photographs, schemes and graphs was conducted. The conclusions of the general assessment of the visuals could be sum up as: (1) an increasing number of abstract visuals with the expected age of pupils, (2) a high number of photographs with only illustrative function, (3) a low share of schemes supporting the development of pupilʼs abstract thinking, (4) a high share of visuals in regional-geographical curriculum, (5) a high number of visuals without any label. Whereas the adequacy of visuals in relation to pupilʼs age was not find problematic, the connections of the visuals to text and the legibility issue seem to be relatively low.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Zeměpisná olympiáda je oborová soutěž pro žáky nadané v zeměpise. V jejím celostátním kole soutěží žáci ve dvou věkových kategoriích: 13–15 let a 15–19 let. Didaktický test ověřuje mimo jiné i dovednost práce s různými typy vizuálií. Cílem příspěvku je zaprvé prezentovat výsledky analýzy obsahu učebních úloh využívající vizuálie, a to v několika rovinách (typ úlohy, typ vizuálie, zapojený kognitivní proces aj.). Druhým cílem je komparovat úspěšnost řešení úloh žáky mladší a starší věkové kategorie v celostátním kole soutěže v období let 2013–2017. Výsledky analýzy obsahu úloh ukazují, že mezi vizuáliemi použitými v úlohách převažují mapy a grafy, naopak minimální zastoupení mají schémata. Z analýzy dosažených výsledků žáků je patrné, že obě věkové skupiny vykazují výrazně nižší úspěšnost řešení úloh abstraktního charakteru, které se vztahují k obecným geografickým konceptům, v porovnání s úlohami se vztahem k určitému regionu. Pro žáky obou věkových skupin jsou dále problematické úlohy vyžadující syntézu poznatků a také ty, v nichž je informace získávána čtením fotografie. Naopak velmi dobrých výsledků dosahují žáci v analytických úlohách.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Sketchnoting: creation of a visual-text record from geography lessons. The aim of this article is to introduce sketchnoting as one of the alternative possibilities of writing from geography lessons. The next aim is to present the results of sketchnoting application in lessons on the example of regional geography at 7th grade pupils. Using sketchnoting, pupils are looking for relationships between concepts. Using different means of expression and a combination of visuals and text during writing, this method can have a positive effect on learning efficiency.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
The article is a review study. Its aim is to define and critically evaluate the methodological approaches of visual research in geography textbooks. Another aim of this study is to summarize the main conclusions of selected studies. There is a clear terminological inconsistency in naming the visual component of textbooks. Altogether 92 studies in Czech and English were analysed without time and territory specifications. Multidisciplinary full-text databases (EBSCO, WoS, SCOPUS, ERIC, ProQuest and Geobibline) were searched using a combination of keywords in Czech and English language. The analysis of the research shows that the expert assessments prevail in the research using predominantly quantitative methods, especially quantitative content analysis of visuals; a questionnaire and a didactic test are of major importance in the quantitative user assessment have questionnaire and the didactic test. In addition, unequal distribution of visually-oriented research textbook across age groups was found; a neglected area of research is assessment or analysis of textbooks for the ISCED 1 age group. According to the results of the analysed studies, photographs are the most important visuals in geography textbooks; although the map is one of the typical geographical visual, its share on the total number of visuals in textbooks is relatively low.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
The aim of this presentation is to present the results of quantitative analysis of maps in Czech geography textbooks for elementary school pupils; - identification of textbook structure in relation to maps, - usability assessment of selected maps.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Cílem příspěvku je prezentovat, diskutovat a zhodnotit vhodnost kartografických vyjadřovacích prostředků pro žáky základních a středních škol
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
Příspěvek je empiricko-výzkumnou studií zabývající se hodnocením vizuálií v učebnicích zeměpisu žáky základních škol. Cílem příspěvku je identifikovat charakteristiky vizuálií, které žáci 2. stupně ZŠ preferují a používají při vytváření geografických znalostí. Dalším cílem příspěvku je interpretovat hodnocení vizuálií žáky – tj. zda rozlišují mezi jejich estetickou funkcí a použitelností v rámci vzdělávacího procesu. Vizuálie jsou předměty a jejich zobrazení a znázornění, které člověk vnímá zrakem (Spousta, 2007). Jejich význam ve výuce zeměpisu roste (Janko, 2012). Souvisí to především s rostoucím množstvím informací, které je nutné žákovi předat v přehledné a názorné formě. Právě vizuálie mohou usnadnit pochopení složitých a komplexních jevů a procesů nebo mohou přispět k efektivnějšímu osvojení učiva (Ysar & Seremet, 2007). Při jejich nevhodné koncepci mohou být ale také příčinou vzniku miskoncepcí (Holliday, 1990). Ačkoliv je vizuální informace velmi významnou strukturní složkou učebnic kteréhokoliv předmětu (Průcha, 1998), v zeměpisu má zásadní význam. Někteří autoři (např. Behnke, 2014) dokonce označují geografii, resp. zeměpis jako vizuální vědní obor. Souvisí to s tendencí geografie zkoumat vztahy v prostoru a uchopovat jevy komplexně s důrazem na vztahy a vazby mezi jednotlivými složkami systémů, což se neobejde bez většího množství vizuálií v učebnicích tohoto předmětu. Cílem výzkumu bylo zjistit, jaké typy a charakteristiky vizuálií napomáhají při utváření geografických znalostí. Na základě předchozích analýz učebnic zeměpisu pro 2. stupeň ZŠ (např. Janko, 2012), byly jako podklad pro polostrukturované rozhovory (Gavora, 2006) s 22 žáky 2 stupně ZŠ vybrány všechny typy vizuálií z hlediska jejich obsahu. Rozhovor byl zaměřen na postoje, třídění a práci s vizuáliemi při řešení zadané geografické úlohy. Rozhovory byly nahrány na audio nosič, doslovně transkribovány a kvalitativně analyzovány pomocí programu Atlas.ti s užitím otevřeného kódování (Hendl, 2012). Z výsledků vyplývá, že žáci ZŠ při utváření geografických znalostí preferují hlavně fotografie, především ty působící na jejich afektivní stránku osobnosti (viz též Janko, 2012). Grafy nejsou vnímány pozitivně, pravděpodobně proto, že se vyznačují vysokým stupněm abstraktnosti. U některých žáků se projevilo propojení estetické a užitné funkce vizuálií. Ty, které se žákům líbí, považují za užitečné a naopak. Při řešení úlohy dělá žákům problém kombinovat informace z více vizuálních zdrojů najednou. Příspěvek je součástí rozsáhlejšího projektu, v rámci něhož proběhne další testování vizuálií.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
The aim of the poster is to evaluate the suitability of cartographic expressions (e.g. colour, characters) for different pupils. Theoretical framework As many realized studies have documented, it is highly important to active both learner’s basic sense channels simultaneously, e.g. verbal as well as pictorial, to improve an efficiency of learning (Mayer, 1997; Paivio, 2014). Therefore, school education should promote activation, interconnection and complementation of these channels by means of suitable proportion of the text and the visuals in educational process. In the geography education this might be accomplished through the activities with maps, which are contained in textbooks and mainly in school atlases. Economic-geographical maps are school didactic aids which are commonly used in teaching and performs several functions, e.g. decoration, representation, illustration, organization and interpretation (Mayer, Gallini, 1990). The importance of this kind of teaching aids is to acquire knowledge and understanding, to improve skills and to streamline student attitudes (Ysar, Seremet, 2007). Restriction of the functions of visual didactic instruments may decrease the effectiveness of learning (Peeck, 1993). Nowadays, in the Czech schools are used many atlases from different publishers which intended for primary and secondary school students together. Although it may seem that the competition has positive effect on the quality of maps, unfortunately, it is not happening. Czech economic-geographical maps are criticized for overfullness, lack of transparency and worse readability by cartographers and geography teachers (e.g. Čapek, 1996; Novák, Kramáreková, 2003; Bláha et al., 2015). These facts caused that the effectiveness of teaching can be decreasing. Educators, as well as the pupils are the only users of the educational cartographic media. Hence, the role of the cartographers in a dialogue about the development of effective school maps and atlases is crucial. Therefore, the analysis of above mentioned aspects in efficiency of learning is the first goal of our paper. The second goal of our paper is to assess suitability of different map key on the example of the economic-geographical maps in Czech school atlases for primary and secondary school students. These maps represent the extra-complex maps with multi-layer and fast developing content through time. Thus, it is legitimate thus to ask how to transmit the content to the learners on various levels of school education. Our research will find the answer to the following questions, in particular: How is significant to think about specialized atlases differentiated for primary and secondary schools? Is it possible to overcome the mentioned map complexity only with application of the cartographic generalization or the synthesis by means of synthetic maps? Which map symbols and means of map representation are sufficient for learners on various levels of school education? Methodology For an appraisal the suitability of the map key for primary and secondary school students was chosen user-based assessment of cartographic work (Bláha, 2010). Authors chose a combination of questionnaire survey with didactic test (hereinafter questionnaire) to find out the opinions of students on the suitability of the map keys as well as the success of the work with map keys. Questionnaire included items focused on a discovery of associativity colours with the types of industry and signs of mineral resources (in the first part of questionnaire) as well as the identification of mining map signs without the use of a legend (in the second part of questionnaire). The questionnaire was distributed to primary and secondary schools (on the grammar school). Two groups of students participated in the research: 120 primary school students (11–13 years old; these students weren’t taught symbols of chemical elements yet) and 73 secondary school students (15–17 years old). Authors suggest that these two groups of students reach extreme (maximum and minimum) level of map skills (Hanus, Marada, 2014). To fill out the questionnaire doesn’t exceed 25 minutes. Data analysis was conducted by means of statistical methods at a significant level of 0,05. It was used chi-square test for contingency table, as well as, McNemarʼs test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (Chrastka, 2000). Results Chi-square test of independence significantly documented that the semantically motivated cartographical symbols are more suitable for primary school pupils (ISCED 2; OECD, 2015), the alphanumerical cartographical symbols in economic-geographical maps (e.g. using the symbology of chemical elements) are better for secondary school students (ISCED 3; OECD, 2015). For comparison, the suitability of the current conception of the map key in Czech school atlases (symbol of chemical elements) with a new designed map signs (the initial letter of the mineral resource) were included questionnaire items in which students have to identified cartographic signs without the legend. The Mann-Whitney test showed, that the higher success of secondary school students is statistically significant with identification of current conception of map key. Conversely, the statistically significant difference between the two age groups of pupils was not found in the identification of newly designed characters. Wilcoxon test documented the statistically significant improvement in primary school students in the identification of newly designed cartographic signs. On the other hand, the same statistical test proved the statistically significant downgrade in the identification of newly designed cartographic signs at secondary school students. Nevertheless, the associativity of colour with particular branches of industry is the same in both testing age groups. Concerning the complexity of map contents, the economic-geographical maps are often incomprehensible for younger pupils. They are not able to associate the particular information with the integrated image of economy in presented region. Therefore, new challenges lay in front of the authors of school geographic and cartographic media.
Jan Daniel Bláha
added a research item
As many realized pedagogic studies have documented, it is highly important to activate simultaneously both learner’s basic sense channels, e.g. verbal as well as pictorial, to improve an efficiency of learning (Mayer 1997; Paivio 2014). Therefore, school education should promote the activation, interconnection and complementation of these two sense channels by means of suitable proportion of the text and the visualities used in educational process. In the geography education this might be provide through the activities with maps. Further, the efficiency of learning is improved by the fact how learners comprehend the materials and media which operate with. The implementation of so-called spiral curriculum seems to be effective (see Rinschede 2005). The principle is that the learner repeatedly meets the same learning topics, nevertheless their didactic transmission changes and acquired knowledge deepens in dependence on the learner’s age. Similarly, the educational media have to be in accordance with knowledges and skills of learners of given age. Consequently, it is necessary to reflect these aspects considering the usability of school cartographic media, e.g. the maps in textbooks and especially the conception of school atlases. Educators, as well as the pupils are only the users of the educational cartographic media. Hence, the role of cartographers in the dialogue about the development of effective school maps and atlases is crucial. Therefore, the analysis of above mentioned aspects in efficiency of learning is the main goal of our paper. It presents actual results and planned steps in research project dealing with geographical visual information (GeoVisInfo 2016–2018) on the example of economic maps in Czech school atlases. These maps represent the extra-complex maps with multi-layer and fast developing content through time. It is legitimate thus to ask how to transmit the content to learners on various levels of school education. Our research will find answer to following questions in particular: How is significant to think about specialized atlases differentiated for elementary and for secondary schools? Is it possible to overcome the mentioned map complexity only with application of the cartographic generalization or the synthesis by means of synthetic maps? Which map symbols and means of map representation are sufficient for learners on various levels of school education? Some of forenamed questions was answered in questionnaire survey with utilization of didactic test. The survey was conducted in Czechia among 120 pupils of elementary schools (6th and 7th grade) and among 73 students of higher secondary schools (1st and 2nd grade). The didactic test put to learners some tasks leading to activities with economic maps. According to success in utilization of various kinds of map to solve the task by learner, it investigated the usability of particular visualities. Chi-quadrat test of independence significantly documented whereas the semantically motivated cartographical symbols are more suitable for elementary school pupils, the alphanumerical cartographical symbols in economic maps (e.g. using the symbology of chemical elements) are better for secondary school students. Nevertheless, the associativeness of colors with particular branches of industry is the same in both testing age groups. Concerning to the complexity of map contents, the economic maps are often incomprehensible for younger pupils. They are not able to join the particular provided information into the integrated image of economy in presented region. Regarding to the need of interconnection of verbal and pictorial sense channels, it is necessary to conclude that the text in textbooks is rarely connected to maps in the atlases. Therefore, new challenges lay in front of authors of school geographic or cartographic media.
Petr Trahorsch
added a research item
The Geographic Dimension and Use of Postcrossing in Teaching in Secondary Schools. Postcrossing is a project that combines modern information technology with a traditional postal service. It allows to users to exchange postcards worldwide. In the first section, this article explores the spatial differentiation of this project. The created maps make it possible to interpret primary factors that influence the number of postcrossing users and their activity in the project. The second part of the article focuses on the use of the Postcrossing in secondary schools and working with visual materials (postcards).
Petr Trahorsch
added an update
Project goal
1. Suggest a procedure for the evaluation of the visual elements (visuals) in geogprahy and homeland study textbooks in terms of their usability .
2. Apply this proposed assessment to visuals related to physical-geographic phenomena and processes.
3. Implement a practical survey among the users (pupils), which will focus on the discovery of the influence of selected visuals on the genesis of misconceptions among primary and lower-secondary pupils.
Background and motivation
Textbook research is topical. An important structural component of these didactic tools are visual elements (visuals). Their importance is currently growing in relation to the needs and demands of society, respectively with the dynamic development of the media that use visuals to present the information. These are, however, not used quite adequately in some cases. The position of the geography in comparison with other subjects (for the " boundary " of science and socio-scientific subjects) "predetermines" it to represent selected and very complicated and for pupils abstract phenomena more and more complex, which can not be done without more visuals in the textbooks of this subject. When it used properly, visuals can increase the effectiveness of learning, but they can be the cause of misconceptions. The essence of constructivist teaching is to diagnose these misconceptions of pupils and reconstruct them in the right way. Thus, it is clear that the extensive analysis of the illustrative material in relation to the pupil's internal knowledge system is of key importance in contemporary textbook research.