Project

Venomous and poisonous arthropods and their impact on human beings

Goal: The project studies the description and identification of cutaneous lesions and systemic manifestations caused by venomous and poisonous arthropods, with emphasis in the teraphy and the prevention of injuries.

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Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Insect bites and bite wounds are quite common and most often have mild repercus-sions in humans. Statistics on the incidence of accidents caused by insects are not available,and the skin reactions after the bites are not always known. The authors present two casesof patients with hemorrhagic blisters on their hands after tabanidae bites and discuss the fac-tors that cause the problem and the importance of the differential diagnosis of blisters withhemorrhagic content on human skin.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Skin lesions caused by Diplopoda or millipedes (“piolhos-de-cobra”, embuás, gongolôs) are relatively common and occur when these myriapods penetrate the shoes and are compressed or crushed. This can lead to complex differential diagnoses, especially when located in the extremities of the elderly and diabetics, as they simulate arterial ischemia and necrosis. The macules of the patients are anomalous and the circular and concentric aspect reproduces the body shape of the animal curled up and justifies the publication.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
A 7-year-old male patient from Bonito (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) presented “dark spots" on his foot without previous manifestation. Frightened by the tonality of the lesions, his mother sought medical care. The lesions disappeared after two months.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Besouros são insetos pertencentes à ordem Coleoptera, e compõem o grupo de animais mais diverso do mundo. Esta ordem inclui a família Cerambycidae, composta pelos besouros serra-pau, com algumas espécies consideradas pragas para as monoculturas arbóreas. Nessa família é encontrado o besouro-escorpião Onychocerus albitarsis Pascoe, que possui um par de ferrões na extremidade das antenas, e que pode causar acidentes em humanos. A ocorrência desta espécie é pouco conhecida e registros no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, são pobremente documentados. Dois espécimes foram encontrados nesta região após causarem lesões em humanos, sendo coletados para identificação. Registramos a ocorrência de O. albitarsis no estado de São Paulo, e estas informações serão úteis para futuros estudos entomológicos, ecológicos e médicos sobre esse animal.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added 2 research items
Erythematous macules and sudden pain after contact with a tree are strongly suggestive of caterpillar envenomation (erucism). Caterpillars of the Saturniidae family have hollow-body spines connected to venom glands. When the spines penetrate the skin, they inject toxins and invoke the classical manifestations. The marks have a train tracks appearance and are caused by the distribution of the spines.The combination of skin marks and intense local pain (sometimes with simultaneous lymphadenopathy), indicates a diagnosis of erucism2.
Jequitiranabóias are winged, nocturnal insects of the order Homoptera, Family Fulgoridae, and genus Fulgora (Linnaeus, 1758)1-3. The most common species is Fulgora laternaria. The fear and lack of information about these insects can cause problems. There are reports of administering antiofidic serum to patients exposed to the insect, which is without basis or reason. It is important to make the general population and health personnel aware that this insect is harmless, and there are no negative consequences if one comes in contact with the insect.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Human, dog, and cat fleas, as well as bedbugs, feed by biting their victims, causing acute prurigo, which is aggravated in sensitized victims (papular urticaria). The lesions appear in the classic "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" pattern. There are two main explanations: the parasites "map" the skin area in search of the best places to bite, and their removal when victim scratches, and then reattach to the skin. Treatments aim to control pruritus, as well as hypersensitivity reactions when necessary. Prevention is based on environmental control measures. The "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" sign is a definitive marker for diagnosis and the parasite´s identification and control.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases in the world, and currently in Brazil, there are endemic areas of viruses such as dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever, besides malaria and leishmaniasis. Insect repellents are aimed at avoiding bites, and their efficacy depends, in addition to the concentration of the active components, on elements related to the insect and the user, such as sweat, temperature, eczema, or areas with higher insect density. They can be applied topically on the skin, clothing, or on mosquito nets. The experiment was carried out by five healthy adults who exposed their forearms to 30 healthy adult females A. aegypti (Rockfeller strain) retained on transparent plastic beds treated with 5% glucose solution and submitted for fasting blood feeding for 24 hours. The time (in seconds) of the exposure to the first mosquito bite in each forearm without products and with bilateral combinations of the main Brazilian commercial repellents with pediatric indications was measured. Each experiment, therefore, resulted in three measures. In conclusion, 25% icaridin spray and 30% IR3535 resulted in better performance among pediatric repellents tested against A. aegypti bites.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added 23 research items
Escrita especialmente para graduandos na área das Ciências Biológicas e afins, esta obra busca descrever a diversidade dos animais invertebrados, salientando os pontos mais relevantes da biologia de cada grupo. Além de apresentar um panorama quanto à forma, à função e às adaptações que possibilitam a vida desses organismos nos ambientes em que vivem, Zoologia dos Invertebrados aponta, para a maioria dos grupos estudados, a perspectiva de relação de parentesco destes com outros organismos. Zoologia dos Invertebrados não tem por objetivo substituir os excelentes livros-textos traduzidos, mas, sim, complementar obras clássicas sobre o assunto, por meio de um conteúdo rico em exemplos típicos da fauna brasileira para cada grupo. Além dos temas pertinentes à área e aqui abordados, todos igualmente importantes, esta obra lança mão de um grande diferencial: a existência de capítulos pouco comuns em outros livros sobre Zoologia – a saber: 37, Sistemas de Manutenção de Organismos Aquáticos; 38, Toxinologia de Invertebrados Perigosos no Trabalho de Campo; 39, Introdução de Espécies Exóticas e suas Implicações; e 40, Ciência e História | Reminiscências da Pesquisa e do Ensino dos Invertebrados no Brasil –, os quais alertam os estudantes sobre tais aspectos e estimulam a investigação zoológica nessas áreas.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Pigeon lice are insects that feed on feathers of these birds; their life cycle includes egg, nymph and adult and they may cause dermatoses in humans. Four persons of the same family, living in an urban area, presented with widespread intensely pruritic erythematous papules. A great number of lice were seen in their house, which moved from a nest of pigeons located on the condenser of the airconditioning to the dormitory of one of the patients. Even in urban environments, derma-titis caused by parasites of birds is a possibility in cases of acute prurigo simplex. Pigeon lice are possible etiological agents of this kind of skin eruption, although they are often neglected, even by dermatologists.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added 2 research items
The article discuss manifestations caused by tick´s bites, both toxic as infectious. The clinical aspects are organized in a classification that will be useful for dermatologists.
Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods that attach to human skin through oral devices causing diverse initial cutaneous manifestations, and may also transmit serious infectious diseases. In certain situations, the Health Teams (and especially dermatologists) may face difficulties in identifying the lesions and associating them to the parasites. To assist them in clinical diagnosis, we suggest a classification of the skin manifestations in primary lesions, which occur by the attachment the tick to the host (for toxicity and the anticoagulant substances in the saliva and/or marked inflammation by the penetration and permanence of the mouthparts) and secondary lesions that are manifestations of infections caused by rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and fungi inoculated by the ticks.
Vidal Haddad Junior
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Vidal Haddad Junior
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This study is based on the two case reports of accidents provoked by arthropods (Millepede) in human beings. The authors present this type of accident, the insect specie that caused the accidents, the aggressive mechanism, which is poorly studied in Brazil, and the bibliography.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a research item
Review of the historical, epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects of ant sting accidents, including cases of fire ant stings. Emphasis is given to venomous Brazilian species of ants and the rule of dermatologists in the diagnosing of the problem.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added 33 research items
DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is nowadays the most effective mosquito repellent available, however, its use can present some topical and systemic side effects. Some botanical compositions, as Andiroba (Carapa guianensis), have been proved repellent properties at low cost and toxicity. An experimental study was driven involving four volunteers submitting their forearms covered with Andiroba oil at 100%, DEET 50%, refined soy oil, Andiroba oil 15% and in the absence of products, directly to healthy females of Aedes sp. The times of first and third bites were checked. The results showed that the median of the first bite without any product was 17.5s and the third bite, 40.0s. In the soy oil, the bites happened in 60.0s and 101.5s, in the presence of Andiroba oil 100%, in 56.0s and 142.5s and in Andiroba oil 15%, in 63.0s and 97.5s. The volunteers using DEET 50% had not received bites after 3600s in most of the experiments (p < 0.001 Wilcoxon). Pure Andiroba oil compared to the soy oil, forearm without product and Andiroba oil 15%, showed discreet superiority (p < 0.001 Wilcoxon). Our conclusion is that this study demonstrated that the pure Andiroba oil presents discreet repellent effect against bite of Aedes sp., being significantly inferior to DEET 50%.
Solenopsis invicta (lavapés ants or imported fire ants) are insects that belong to the Hymenoptera order and Formicoidea superfamily. Native to Brazil, this aggressive ant species is today disseminated throughout the Americas. In humans, the sting of the fire ant causes an urticarial papule that progresses within 24 h to a highly pruritic, sterile pustular dermatitis. Children and alcoholics are more often affected, presenting with massive injuries. Subcorneal neutrophilic pustular dermatitis is the usual histopathological finding. One study has reported that fire ant stings in dogs leads to a vertically oriented necrotizing dermatitis with collagen degeneration. This abstract reports a natural fire ant-induced dermatosis in a dog. We report a female, intact, young-adult, mixed-breed dog presented for routine check-up. Physical examination revealed several grouped, nonfollicular, circumscribed abdominal and inguinal pustules. The pustules were relatively tense, circumscribed by a slight erythematous halo, and several dead fire ants were attached to the skin and hairs. No bacteria were seen on cytological examination. Histopathological examination revealed an intraepidermal neutrophilic pustule and dense dermal interstitial, predominantly neutrophilic, infiltration, which extended to the panniculus. Collagen degeneration and edema were also observed. This case documents that fire ant stings can produce pustular intraepidermal dermatitis in dogs similar to that observed in humans. Funding: Self-funded.
Vidal Haddad Junior
added a project goal
The project studies the description and identification of cutaneous lesions and systemic manifestations caused by venomous and poisonous arthropods, with emphasis in the teraphy and the prevention of injuries.