added a research item
The article dwells on a Mantra from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. This Mantra contains the essence of Vedanta. Vidyaranya Muni in Panchadasi Text writes the biggest chapter (seventh chapter) 290 Verses on this one Mantra. Four aspects are to be understood from this Mantra to understand the spiritual process in Advaitic realization. The first one is the realization, which means realizing who or what am 'I' truly (individual 'I' or Jiva). As a result, the negation of worldly enjoyments (Bogya Nisheda) means nothing in this world becomes an object worth pursuing, so one transcends this stage. The next aspect of the Mantra signifies for whose sake am 'I' (Jiva) doing all this? Hence, the 'enjoyer' or the 'person' who is trying to get pleasures, satisfaction, and enjoyment in this world must inquire into 'that;' it is nothing but the negation of the enjoyer (Boktri Nisheda). The third aspect of Mantra deals with what is there to be desired in this world from the point of realized 'self'. As a result of this process, the 'One' who thinks an 'individual being' having the body and mind and trying to attain certain goals in life, that 'One' is dissolved. Finally, suffering along with the 'body and mind' complex is transcended, this is called liberation while living (Jivanmukti); it means that life continues with the body and mind but amidst this 'realized one' transcends suffering; this is called living in the body yet transcending the body. These four aspects have dwelled in this article with the help of 'Ten men story' from a sacred text called Panchadasi written by Vidyaranya Muni
For thousands of years, human beings have been exploring the fundamental nature of the world and the self. In this process, modern science and Vedanta philosophy do not differ in conceiving the physical body as a material and mind also as a material. But now and then, the question is asked that so-called matter is not sentient, it cannot be aware or conscious, and how does matter suddenly become conscious/aware/sentient being? For this reason, consciousness studies have become very important in the last two to three decades and it has opened up. These studies are now turn out to be multidisciplinary by the interest of brain scientists, neuroscientists, psychologists, philosophers of mind, language, physicists, computer scientists, Artificial Intelligence. A lot of work has been done in this field of science to address what is this subjective conscious experience which a human being has internally. Consciousness studies are not new in the east, about two to three thousand years ago texts called Upanishads which are originated from Vedas are clearly stated about consciousness and its nature. In this article, the nature of consciousness is discussed and demonstrated according to Advaita Vedanta Philosophy. The article also encompasses the standpoint of modern science on consciousness. Finally, an attempt is made to answer the so-called hard problem of consciousness from the Advaita Vedanta perspective.
In the most ancient Indian texts, in the Rigveda, one of the hymns famously known as ‘nasadiyasuktham’ says when there was neither existence nor nonexistence what existed? In profound depths what existed at the beginning from which everything else has emerged. Answers to these questions were found, in the most ancient times. In the Vedas and Upanishads, these answers are found. But the questions are asked again and again and answers are restated. It is the wisdom of the ancient philosophers but now stated in the language of modern scientists. As far as the macrocosm (the universe) concerns the ancients are contributed a lot, now our understanding is much deeper with modern physics and cosmology. As far as the microcosm (mind & consciousness) concerns Vedanta and other Indian systems of Philosophy have very valid and deep insights. This is much more than modern understanding given by consciousness studies. Modern science has an edge over ancient wisdom in describing the universe with the help of physics, chemistry and describes the body with the help of biology and physiology. But closer and closer it comes to ourselves; the ancient wisdom is better than modern science. A grand synthesis and profound understanding of Indian Ancient philosophy on macrocosm & microcosm, root cause of human suffering, ancient wisdom to remove suffering, “Law of Karma” and its implications are presented in detail in this article.
This article comprehends the actual goal, philosophy and practice of meditation prescribed in the ancient Yoga system of Patanjali and Vedanta. Meditation is very popular in present days, especially in the west becoming increasingly popular and rightly so as it offers lots of benefits, which is already researched and published. Many schools of Meditation have come to west from east, for instance Yogic Meditation (Hatha Yoga) at the beginning followed by Zen Meditation and transcendental meditation and many other forms of meditation. Presently Mindfulness is well acknowledged meditation in the west, which helps in controlling the wondering mind to calm down by anchoring the attention to the breath means paying attention to the rhythm of breathing cycles. Therefore, the focus of the mind can be attained by effort of meditation, it means the distracted mind can be transformed into concentrated mind by a process of meditation. According to Yoga and Vedanta objective of the meditation is 'self-realization', which means true recognition of the self as the 'witness consciousness' which is beyond the mind, it is not to be manufactured and it is not to be attained, it is always there and natural, which is the true nature of individual being, but it cannot be objectified, it is has to be recognised subjectively as the true self by which every objective experience is possible and to get this realization is the actual goal of meditation.