added 4 research items
Universities and economic development of regions
This paper illustrates the importance of Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) as a source of innovation and economic growth. In the article, we explain the impact of KIBS on innovation, the importance of KIBS as a support in economic growth, its positive impact on employment and important role in the knowledge-based economy of Slovakia. This paper shows KIBS as important for innovation processes provided by institutions, such as universities, where the most important part involves research and development. Low support in services such as KIBS may cause decreases in availability of highly qualified employees and output of knowledge for innovation. Productivity and economic growth are largely dependent on fast growing technological progress and transfer of knowledge. Innovation can lead to a reduction in manual workers on one hand, while on the other qualified employees will be needed for processes in the new applied technology. In order to fully understand the rapid growth of innovation and KIBS, we analyzed the correlation and number of scientists of its population in the EU countries.
The proposed paper deals with the innovation, innovation activities, and innovation performance in Visegrad countries (e.g., Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovak Republic). Three of these countries are classified as the high-income countries and one as the upper middle-income country. The analysis is based on the global innovation index (GII) of both the input and output side indexes by the OECD and EUROSTAT data. The changes of indexes by the Visegrad countries are identified as well as the trends. The contribution discusses differences or distances between the indexes and their stability. The comparison of global innovation index in Visegrad countries shows the opportunities for better understanding of the innovation activity conditions as well as the performances in the innovation in the country. Two of Visegrad countries are ranked better by innovation output (IO) indexes and two by innovation input (II) indexes. All these countries are weak in market sophistication. It is the opportunity for non-technological innovation processes. This is also the challenge of optimizing the institutional systems and processes. In the context of innovation, the key challenge is developing skills for innovation in education and training systems and connected with the changes and expenditures on education and training. The aim is to connect the equipment of more people with the skills related to innovation and creativity in all its forms. All countries have to increase the outputs based on the knowledge, innovation, and creativity.
Increasing demand for telecommunication services and increased competition for scarce spectrum has led to the introduction of spectrum pricing. Spectrum pricing is the term given to funding and licensing mechanisms that bring economic factors into spectrum management. Spectrum is one of the factors of production, and there is significant need to be able to assess spectrum value properly. It is a scarce but renewable public resource. The current assignment and allocation of spectrum is unlikely to be at market equilibrium, for the simple reason that economic factors have only had a very indirect impact (if any) on past allocation and assignment decisions. The aim of this paper is to discuss the access to the radio spectrum from the point of view of operators, regulator, and customers as well as the possibility of excludability and rivalry.