Archived project

Understanding Urban Health disparities: family planning among the urban poor in Uganda

Goal: The overall objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use, and to explore the perceptions of the different stakeholders on family planning services in slums in Kira municipality, Uganda. Specifically, the study will also determine the unmet need for family planning as well as key strategies for improving access to family planning services.

Date: 1 January 2020 - 1 July 2021

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Mazen Baroudi
added 3 research items
Background: Update and utilization of modern contraceptives has public health benefits including reduction of unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and related maternal mortality. However, paucity of evidence on key indicators of family planning in the informal settlements abounds. Data are usually collapsed within the larger urban communities that tend to mask peculiarities of informal settlements. This study determined the proportion of women using modern contraceptives, the unmet need for modern contraceptives and the total demand in informal settlements of an urban municipality. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 626 women in the reproductive age (15–49 years) in the informal settlements of Kira municipality (part of metropolitan Kampala). Multi-stage sampling was applied in the selection of the respondents. Descriptive and log-binomial regression analysis were conducted to determine percentage of women using modern contraceptives, unmet need, and total demand with their associated factors. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 15.0. Results: The total demand for modern contraceptives was 84.9%, modern contraceptive prevalence was 47.4% nearly meeting the national target of 50%, however the unmet need was 37.3%, which much higher than the national target of 10%. Lower total demand for contraceptives was associated with higher women's education status and preference to have another child, while higher total demand was associated with having at least one living child. Higher modern contraceptives use was associated with older age, having at least one living child and high decision-making power, while lower modern contraceptives use was associated with higher education and undetermined fertility preference. Lower unmet need for modern contraceptives was associated with older age (PR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48–0.97) and high decision-making power (PR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.50–0.81), while higher unmet need was found among those who having at least one living child (PR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.01–1.93) and undetermined fertility preference (PR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24–2.34). Conclusions: Total demand and contraceptive use were found to be higher in the informal settlements of Kira municipality, however, the unmet need was much higher among this population as compared to the national urban estimates. This indicates a much higher demand for contraceptives and the need to consider the diverse socio-demographic characteristics of urban spaces. Development of Interventions need to critically consider the diverse urban space, associated explanatory variables and a collaborative systems lens to achieve sustained improvements.
Background: Quality of care (QoC) of family planning (FP) affects contraceptive use, and it varies across types of urban settlement. This study assesses the difference in service delivery point (SDP) structural and process factors between formal and informal urban settlements, and the opinion of the client on the QoC in informal settlements. This is useful in creating an evidence base to advocate for better quality services for the most vulnerable in society. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey that included SDPs of Kira municipality in Wakiso district, Uganda. Data were collected from all the service points in Kira municipality with the caretakers consented. In addition, using multi-stage sampling, 626 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who lived in the informal settlements of Kira municipality were interviewed. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, descriptive analysis was carried out in Stata version 14.0, and Chi-square and t-tests were used to compare the informal with the formal settlements. Results: Formal settlements generally had more higher-level SDPs compared to informal settlements (value of p < 0.001). SDPs in the formal settlements provided more FP methods and had more community health workers (CHW) to support their work. Also, SDPs in the formal settlements were more likely to have long-term FP methods available and more likely to have trained personnel to insert and remove implants and IUDs compared to those in informal settlements. Additionally, more SDPs in the formal settlements provided counseling for permanent, long-term, and short-term FP methods. Of the 626 interviewed women, most of the women (68.6%) reported that they would not return to the previous FP provider or refer a friend to the same provider (72.7%). Conclusions: There is a lower quality FP services in the informal settlements with a commensurable effect on the client satisfaction with the services. Therefore, improving the quality of FP services in informal settlements should be a top priority. Improved quality of services could act as a motivation to increase the uptake of modern contraceptives in such settings.
Introduction: A high unmet need for family planning (FP) prevails in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge, awareness creation, and ensuring accessibility are frequently used to increase FP uptake. However, evidence on knowledge or information dissemination about FP among marginalized populations in urban settings in Africa is limited. This study explored the knowledge of FP methods, media exposure, and contact with FP providers among women from an informal settlement in Uganda. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we interviewed 626 women aged 15–49 years living in informal settlements of Kira municipality, selected through multistage sampling. Using a standard questionnaire, data was collected on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of FP methods, and access to media FP messages among others. Binomial log-linear regression was used to assess disparities in exposure to media FP messages or provider information. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14, at a 5% level of statistical significance. Results: Nearly all women in the survey were aware of FP methods (99.7%). On average, each woman was aware of 10 FP methods. The most commonly known methods were male condoms (98.2%), injectables (97.4%), and the oral contraceptive pill (95.2%). Use of any contraceptive was found among 42.7% of respondents. Exposure to media was found in 70.6% of the respondents, mostly through television (58.5%) and radio (58.3%). Discussing FP with a provider was significantly associated with media exposure (aPR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.24–1.56). Less than 50% of women who were not using FP had contact with an FP provider. Women in union (aPR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01–2.68) and those with access to media messages (aPR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.37–4.54) were more likely to have contact with a provider to discuss FP. Conclusion: There is high general awareness about FP methods and media exposure, but method use was low. Further exploration of women's understanding of FP methods and the fit between existing education programs and FP knowledge needs in this urban setting should be conducted. The potential for mobile health solutions in this urban population should be explored. Future studies should focus on the knowledge and understanding of FP among unmarried and nulliparous women and those with no access to media information.
Mazen Baroudi
added a project goal
The overall objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use, and to explore the perceptions of the different stakeholders on family planning services in slums in Kira municipality, Uganda. Specifically, the study will also determine the unmet need for family planning as well as key strategies for improving access to family planning services.