The collection of longitudinal data is crucial in some domains such as life course studies. However, prospective studies are considerably costly, and thus retrospective data are an appealing alternative. A life history calendar is a tool specifically conceived to collect retrospective data. However, although it is designed to enhance the recall process of the respondents, the accuracy of the data collected through this approach remains unknown, particularly when data is collected online. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from n = 5,181 respondents through an online survey regarding their sexual health. Because we inquired about the occurrence of certain events twice during the survey, once using a life calendar and once through a traditional questionnaire, we were able to perform three types of consistency checks: (1) reporting of single events, (2) age when the events occurred and (3) correct timing between two events. The main results indicated that it is generally more difficult to remember the exact age of occurrence of an event than the event itself, that the report of related events is generally coherent, and that women are generally more accurate in their answers than men. Based on our results, it is therefore possible to identify a subset of persons whose answers are more consistent throughout the survey. This study also shows that data obtained through an online life history calendar can be of a quality similar to that obtained through a traditional online questionnaire. Key messages Online life history calendars can be used to collect accurate retrospective data. The quality of data can be very heterogeneous among participants. Data quality controls should be implemented within the life history calendar tool. </ul
Drawing upon the social psychology concept of identity entrepreneurs (Haslam et al., 2010), we develop a feedback model between politicians and the public that strongly emphasizes the circumstances in which public opinion may facilitate populist discursive elements and politics. We thus consider the success of populism as neither inherently driven by political leaders nor primarily driven by increasing populist attitudes in the public and acknowledge the fragmented nature of the populist discourse emphasized by recent studies. We raise the question of whether there is a populist collective identity, which is accountable in terms of populist rhetorical elements, and how it changes over time. To answer this question, we apply the proposed framework to the case of the rise and development of the populist discourse in Switzerland while accounting for its dynamic adaptation to raising public concerns and for the influence of its core rhetorical elements on individual voting behavior.
This piece is meant to help you understand and master two-level linear modeling in an accessible, swift, and fun way (while being based on rigorous and up-to-date research). It is divided into four parts: PART 1 presents the three key principles of two-level linear modeling. PART 2 presents a three-step procedure for conducting two-level linear modeling using SPSS, Stata, R, or Mplus (from centering variables to interpreting the cross-level interactions). PART 3 presents the results from a series of simulations comparing the performances of SPSS, Stata, R, and Mplus. PART 4 gives a Q&A addressing multilevel modeling issues pertaining to statistical power, effect sizes, complex design, and nonlinear two-level regression. The empirical example used in this tutorial is based on genuine data pertaining to ʼ90s and post-ʼ00s boy band member hotness and Instagram popularity. In reading this paper, you will have the opportunity to win a signed picture of Justin Timberlake.
The onset of a physical chronic health condition (CHC) such as a spinal cord injury, cancer, or diabetes can have a severe impact on an individual’s life and negatively affect mental health or participation. Nonetheless, people react differently to life-stressors and can present different longitudinal trajectories of following the onset of a CHC. This study investigated the heterogeneity in depressive mood trajectories from one year before to four years after CHC onset and tested factors predicting trajectory membership. Two samples were drawn from the Swiss Household Panel dataset: a CHC sample of 361 individuals reporting a physical long standing health condition (lasting 2 years or more) and a 1 to 1 matched comparison sample of healthy individuals. Latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify depressive mood trajectories. Multinomial regression was used to test which factors predict trajectory membership. Four depressive mood trajectories were identified in the CHC sample: resilience (stable low depressive mood; 53.9%), chronic (permanent high depressive mood; 22.2%), delayed (low depressive mood at baseline followed by progressive increase; 15.0%), and recovery (increase of depressive mood around the onset followed by a gradual decline; 8.9%). In the comparison sample, two trajectories were identified: stable low depressive mood (90%) and chronic elevated depressive mood (10%). Protective factors associated with resilient trajectory membership in the CHC sample were higher emotional stability, higher relationship satisfaction, and being male. This study shows that individuals with a CHC have a higher risk of elevated depressive mood compared to healthy individuals. The trajectories identified in our CHC sample are comparable to previous findings focusing on one particular CHC diagnosis such as spinal cord injury or cancer. Thus, our results indicate a common experience regardless of the CHC type. Emotional stability, relationship satisfaction, and gender were identified as factors consistently associated with resilient response across any type of CHC.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a newly acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) by identifying profiles of psychological adaptation outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, using several outcome measures in parallel and to examine biopsychosocial factors associated with profile membership. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury inception cohort study. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation. Participants: Individuals 16 years old or older with recently diagnosed SCI who finished clinical rehabilitation in 1 of the 4 major national rehabilitation centers (N=370). Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measures: Life satisfaction, general distress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a single item from the International SCI Quality of Life Basic Data Set, the Distress Thermometer, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale respectively. Results: Using latent profile analysis, 4 profiles of psychological adaptation outcomes were identified displaying different levels of impact, ranging from Minimal to Severe. Regarding covariates associated with profile membership, higher optimism, purpose in life, and self-efficacy indicated a higher probability of having a Minimal impact profile. Additionally, males, individuals with better functional independence, and those with an absence of pain were more likely to show a Minimal impact profile. Conclusions: Among the participants, 70% showed Minimal or Low impact profiles. Our findings support that individuals can show positive responses across several outcome measures even at an early time after the injury onset (eg, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation). Moreover, our results indicate that beyond functional independence, improvement, and pain management, a rehabilitation process that strengthens psychological resources might contribute to better adaptation outcomes.
Background: Critical events in the second half of life, such as divorce, pose a significant threat to well-being. Individuals undergoing divorce often experience feelings of social loneliness and may benefit differently from available resources depending on how much time has passed since the event. Personality traits have been found to be related to adaptation, with particularly strong effects immediately after the critical event. Other resources, such as identity-stabilizing mechanisms (i.e., valued social groups and self-continuity), may play a role only later in adaptation. However, little is known about the benefits of these resources and their potentially time-dependent effects on social loneliness when one is overcoming later-life divorce. Objectives: This study investigates the role of psychological (e.g., personality, self-continuity, multiple important group memberships) and social resources (e.g., new partner, having someone to help deal with divorce) for social loneliness in two post-divorce phases, using a married group as the reference, controlling for sociodemographic aspects and health. Methods: A representative sample of 850 divorced (aged 40-79 years) and 869 married individuals (aged 40-78 years) living in Switzerland were compared, using multiple regression analyses. Results: Differential predictive patterns for social loneliness between the two divorced groups and the married group were observed. For the short-term divorced (up to 2 years after divorce), higher extroversion and agreeableness and lower neuroticism were associated with lower levels of loneliness. For the long-term divorced (2-5 years after divorce) and for those who remained married, extroversion was similarly important for loneliness. Additionally, higher levels of self-continuity and multiple group memberships predicted lower loneliness, but the short-term divorced did not benefit from them. Having someone to help overcome the divorce benefited members of both divorced groups. A new partner was related to less loneliness, but only in the long-term divorced group. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the effects of psychological and social resources on social loneliness vary by adaptation phase. Although extroversion is beneficial for all divorced and married individuals, other personality traits play a more decisive role in the initial adaptation phase. Identity-promoting resources (i.e., multiple group memberships, perceived self-continuity) are beneficial only later in the adaptation process. To be successful, professional interventions must be tailored as needed.
Longitudinal research emphasizes that nonstandard (i.e., temporary contracts, part-time and multiple jobs) and discontinuous occupational trajectories (i.e., intermittent unemployment or inactivity) are associated with lower levels of mental health. A branch of this research highlights, over many years of observation the importance of the time of exposure to nonstandard occupational trajectories as a social determinant of health. However, the timing of the observed period and the multidimensionality of nonstandard occupational trajectories have been highly neglected. In this study, we analyze the Swiss Household Panel data, which used a life history calendar to collect occupational trajectories across the lifespan. The data included the trajectories of 5690 initially healthy Swiss residents and were used to reconstruct the occupational trajectories during the first 20 years in the world of work. A sequence analysis revealed eight distinct types of occupational careers based on three dimensions: type of contract, labor market status and number of simultaneous jobs. The results show that discontinuous occupational trajectories (characterized by continuous jumps between temporary work, long periods of unemployment, social help, inactivity or part-time work) are associated with higher depressive symptoms, lower life course mental health and lower self-reported health during an individual's first 20 years in the world of work.
Violent conflicts have often been observed to generate social environments in which human rights violations are more easily tolerated and legitimized. However, recent research has documented cases in which communities exposed to violence react with increased condemnations of human rights violations. In this article, we focus on the distinction between generalized and particularized violence. Our findings show that, in the postwar ex‐Yugoslavia context, when local communities have been exposed to violence that was generalized across different ethno‐national groups, they strongly condemn human rights violations. Multilevel structural equation models show that the relationship between generalized victimization and the condemnation of human rights violations is mediated by a collective sense of anomie. The processes that move from collective exposure to violence to the collective reaffirmation of human rights are more likely to unfold in communities where violence transcended group boundaries than in communities where particular groups were disproportionately affected by the violence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Following the “status anxiety hypothesis,” the psychological consequences of income inequality should be particularly severe for economically vulnerable individuals. However, oddly, income inequality is often found to affect vulnerable low-income and advantaged high-income groups equally. We argue that economic vulnerability is better captured by a financial scarcity measure and hypothesize that income inequality primarily impairs the psychological health of people facing scarcity. First, repeated cross-sectional international data (WVS: 146,034 participants; 105 country-waves) revealed that the within-country effect of national income inequality on feelings of unhappiness was limited to individuals facing scarcity (≈ 25% of the WVS population). Second, longitudinal national data (SHP: 14,790 participants; 15,595 municipality-years) revealed that the within-life-course effect of local income inequality on psychological health problems was also limited to these individuals (< 10% of the Swiss population). Income inequality by itself may not be a problem for psychological health but rather a catalyst for the consequences of scarcity.
Dissatisfaction with the economic situation and perceived governmental inefficacy in regard to the financial crisis has spawned a widespread feeling of political distrust across Europe. This distrust has been translated into protests against institutional authority that aims at either expanding democratic procedures or supporting xenophobic and populist measures. This research uses European Social Survey data to compare exclusive and inclusive protesters with regard to a number of personal and social values, attitudes toward democratic principles, and different life conditions and socio-economic resources. It also considers contextual factors to investigate how different protesters' profiles are interwoven with socio-economic conditions. The results of a multilevel latent profile analysis show that exclusive and inclusive protesters, despite sharing similar levels of political distrust, differ with regard to key values and political attitudes, and these differences are related to individual and collective living conditions. We argue that unfavourable living conditions play a non-negligible role in increasing the probability of easy (i.e., populist) scapegoat political attitudes. Further support for this hypothesis is provided by the cross-country analysis, which shows that higher levels of exclusive protest are present in countries that were characterized by worse living conditions before the economic crisis.
Two concurrent positions have driven research on the relationship between economic factors and social trust across countries: While some research has shown that unequal wealth distribution leads to poor social trust, other research has argued that social trust is the precondition to a country's economic performance and distribution of economic resources. Using an ecological linear growth model, this study tests these two concurrent positions with data from the first six rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). This study focuses on the links between socio-economic conditions and inclusive social capital climates, i.e. social climates where inclusive attitudes and generalised trust are widely extended to outgroups. Two models are estimated with Bayesian methods and then compared. The results support the hypothesis that the diffusion of inclusive social capital climates can predict the improvement of a country's socio-economic conditions. However, they also support the opposite hypothesis, according to which the improvement of socio-economic conditions is pivotal in creating a climate of trust. Slightly stronger results are found for the latter hypothesis, suggesting that the enhancement of economic conditions and income distribution may be pivotal in reinforcing the social fabric.
Event history calendar (EHC) methods have received increasing attention from the life-course surveys that have been used in recent years. According to the literature, the EHC provides high-quality data in retrospective surveys because it replicates the autobiographical memory retrieval processes. EHC interviewing is processed through the visual display of individual life events, phases and transitions on a chronological calendar grid, which allows respondents to effectively link events as well as to identify and correct possible dating errors. Moreover, interactive interviewing facilitates the retrieval mechanism. In this study, we test whether the absence of an interviewer and/or interactive interviewing are associated with a reduction in data quality. This aspect is particularly relevant for surveys, as the absence of the interviewer would allow the implementation of EHC methods in self-administered questionnaires. In Study 1, an experimental design compared the results of self-administered paper-and-pencil EHCs in the presence and absence of an interviewer. In Study 2, a quasi-experimental approach compared the results of an interactive EHC interview with those of a self-administered paper-and-pencil EHC. Neither of these studies showed systematic differences between self-administered and interviewer-administered EHCs. The self-administered mode performs better when the instructions and layout design of the questionnaire are clear and detailed. Our findings suggest that the visual properties of the EHC could be a sufficient condition for collecting good retrospective data in the self-administered mode once the initial burden of the task is overcome.
This article details a correction to the article: Sommet, N. & Morselli, D., (2017). Keep Calm and Learn Multilevel Logistic Modeling: A Simplified Three-Step Procedure Using Stata, R, Mplus, and SPSS. 'International Review of Social Psychology'. 30(1), pp. 203–218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.90
Our research is interested in understanding how the elderly evaluate their past, so the aims of this study are, fi rst, to understand if there are age differences within the older population in terms of positivity effect, and second, to test if perception of happiness and vulnerability are two independent recall systems. To test our hypotheses, we used the Vivre / Leben / Vivere survey on a population of 65 years and older ( n =4200), in Switzerland. Findings show that happiness depends on social and cultural norms, while there is an age effect for vulnerability. For happiness, there are no age differences, but this is not the case for vulnerability: the oldest age groups are less likely to report episodes of vulnerability during most of their lives.
The goal of this article was to show how structural equation modelling associated to multilevel regressions represents a powerful tool to examine innovative cross-cultural research questions. The relationship between values and trust in institutions was investigated in four cross-cultural datasets: three were students and teacher samples; the last was a general sample from the 2005 World Values Survey (WVS). The hypothesis of equivalence of the structure of relations between values and trust in institutions (sinusoid curve hypothesis) was tested with a series of multilevel multiple indicators and multiple causes models with random slopes. Structural equivalence was confirmed for student samples, but not for the general sample. The betweencountry variance of the relationship between values and trust in the general sample was partially explained by country level differences in socio-economic wealth and quality of governance.
The use of life-history calendar methods in survey research has been growing during the last couple of decades. This study presents a series of tests on the Swiss Panel LIVES Calendar (SPLC) aiming to understand the quality of the tool in collecting the expected data. The SPLC is a paper and pencil tool specifically designed for the first wave of the third sample of Swiss Household Panel to study life trajectories in relation to the concept of vulnerability. Thus, the SPLC is designed to be moderately standardized and relatively quick to complete, providing sufficient information on respondent’s life trajectories in the domains of residential moves, cohabitation, intimate relationship, family, occupation, and health. The performance of the tool has been assessed using coherence and completeness indicators and by comparing the data collected through different modes, different sub-samples of the populations, and a previous survey (Family tiMes) which used the calendar method. Results showed a good performance of the SPLC both in terms of internal coherence and completeness. SPLC data are robust across modes and comparable to life-history calendar data collected with interactive face-to-face interviews.
In this study, we examine how communal exposure to war violence is related to the inhabitants' forgiveness. Based on multilevel analyses of representative survey data collected in the post-war former Yugoslavia (N = 18 351), we show that forgiveness depends on the type of communal violence: It is lowest in communities exposed to asymmetric and strongest in communities exposed to symmetric violence. We further show the mediating role of the inter-ethnic bonds and nationalistic climates in the communities: while asymmetric violence breaks local inter-ethnic bonds and fuels norms of unconditional nationalism, in communities exposed to symmetric violence, inter-ethnic contact is preserved, and nationalism rejected, more strongly than elsewhere. Our findings thus show that individuals' reconciliatory attitudes depend on the social context in which they are embedded; in particular, on the type of violence that affected their community and on the resulting communal climate that fosters or inhibits inter-ethnic contact and exclusionary identities.
Different fields of psychology have shown that future time perspective (FTP) has an important role in changing individual attitudes and behaviours. However, recent societal conditions, like the economic crises of the Western world, may have changed the meaning itself of the future, passing from hope to threat. This article discusses possible consequences of this change of sign of the future and the implications of future time perspective as an educational strategy in multicultural context. Synthesizing the concepts of future time orientation and generativity, a distinction between personal and social FTP is proposed. Whereas personal FTP is oriented to personal achievement and can be embedded into the Western culture but not into other cultures, social FTP is proposed as a resource for community building. Social FTP stresses the importance of the survival of the community, focusing on long-term and inclusive goals which transcend individual personal achievement. Social FTP is proposed as a cross-cultural tool for improving intergroup and interpersonal relations.
Life-history calendar (LHC) methods have been increasingly used in surveys in the last two decades. There is indeed a general consensus on the fact that the highly structured but flexible approach of the LHC facilitates the memory of past events. Respondent's past experiences provide a context for retrieval of autobiographical memories and they are used as anchoring points and time landmarks for remembering. While there is a general agreement that the LHC methods improve accuracy of retrospective data even for different populations and cultures with a non-linear representation of time, the reasons for this performance (i.e., retrieval processes) are less clear. The literature suggest that the LHC performance is amplified by the interviewer-respondent interaction via conversational and flexible interviewing, either in CATI or CAPI. However, studies using self-administered LHC on youth sex behavior argued that LHC can be used also used in self-administered modes reducing social desirability bias. In this study we present data from two surveys conducted in Switzerland (the Swiss Household Panel pilot study and the Family tiMes survey) between 2011 and 2013. Results show that self-administered LHC could produce equally valid data in terms of completeness (measured with five indicators: number of residential moves, number of intimate partners, number of children, number of jobs, and number of years of unemployment) than interviewer-respondent interactive interviewing. Moreover, self-administered LHC transmitted by mail data had even higher levels of internal coherence than self-administered LHC completed during face-to-face interviews. We argue that improvements in the layout (i.e., graphical visualization) of the LHC, as well as an increasing popularity of life calendar model in social media, may have increased in recent years the accuracy and feasibility of self-administered LHC for data collection.
This paper aims to introduce multilevel logistic regression analysis in a simple and practical way. First, we introduce the basic principles of logistic regression analysis (conditional probability, logit transformation, odds ratio). Second, we discuss the two fundamental implications of running this kind of analysis with a nested data structure: In multilevel logistic regression, the odds that the outcome variable equals one (rather than zero) may vary from one cluster to another (i.e. the intercept may vary) and the effect of a lower-level variable may also vary from one cluster to another (i.e. the slope may vary). Third and finally, we provide a simplified three-step “turnkey” procedure for multilevel logistic regression modeling: • Preliminary phase: Cluster- or grand-mean centering variables • Step #1: Running an empty model and calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) • Step #2: Running a constrained and an augmented intermediate model and performing a likelihood ratio test to determine whether considering the cluster-based variation of the effect of the lower-level variable improves the model fit • Step #3 Running a final model and interpreting the odds ratio and confidence intervals to determine whether data support your hypothesis Command syntax for Stata, R, Mplus, and SPSS are included. These steps will be applied to a study on Justin Bieber, because everybody likes Justin Bieber.
Based on Schwartz's (1992) theory of human values, we hypothesized that the level of trust in institutions should be related to the extent to which individuals cherish values linked to conservation vs. openness to change. We tested the stability of these relations across eleven European countries and between two versions of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). Multilevel models were conducted on the World Values Survey (using the PVQ10) and the European Social Survey (using the PVQ21) data, selecting countries common to both surveys. Overall, the relations between trust in institutions and values were consistent across countries and surveys. As predicted, trust in institutions was anchored in a contrast between values stressing conservation vs. openness to change. However, noticeable deviations from the predicted pattern were also observed. These findings stress the need for further theoretical and methodological refinements to account for the complex interplay between value priorities and trust in institutions.
Erik Erikson's theory of human development defines generativity as the concern for the continuation of life after an individual's death. According to the theory, such a concern has a wide spectrum that ranges from the desire to procreate to the willingness to contribute for the sake of generations that have yet to come, and is thus closely related to concepts of social responsibility and agency. Although this is a well-known aspect of the theory it is only marginally measured in the common quantitative measures of generativity—e.g. the Loyola Generativity Scale. In this study we present the Social Generativity Scale (SGS), which is focused on responsibility for future generation. Correlational analysis showed that the SGS is more consistently linked to future orientation than other generativity measures (i.e. measured with consideration of future consequences), inclusiveness, and political engagement , and negatively related to social dominance orientation and prejudice. The results suggest that the SGS better captures the social responsibility dimension of the gen-erativity concept than previous measures, and for this reason it is complementary to those scales that comprehend generativity as the concern for personal continuation after death and desire of parenting.
p>Economic instability, an array of social changes, and welfare state retrenchment place the question of economic insecurity high on the scholarly and political agenda. We contribute to these debates by drawing conceptual distinctions between inequality and insecurity. Fundamentally, inequality concerns the distribution of resources across individuals, while insecurity concerns exposure to multiple social risks that can deteriorate living conditions. The multiplicity and dynamism of insecurity inform our development of a new measure of economic insecurity, using longitudinal data from the EU-SILC database. Substantively, we then use our new measure to analyze the distribution of insecurity in Europe. Our analysis shows that insecurity is widespread across Europe, affecting countries with different inequality and welfare structures. Second, it is widespread across the income distribution and social classes affecting a relevant part of the middle classes. This result suggests that the European Social Model is increasingly failing to insulate households from economic insecurity.</p
In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority.
Research in contextual effects has argued that income inequality generates negative interdependence among individuals, making social relationships more tense and thus being the source of social distrust and intergroup discrimination. However, results are inconclusive and it also been shown that less interpersonal trust can lead to higher social inequality, highlighting the importance of bottom-up dynamics of social change. The present research merges the two approaches by applying the Coleman's boat model to the study of inequality. The boat model suggests a bidirectional interaction across time: predefined contexts influence the change across time of individual attitudes, in turns changes at the among individual attitudes and values feed back the context, modifying policies and decision making. The present study uses an ecological growth curve model to test the hypothesis of the double direction of influence (context-to-individuals and individuals-to-context). European Social Survey data confirmed that income inequality has a negative influence on interpersonal trust and intergroup relations. However, it also supported the hypothesis that changes on the levels of interpersonal trust at the country level can have a positive impact against societal economic inequality.
Perceptions of the future are crucial components of individual well-being. Hopelessness, which is the sense that the future is a dead end, begins with the occurrence of negative life events and develops through the perception of consistent and pervasive negative outcomes. This study investigated the role of the socioeconomic aspects of the context and shared emotions (emotional climates) within a region in reducing or exacerbating hopelessness. Emotional climates have been defined as the emotional relationships constructed among members of a society, and they describe the environmental quality of a particular community. Multilevel modeling with individuals nested into regions (i.e., Swiss cantons) was used to explore the relationship between context and hopelessness. Data from the project “Vulnerability and Growth,” the Swiss Household Panel and official socioeconomic indicators were used. Spatial-weighting methods were applied to estimate depressive and optimistic emotional climates at the canton level. The results show that hopelessness is primarily affected by individual factors such as personality and life events. However, the analyses revealed that socioeconomic conditions and the optimistic and depressive climates that prevail in cantons also affected individuals’ perceptions of hopelessness. Individuals were more likely to feel hopeless in cantons with high unemployment rates and high levels of shared negative emotions. In contrast, positive emotional climates played a protective role against hopelessness. Acknowledgment of the influence of context on individuals’ perceptions of the future and the correlation of their states of anxiety and depression is pivotal for planning effective interventions to prevent depression.