The guidelines on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas developed were in response to an under-utilized potential of protected areas to utilise tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas and to recent decisions of the CBD on tourism, which invite Parties to “. . . build the capacity of park agencies to engage in partnerships with the tourism industry to contribute financially and technically to protected areas through tools such as concessions, public-private partnerships.”
This paper discusses 16 important trends that are predicted to affect the planning and manage- ment of parks and protected areas in the medium term. While there are many trends visible, the ones chosen are mostly likely to require a management response. There are both challenges and opportunities for tourism-related benefits in parks and protected areas.
Protected areas play an important role in the evolving challenge of maintaining a sustainable world. Not only do they provide refuges for biological diversity, but they play an equally significant role in the changing economic and social basis of local communities and nations. That protected areas are increasingly becoming a source of tourist revenue is not surprising. In many cases, such as the community baboon sanctuary in Belize or Kinabalu Park in Malaysia, entrance fees and other revenues from visitors not only maintain the cost of management but also provide the local community with additional income that then provides incentive for continued protection. The income derived from the protected area, and the attachments people form with the area, often become an important component of the local community. However, the cultural and economic effects of protected areas and their management may disproportionately impact the local community, perhaps leading to resentment toward the park. Actions affecting the protected area may be controversial because of those effects. Conducting consultation and achieving the support of local constituencies will be essential to the success of any protected area planning effort.
SUMMARY The last decade has brought many innovations to cooperative park management approaches used by park agencies and aboriginal peoples. This paper briefly reports on cooperative management efforts in six northern Canadian national parks, Wapusk, Nahanni, Tuktuk Nogait, Kluane, Vuntut and Auyuittuq, and two US national parks, Grand Canyon and Badlands. Interviews with park staff, aboriginal representatives and consultants involved with cooperative management processes serve as the source for this information. The paper is based on a series of factual and experiential questions which address: 1) park establishment; 2) history, identity and aboriginal influences on park culture and management; 3) cooperative management; 4) park and aboriginal relations, past and present; and 5) the role of consultants and other "outside" facilitators of cooperative management. The types of arrangements for cooperative management that exist in each park are examined through the prism of the participants' actual experiences in the field. The paper briefly highlights different aspects of cooperative management and critical elements for its success. The subject areas include: 1) defining roles and responsibilities in cooperative management; 2) fostering communication between park agencies and aboriginal communities; 3) mechanisms for collaborative decision making; 4) establishment and maintenance of effective cooperative management boards; and, 5) co-development and implementation of projects such as documentation and interpretation of aboriginal culture, ecosystem management and ecological integrity planning. A larger report arising from this project will provide practitioners and researchers interested in cooperative management with detailed case studies of cooperative management in each of the eight parks studied for this project. The report will be available by the end of 2003. 1. COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT