added 2 research items
Tourism brings with it both positive and negative health impacts on local communities. Although the topic of health in tourism is traditionally associated with tourists’ health, there are potential opportunities to study the influence of tourism on residents’ health as well. This study aims at exploring the direct and indirect effects of tourism development on residents’ health through income and environmental pollution in the case of several European countries. The long-term and short-term relationships among tourism arrivals, emissions, residents’ income, and health were estimated using a generalized least squares (gls) approach. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals bring significant short-term and long-term impacts on residents’ health directly and indirectly through environmental pollution and residents’ income. Several important theoretical and practical implications are related to considering the long-term health impacts as more important outcomes of tourism development and providing recommendations for destination management organizations and governmental authorities.
Tourist transformation has recently received ample attention. Although personality traits are considered to be overall stable across time, there is evidence that personality might change under the influence of different environmental and contextual factors such as those offered in transformative travel experiences. This study developed and validated a scale to measure travelers’ personality changes after transformative travel experiences. The steps of the study include personality change scale item generation, scale purification, and construct validation with principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The study results indicated the validity of a six-dimensional tourist transformation scale that may be effective in capturing travelers’ personality change through travel experiences. Keywords: transformation, transformative experience, tourism, personality traits, self-change
Virtual reality has become a more common phenomenon in both destination marketing and on-site experience. The recent challenges such as overtourism and the COVID-19 pandemic have created a pressing need to examine virtual tourism as an alternative to traditional travel. This conceptual article aims at clarifying virtual experience in tourism, discussing the main antecedents and outcomes of virtual experience, and proposing a conceptual model of virtual tourism experience. The review of the literature revealed that virtual experience in tourism is influenced by factors related to information, quality, technology acceptance, and affective involvement and has significant effects on tourists’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper contributes to knowledge and practice by classifying the main groups of factors influencing virtual tourism experience, introducing the conceptual model, discussing opportunities for future research, and providing recommendations for tourism practitioners.
The data on attitudes towards tourism were obtained by using a social media listening platform (using the search term “tourism”) that provides a social media library with more than a trillion historical and real-time posts across a variety of social media contexts. The share of voice for negative sentiment towards tourism during the selected time period was considered as a proxy of negative attitudes towards tourism. Adopted from Godovykh et al. (2021). Cite: Godovykh, M., Ridderstaat, J., Baker, C., & Fyall, A. (2021). COVID-19 and Tourism: Analyzing the Effects of COVID-19 Statistics and Media Coverage on Attitudes toward Tourism. Forecasting, 3(4), 870-884.
The data on attitudes towards tourism were obtained by using a social media listening platform (using the search term “tourism”) that provides a social media library with more than a trillion historical and real-time posts across a variety of social media contexts. The share of voice for positive sentiment towards tourism during the selected time period was considered as a proxy of positive attitudes towards tourism. Adopted from Godovykh et al. (2021). Cite: Godovykh, M., Ridderstaat, J., Baker, C., & Fyall, A. (2021). COVID-19 and Tourism: Analyzing the Effects of COVID-19 Statistics and Media Coverage on Attitudes toward Tourism. Forecasting, 3(4), 870-884.
The data on attitudes towards tourism were obtained by using a social media listening platform (using the search term “tourism”) that provides a social media library with more than a trillion historical and real-time posts across a variety of social media contexts. The total number of daily mentions of tourism in the US over time was considered as a proxy of interest towards tourism. Adopted from Godovykh et al. (2021). Cite: Godovykh, M., Ridderstaat, J., Baker, C., & Fyall, A. (2021). COVID-19 and Tourism: Analyzing the Effects of COVID-19 Statistics and Media Coverage on Attitudes toward Tourism. Forecasting, 3(4), 870-884.
COVID-19 has significantly influenced tourism, including tourists’ and residents’ attitudes toward tourism. At the same time, attitudes and consumer confidence are important for economic recovery in the tourism sector. This study explores the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people’s attitudes toward tourism by analyzing time-series data on the number of COVID-19 positive cases, vaccinations, news sentiment, a total number of daily mentions of tourism, and the share of voice for positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The applied data analysis techniques include descriptive analysis, visual representation of data, data decomposition into trend and cycle components, unit root tests, Granger causality test, and multiple time series regression. The results demonstrate that the COVID-19 statistics and media coverage have significant effects on interest in tourism in general, as well as the positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The results contribute to knowledge and practice by describing the effects of the disease statistics on attitudes toward tourism, introducing social media sentiment analysis as an opportunity to measure positive and negative sentiment toward tourism, and providing recommendations for government authorities, destination management organizations, and tourism providers.
Researchers often tend to use the words emotions, feelings, moods, and affect interchangeably, which creates confusion in both conceptual and methodological domains of tourism and hospitality research. However, the insights from neuroscience and psychology demonstrated that there are fundamental differences between these concepts, including their causes, duration, intensity, and outcomes. This research note aims to discuss conceptual and methodological aspects related to using emotions, moods, feelings, and affect, provide comprehensive definitions, and outline opportunities to capture them comprehensively in tourism and hospitality research.
The figure represents the numbers of tourism arrivals, income, and happiness in six Central American countries in 2019. Costa Rica demonstrates the highest number of visitors (3.14 million arrivals in 2019) and the highest happiness (7.00 out of 10.00). Panama has the highest income per capita ($11910 in 2019) with a lower happiness score (6.09 out of 10.00 in 2019). Honduras shows the lowest number of visitors (0.72 million) and the lowest happiness score (5.93 out of 10.00) in 2019, while Nicaragua has the lowest income per capita ($1763) among Central American countries.
Well-being is considered one of the highest values in human life. Although previous studies have discussed the tourists’ well-being outcomes, the impact of tourism on residents’ happiness has received less empirical attention in tourism research. This study aims to explore the effects of tourism development on residents’ happiness in a group of countries by using panel data analysis. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals negatively influence residents’ happiness in the short term and have positive effects on residents’ happiness in the long term. These findings contribute to describing the well-being impacts of tourism, differentiating between long- and short-term outcomes, and providing recommendations for destination management and tourism authorities.
Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures. Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario. Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of perceived risks, identify the main antecedents and outcomes of health risk perceptions, and propose a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a review of the literature on customer risk perceptions, along with their antecedents and outcomes, and proposes a conceptual model of health risk perceptions in tourism. Findings: Key findings reveal that the main factors of health risk perceptions can be broadly classified into cognitive, affective, individual, and contextual components. The proposed conceptual model of health risk perceptions provides a theoretically integrated overview of relationships between all groups of factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions. Originality/value: The paper contributes to theory by offering a new approach to health risk perceptions in tourism, which remain underexplored in previous studies. The literature review adds to the body of knowledge by introducing four main groups of factors affecting tourists’ health risk perceptions, while the conceptual model proposes relationships between these factors, tourists’ risk perceptions, and travel intentions.
This study investigates the influence of the number of tourism arrivals on the physical health of local people in one of the most-visited destinations in the world. Although the literature traditionally describes the economic, social, and cultural impacts of tourism, there is a gap related to the effects of tourism on residents' health. The methodology involves applying the limited-information maximum likelihood instrumental variable approach. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals negatively influence residents’ health in the short term, yet have positive impacts on long-term health outcomes. The study contributes to the theory and practice by offering a new approach to physical health outcomes of tourism, demonstrating the superiority of long-term positive impacts of tourism over short-term negative outcomes, and emphasizing the importance of evaluating the health impacts of tourism for destination marketing and management.