The stressful elements of the latent influence of real media reports about the COVID-19 pandemic on social groups
The worldwide pandemic exacerbated the new role of the media. If previously the discussion was on whether new or traditional media had primacy in popularity and exposure, nowadays the question is whether communicating health issues through social and traditional media leads to a better understanding of their content and more trust in both types of media. We surveyed Ukrainian university students to examine their attitude towards information on coronavirus presented in the media. Results showed that although students generally prefer to use Internet news, trust in traditional media increased during the pandemic. Furthermore, we examined a general psychological portrait of young people derived from trust in the media. In the group of students who trust media information, we found indifference (39% of respondents) and helplessness (24.4%). In the group, convinced that the media were hiding the actual situation, anger prevailed (32.4%). The third group, confident that the media exaggerate everything, experienced indifference, and anger (38.5% and 32.7%, respectively). We may conclude that desire to learn more accurate and unbiased information first hand indicates students' attitude towards traditional media as more reliable sources of information in Ukraine.
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic leads to the development of stress disorders, increased anxiety in the society. One of the strongest factors leading to the development of anxiety, stress in society during a pandemic is the Mass Media. The mechanisms of stressogenic effects of Mass Media remain not completely clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate age-specific characteristics of gaze behavior related to the perception of anxiety-provoking information. The study was performed basing on the 189 volunteers (164 participants aged between 17 and 22 years old (students, control group), 25 people aged between 59 and 71 aged 59 to 71 (experimental group)). We surveyed participants to determine their level of stress, depression, and anxiety and analyzed eye-tracking data during the text perception by using web-tracking (EyePass). Results showed the significant age-related differences in gaze behavior while reading text with negative text elements. Aged adults had shorter median fixation duration. There was no difference between groups in the amount of the fixation. We can assume that except age factor other ones might contribute to our result, namely the occupation of participants, professors at the Institute of Journalism, with developed professional skills (reading pattern, method of information perception) but from other side higher vulnerability to adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared to younger adults.
The article reveals the procedure of selecting real media re-ports (RMR) on the COVID-19 pandemic in experimental studies. We assumed that RMR during the pandemic and several lockdowns had a real impact on people from different social groups. To monitor messages about COVID-19, we used the online service "Software product LOOQME" The algorithm to form the RMR sample was as follows: (a) search for all media messages available on the platform, (b) analysis of selected RMR by online service, (c) forming of an experimental content sample and its embedding in the experiment. The method of selecting RMR considered in this article includes a theoretical rationale for RMR; broad thematic selection of RMR using media monitoring systems; forming an experimental content sample with the use of parameters and selection criteria; additional procedure for rating the selected RMR according to a particular criterion with the participation of experts
РЕКОМЕНДАЦІЇ для медіапрацівників та споживачів медіапродукції, підготовлені на основі результатів дослідження «Стресогенні елементи латентного впливу реальних медійних повідомлень про пандемію covid-19 на соціальні групи» за грантової підтримки Національного фонду досліджень України у межах конкурсу «Наука для безпеки людини та суспільства» (2020 – 2021)
Research report: 199 P., 106 fig., 51 tables, 12 annexes. Object of the research: stressogenic elements of hidden impact of real media reports (RMP) on the topic of COVID-19 on social groups. Purpose of the research: to record experimentally psychophysiological reactions to elements of media reports on the topic of COVID-19. Research methods: media monitoring for recording media reports on the topic of COVID-19 and formation of an experimental sample of messages; sociological and psychological approaches to describe types of subjects, web tracking. The results of scientific literature review on the research topic and an experimental study «Stressful Elements of the Latent Impact of Real Media Reports about the COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Groups» (2020-2021), funded by the National Research Foundation of Ukraine are presented. The data are systematized, analyzed, and the conclusion about the impact of RMR elements was drawn. MEDIA MONITORING, REAL MEDIA REPORTS, SOCIAL TYPES, PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES, WEB TRACKING, STRESSFUL TEXT ELEMENTS, ANXIETY
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic leads to the development of stress disorders, increased anxiety in the society. One of the strongest factors leading to the development of anxiety, stress in society during a pandemic is the Mass Media. The mechanisms of stressogenic effects of Mass Media remain not completely clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate age-specific Age-related differences in fixation length during reading texts with negative text elements characteristics of gaze behavior related to the perception of anxiety-provoking information. The study was performed basing on the 189 volunteers (164 participants aged between 17 and 22 years old (students, control group), 25 people aged between 59 and 71 aged 59 to 71 (experimental group)). We surveyed participants to determine their level of stress, depression, and anxiety and analysed eye-tracking data during the text perception by using web-eye tracking (EyePass). Results showed the significant age-related differences in gaze behaviour while reading text with negative text elements. Aged adults had shorter median fixation duration. There was no difference between groups in the amount of the fixation. We can assume that except age factor other ones might contribute to our result, namely the occupation of participants, professors at the Institute of Journalism, with developed professional skills (reading pattern, method of information perception) but from other side higher vulnerability to adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared to younger adults.
In this study we focus on anxiety and stress resulting from exposure to media covering COVID-19. The objectives were: to prepare a subjects' psychological map; describe stress-producing elements of real media reports (RMR) about pandemic and their correlation with participants' psychological profiles. We conducted an experiment to identify latent, psychophysiological reactions of the subjects to RMR about COVID-19. The participants were divided into two groups: main group (60+, these are academic staff and other employees of the higher education institution in Ukraine, n = 25) and control group (first-year students of the higher education institution in Ukraine, n = 164). We measured state, trait anxiety (Spielberger-Hanin test), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Besides, we used web tracking (a variant of eyetracking) to record subjects' reactions. Our data show that messages elements, but not the intentions of a communicant, can lead to stress. Such stress also depends on the audience' psychological state. We put our results in the context of discussion about vaccination. Accordingly, if mass media aim to popularize vaccination among the people who do not want to do make a jab, media need to put news items that increase anxiety before such nudging messages.
The article reveals the procedure of selecting real media reports (RMR) on the COVID-19 pandemic to use in experimental studies. We assumed that RMR during the pandemic and several lockdowns have a real impact on people from different social groups. It is equally important to focus researchers' attention on forming a sample of subjects, and to understand and justify why certain news stories are selected for use in experimental settings. To monitor messages about COVID-19, we used the online service "Software product LOOQME (Service for monitoring and analysis of references in the media and social media LOOQME)". The algorithm to form the RMR sample was as follows: (a) search for all media messages available on the platform in the news feed, and selection of key parameters that meet the criteria of RMR, (b) analysis of selected RMR by online service, (c) formation of an experimental content sample and its embedding in the experiment. The procedures proposed in the article do not claim to be definitive, and should be considered as one of the first attempts to select and classify media messages about COVID-19 to form an experimental content sample. Furthermore, the presented technique should definitely be tested and potentially can be universal in such experiments. The method of selection of RMR considered in this article includes: theoretical rationale for the concept of RMR; general thematic selection of RMR with the help of media monitoring systems (online services); formation of an experimental RMR sample with the use of parameters and selection criteria; additional procedure for rating the selected RMR according to a certain criterion with the participation of experts.
The monograph «Stressogenic Elements of the latest Impact of Real Media Reports on the COVID-19 Pandemic on Social Groups (experimental study)» was written by the researchers who carried out a similar project, which was funded for two years by the National Research Foundation of Ukraine. The text of this publication reproduces the organisation process of the research, conduction of the actual experiment aimed at studying the "stressful behavior" of media reports elements on the topic of COVID-19, depending on the conditions of functioning of these messages. The monograph reveals the procedures and means of the research organization, in particular, a method for selecting Live, relevant media reports for the experiment is proposed, and the results of psychophysiological methods usage for recording the results of perception of text elements, in particular the use of web tracking, are demonstrated. Keywords: stressogenic elements, real media reports, latent impact, COVID-19, web tracking
У статті розглядається процедура відбору реальних медіаповідомлень про пандемію COVID-19 для використання їх в експериментальних дослідженнях. Ми виходили з того, що РМП під час пандемії та карантинів чинять реальний вплив на людей із різних соціальних груп. Як важливо фокусувати увагу дослідників на формуванні вибірки піддослідних, так і важливо точно розуміти та обґрунтовувати у своїх працях, чому саме певні новинні історії відбираються для застосування в експериментальних дослідженнях. Для моніторингу повідомлень на тему COVID-19 ми використали онлайн-сервіс «Програмний продукт LOOQME (Сервіс моніторингу та аналізу згадувань у засобах масової інформації та соціальних медіа LOOQME)». Алгоритм роботи для формування вибірки РМП був такий: (а) організація пошуку усіх, присутніх на платформі у стрічці новин медіаповідомлень, і відбір за визначеними параметрами тих, які відповідають критеріям РМП, (б) аналіз відібраних РМП засобами онлайн-сервісу, (в) формування експериментальної вибірки і включення її в експеримент. Запропоновані процедури відбору медіаповідомлень на тему COVID-19 для проведення експерименту з вивчення латентного стресогенного впливу РМП на аудиторію, що належить до різних соціальних груп, варто розглядати, як пошук методики відбору медіаповідомлень за контентом для формування експериментальної вибірки. Представлена методика безперечно повинна пройти апробацію і може бути універсальною за процедурами для використання в подібних експериментах. Розглянута у цій статті методика відбору реальних медіаповідомлень включає: теоретичне обґрунтування поняття РМП; загальний тематичний відбір РМП за допомогою медіамоніторингових систем (онлайн-сервісів); формування експериментальної вибірки РМП із застосуванням параметрів та критеріїв відбору; додаткова процедура рейтингування відібраних РМП за визначеним критерієм з участю експертів. Ключові слова: реальне медіаповідомлення; COVID-19; шкала актуальності тем; негативні РМП, процедури відбору медіаповідомлень.
Додаток 4. Експериментальні РМП станом на 7 квітня 2021 року. Сформовано за участі експертів, завданням яких було рейтингувати повідомлення за негативною конотацією
Відбір медіаповідомлень на тему COVID-19 через онлайн-сервіс LOOQME
Щоденний звіт Covid19, що надав онлайн-сервіс LOOQME
Objective: The aim: To examine the features of experiences during quarantine relating to the tolerance for uncertainty. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: 306 volunteers aged 18-65 years participated in this study. All participants were tested during strict quarantine in April 2020. In order to diagnose the personality traits related to ambiguity tolerance, we used Budner's scale of tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity. To determine the features of experiences we used the survey, which included 40 statements and 12 emotional states related to the cognitive, emotional-evaluative, and behavioral components of the person's self-image. Results: Results: The overwhelming majority of volunteers perceive the pandemic as a dangerous, threatening, uncertain situation and make hasty decisions on the base of polar judgments, react with anxiety, attempt to avoid uncertainty, rejection of everything unusual. Their experiences were filled with feelings of powerlessness and deterioration in mood. For the majority of our subjects, the situation of uncertainty is the source of intolerance. Negative consequences appeared in the behavior (loss of time management skills, laziness). There are direct relationships between the factor of shock and anxiety with the sources of intolerance, novelty and complexity, and general intolerance. The cognitive component of the experience was the least pronounced and involved only after an emotional experience. Conclusion: Conclusions: It has been established that cognitive rethinking of the self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic is possible after an emotional response and leads to a change in the behavioral stereotypes.
This article reveals the preparation for the investigation of the latent impact of media reports about COVID-19 on social groups. The research project of the Institute of Journalism, funded by the National Research Foundation of Ukraine, shows how to use media monitoring to form an experimental sample of media reports on COVID-19 as well as how to make a sociological and psychological description of the method of forming experimental groups. The purpose of this study is to form a methodological basis for experiments. We will use all this as a proven tool for organizing experiments in the subsequent stages of research. Accordingly, the search for media messages on the topic of COVID-19 by the LOOQME service showed the existence of an information boom in the media (this does not take into account the flow of messages on social networks), measured daily by tens of thousands of media messages. Undoubtedly, each person does not “digest” so much information, respectively, is not affected by it in full. Therefore, the question arises about the functioning of a human being as an interpreter of specific messages available to them, but taking into account public opinion as an interpretive filter: what people are saying and how they relate to COVID. All this is the filter that sets the vector of perception and understanding. This factor we will take into account in the following stages of the project.