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The principle of common concern of humankind
Are unilateral economic sanctions legal under public international law? How do they relate to the existing international legal principles and norms? Can unilateral economic sanctions imposed to redress grave human rights violations be subjected to the same legal contestations as other unilateral sanctions? What potential contribution can the recently formulated doctrine of Common Concern of Humankind make by introducing substantive and procedural prerequisites to legitimise unilateral human rights sanctions? Unilateral Sanctions in International Law and the Enforcement of Human Rights by Iryna Bogdanova addresses these complex questions while taking account of the burgeoning state practice of employing unilateral economic sanctions.
Are countries capable of reducing economic inequality under conditions of contemporary globalisation without cooperating and coordinating with other countries? While states are far from powerless to effect distributional change within their own sovereign space, Taking a Common Concern Approach to Economic Inequality makes the case that cooperation and coordination is indeed necessary, especially in relation to corporate taxation. It accordingly contemplates the utility of a transnational taxation system that is embedded in cooperative sovereignty through the recognition of rising economic inequality and its deleterious effects – including how increasingly unequal distributions within countries make transnational cooperation and coordination efforts less likely – as a common concern of humankind.
The Common Concern of Humankind today is central to efforts to bring about enhanced international cooperation in fields including, but not limited to, climate change. This book explores the expression’s potential as a future legal principle. It sets out the origins of Common Concern, its differences to other common interest legal principles, and expounds the potential normative structure and effects of the principle, applying an approach of carrots and sticks in realizing goals defined as a Common Concern. Individual chapters test the principle in different legal fields, including climate technology diffusion, marine plastic pollution, human rights enforcement, economic inequality, migration, and monetary and financial stability. They confirm that basic obligations under the principle of ‘Common Concern of Humankind’ comprise not only that of international cooperation and duties to negotiate, but also of unilateral duties to act to enhance the potential of public international law to produce appropriate public goods.
This article proposes that the function of trade rules with respect to low-carbon technology diffusion should be to address the identified market-related barriers preventing cross-border dispersion of the necessary technologies. By doing so, it seeks to expand the discussion in the WTO regarding trade, technology transfer, and climate change beyond the traditional confines of intellectual property issues. To that effect, it outlines a new framework against the normative background of Common Concern of Humankind, an emerging legal doctrine. This is further followed by highlighting the key areas of action, which includes - market access reform to reduce costs, process and production measures (PPMs) to increase demand for clean technologies, and making rational and appropriate incentives available domestically and also for exports. Trade and Climate, Low-carbon technology diffusion, Transfer of technology, Market failure, Technology market reform, Common concern of humankind