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Serbian American electrical engineer Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), wrote,
“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Ākāśa or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.”
We will now investigate as to what exactly this was supposed to mean.

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar and they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio, which became known as Weber's constant, was measured numerically to be c√2, where c was very close to the speed of light. Since this experiment had nothing to do with optics, the question then arises as to whether they had perhaps actually measured the speed of electric current, which just happens to be close to the speed of light for the reason that the speed of light is in turn determined by the speed of electric current within the context of the medium for the propagation of light. We must establish the physical commonality between light and electric current.

The Dirac Sea was proposed by P.A.M. Dirac in the year 1930 to explain the negative solutions to the Dirac Equation of 1928. A few years later, in 1934, Dirac invoked the Dirac Sea idea to explain the phenomena of electron-positron pair production and annihilation, that had been discovered by Carl Anderson in 1932. The suggestion was, that throughout the universe there exists an all-pervading underworld in a negative energy state, and that this is filled with electrons. Similarities to nineteenth century luminiferous aethers will be discussed and the question asked as to why the Dirac Sea, and later theories of the quantum vacuum, have never been associated with the propagation medium for electromagnetic waves.

The Planck-Einstein relation, E = hf, relates the energy of discrete pulses of black body radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays to their wave frequency. This relationship appears to contradict the wave theory of light. An investigation will now take place regarding whether the Planck-Einstein relation, and Planck’s constant itself, lie in the domain of the medium for the propagation of light, or in the vestibule of the atom, or in both.

Displacement current was originally conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 in connection with linear polarization in a dielectric solid which he believed to pervade all of space. Modern textbooks however adopt a different approach. The official teaching today is that displacement current is a consequence of extending the original solenoidal Ampère’s Circuital Law to embrace the conservation of electric charge. Yet, unless either of these two methods leads to a displacement current that is related to Faraday’s Law of Induction, then it cannot serve its main purpose, which is to provide a bridge between Ampère’s Circuital Law and Faraday’s Law, hence enabling the derivation of the electromagnetic wave equations. This matter will be investigated in both the Coulomb gauge and the Lorenz gauge.

Centrifugal force is an inertial effect which is induced by motion through the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum. While it can act in opposition to gravity, there is evidence from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, that gravity, if strong enough, can affect the physical structure of the 4D space-time continuum in such a way as to destroy the centrifugal force and convert it into an electrostatic force of attraction that augments the gravity. The physical nature of centrifugal force and the manner in which it can be altered by gravity will now be investigated.

Centrifugal force is a well-known concept. It is the familiar outward acting force that is induced in rotating systems. It has many practical applications in engineering, and its mathematical formula plays a crucial role in planetary orbital analysis.
It is important therefore to investigate why the physics establishment shies away from embracing this concept to the full. We hear talk about centrifugal force not being a real force, or that it is merely an equal and opposite reaction to a centripetal force, or that it only exists in a rotating frame of reference, or that it doesn’t exist at all. This unfortunate attitude will now be investigated in full.

Wireless radiation emitted from an antenna is generated on the same principle as that of a magnetic field. One might therefore imagine that the power source should encounter a reactive impedance. The standard belief, however, is that radiation resistance is not in fact reactive, but rather that it is a resistive impedance. This matter will be investigated.

Since Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell wrote his Treatise in 1873, it has generally been believed that wireless electromagnetic radiation consists of sinusoidally oscillating electric and magnetic fields, perpendicular to each other and mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The reasons as to why Maxwell concluded these mutually perpendicular orientations will now be investigated, as will the issue of the relative phase in time as between these electric and magnetic disturbances.

Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the luminiferous medium although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.

The Lorentz transformations are best known for the relativistic Lorentz factor, γ = 1/√(1 – v^2/c^2), which appears in the equations of special relativity. It is also known that the Lorentz transformations can be used to derive the Biot-Savart law in the form B = μεv×E, and also the magnetic force in the form E = v×B.
What is not so well-known, however, is that the emergence of these two cross-product equations from a Lorentz transformation has got no bearing on the Lorentz factor itself. It is often argued that the magnetic force, E = v×B, is a relativistic effect, yet aside from the very obvious fact that magnetism is observable at laboratory speeds, it will be demonstrated in this article that magnetism is a consequence of the physical structure of 4-D space-time, and that it is definitely not a relativistic effect.

The purpose is to show that the equation E = mc^2 was already implicit in Maxwell's 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force" and that it doesn't mean that mass is equivalent to energy, but rather it relates to the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles which pervades all of space.

Displacement current is central to starlight in outer space, yet its theoretical justification in textbooks is confined to the restricted context of the space between the plates of a terrestrial electric capacitor. This article will examine how James Clerk Maxwell originally introduced the concept back in the nineteenth century. The modern textbook derivation will then be explained, followed by a detailed investigation into how displacement current relates to electromagnetic induction and electromagnetic radiation in deep space, far away from any laboratory electrical apparatus.

Displacement current is the term in Maxwell's modified version of Ampère's Circuital Law that enables the electromagnetic wave equation to be derived. It was originally conceived by Maxwell in connection with displacement of the electric particles in his sea of molecular vortices. It was conceived to exist in deepest space and not necessarily to be confined to the immediate vicinity of an electric current circuit. Nowadays, displacement current is introduced as being the term that is needed to make Ampère's Circuital Law consistent with conservation of charge, and it is deemed not to be a real current. Maxwell on the other hand had already added displacement current to Ampère's Circuital Law prior to considering any such matters. It will now be shown that the modern approach to displacement current is heavily flawed and that displacement current makes no difference whatsoever to the issue of the applicability of Ampère's Circuital Law in charge varying situations.

An abominable by-product of the modern relativity era is the widely circulated notion that a magnetic field is the relativistic component of the electric field. This idea arises out of applying the Lorentz transformation to Heaviside's versions of Maxwell's equations. The result yields both the Biot-Savart law and the Lorentz force along with the relativistic conversion factors. This article aims to demonstrate that the Lorentz transformation of the Maxwell/Heaviside equations, as regards producing the vXB component of the Lorentz force, is merely doing what a Galilean transformation would also do. It is restoring the convective component that was part of Maxwell's original fourth equation, and which Heaviside and Gibbs took away in 1884. This article also demonstrates that the Biot-Savart law is a solution to Maxwell's equations independently of the Lorentz transformation.

The rotating electron-positron dipole is the primary physical unit of electromagnetism. It consists of an electron in a mutual central force orbit with a positron. The axis of rotation of this rotating dipole is perpendicular to a line joining the electron to the positron. Aether flows out of the positron, crosses over, and sinks down into the electron. This results in a swirling aether vortex with the electron and the positron acting in the capacity of rolling idle wheels. The richness and quality of this prototype unit will now be discussed in terms of the manifestation of ten very important and distinctive physical characteristics.

Some mathematical manipulations around the Biot-Savart Law in conjunction with an all pervading electron-positron sea.

This is a pioneering paper written in 1982/83 which has been superseded by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field".

This is a now abandoned article written in 1982 proposing that space is densely packed with electrons and positrons. Its contents were superseded in 2006 by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field"

Ampère’s Circuital Law is the most controversial of Maxwell’s equations due to its association with displacement current. The controversy centres around the fact that Maxwell’s entire physical basis for introducing the concept of displacement current in the first place, was the existence of a dense sea of molecular vortices pervading all of space. The modern-day physical parameter known as the electric permittivity, ε, being reciprocally related to the dielectric constant, is historically rooted in the elasticity of this medium. Indeed, the dielectric constant served as the vehicle through which the speed of light was imported into the analysis from the 1855 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment, yet the medium itself has since been totally eliminated from the textbooks. In order to understand how the omission of Maxwell’s vortex sea has impacted upon electromagnetic theory, this article will take a close examination of both the Biot-Savart Law and Ampère’s Circuital Law.

Ampère’s Circuital Law is the most controversial of Maxwell’s equations due to its association with displacement current. The controversy centres around the fact that Maxwell’s entire physical basis for introducing the concept of displacement current in the first place, was the existence of a dense sea of molecular vortices pervading all of space. The modern-day physical parameter known as the electric permittivity, ε, being reciprocally related to the dielectric constant, is historically rooted in the elasticity of this medium. Indeed, the dielectric constant served as the vehicle through which the speed of light was imported into the analysis from the 1855 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment, yet the medium itself has since been totally eliminated from the textbooks. In order to understand how the omission of Maxwell’s vortex sea has impacted upon electromagnetic theory, this article will take a close examination of both the Biot-Savart Law and Ampère’s Circuital Law.

Electromagnetic radiation in deep space, such as starlight, constitutes a propagated disturbance in the prevailing background magnetic field. EM waves can therefore either be directed along the magnetic lines of force, or perpendicular to them, or at any angle in between. With reference to the double helix theory of the magnetic field [1], the common denominator as between perpendicular radiation and parallel radiation will be established.

This article is withdrawn as of 25th September 2022. The reason for the withdrawal is that a transmission line pulse travels at a speed in the order of the speed of light, and as such, any associated electrostatic field will have converted into a magnetic field for the reasons explained in red before the abstract.

It will be shown how the magnetic vector potential, A, is a momentum which is central to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, and how the convective electromagnetic force E = v×B is the factor which enables the total time derivative to be used in Faraday's law.

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed a landmark experiment of profound significance. By discharging a Leyden jar (a capacitor), they linked the speed of light to the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge.
This experiment was electromagnetism’s Rosetta Stone because the result can be used to, (i) identify the speed of light as the speed of circulation of electric current, (ii) identify the speed of light as the speed of electromagnetic waves through a dielectric solid that pervades all of space, while noting that inertial centrifugal force and dipole fields share in common an inverse cube law in distance. The result can also be used to, (iii) identify magnetic repulsion as a centrifugal force, and hence to establish the double helix pattern that characterizes magnetic lines of force.

In Part III of his 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force", James Clerk Maxwell introduces the concept of displacement current in connection with the elasticity of the medium for the propagation of light. During the course of Part III, the luminiferous medium changes from an anisotropic sea of molecular vortices into an isotropic dielectric solid. An attempt will be made to reconcile these two seemingly contradictory mediums.

Wireless EM radiation relates to magnetization while the waves that travel alongside the conducting wires in transmission lines relate to linear polarization. This article will examine how these two phenomena may or may not be treated using the same basic electromagnetic wave equations.

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is very close to the speed of light. In 1857, another German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, used Weber’s constant to conclude that electric signals travel along a wire at the speed of light. A few years later in 1861, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was working on the physical medium responsible for magnetic lines of force and he established a linkage between its transverse elasticity and Weber’s constant. On converting electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, Maxwell exposed the speed of light directly and he connected it to the transverse elasticity of the luminiferous medium. This paper sets out to establish the fundamental origins of the speed of light.

The magnetic field is solenoidal, yet the Biot-Savart Law which is the textbook equation for the magnetic field, indicates the existence of a singularity owing to the fact that it involves an inverse square law in distance. This dilemma is solved within the context that an individual magnetic line of force constitutes a double helix of sinks and sources closed on itself to form a toroidal ring vortex.

The aether alone cannot explain electromagnetism. In order to explain electromagnetism, we need to have a sea of tiny aether vortices, and in order to have a sea of tiny aether vortices, we need to have sources and sinks in the aether. These sources and sinks are what we call electric particles, and it is a dense ‘Electric Sea’ of positive (source) and negative (sink) particles that causes the fundamental aethereal based forces to manifest themselves in the particular guise of electromagnetism. This paper aims to clarify the hydrodynamical relationship between the aether and the electric sea, and how the agency of the latter can reverse a mutually attractive gravitational/electrostatic force into a mutually repulsive electrostatic force.

It is widely believed that electricity and magnetism were united by James Clerk Maxwell in the nineteenth century. In his 1865 paper ‘A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field’, Maxwell substituted the quantity ‘Displacement Current’ into Ampère’s circuital law and he obtained the electromagnetic wave equation. Displacement current is generally believed to incorporate Gauss’s law and so it would appear that Maxwell had successfully united electrostatics with electromagnetism.
Maxwell’s physical explanation for displacement current began in terms of tangential stress on the electrical particles in his sea of molecular vortices and it later developed into dielectric linear polarization current. Maxwell was on the right tracks when he considered the tangential stress on the electrical particles in his vortex sea, but he went wrong when he later ignored his molecular vortices to concentrate on the dielectric aspect of the aether.
There exists a tangential quantity that might be accurately described as ‘Angular Displacement Current’ which exists perpendicular to linear polarization current and which has an identical mathematical form. Maxwell mistakenly interpreted displacement current in electromagnetic radiation to refer to linear polarization current, when in fact it should more accurately refer to angular displacement current. Angular displacement current is a rotational phenomenon and it will be concluded that electromagnetic radiation is a gyroscopic phenomenon involving the coherent plane polarized propagation of rotations (including precessions) and also the longitudinal propagation of centrifugal pressure.

The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all matter and space, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and posi-trons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two superimposed principles. Their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a 'magnetic line of force'. When large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed, the tiny vortices will become linearly polarized. This will result in a 'couple force' acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied field lines. Centrifugal pressure therefore acts at right angles to both magnetic and electric lines of force. In the dynamic state the alignment of the dipoles is undergoing change and the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating , either in magnitude or direction (precession). This realignment will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum is electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.

A summary of how Maxwell used the experimental result of the 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment in order to establish that light is a transverse wave in the same elastic solid that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. 1856 was the first historical connection between the speed of light and electromagnetism.

When analyzing pendulum motion, textbooks avoid invoking centrifugal force. All upward acting forces are accounted for by the tension in the rod. This tension must however be greater in magnitude than gravity in order for a net upward force to be possible. The role of centrifugal force in both the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum will therefore be reexamined , and a connection with magnetic repulsion will be suggested.

James Clerk Maxwell is credited with having brought electricity, magnetism, and optical phenomena, together into one unified theory. The details of what exactly he did were however seriously distorted in twentieth century physics textbooks. Maxwell is most famous in connection with a set of equations which bear his name, but these equations have been totally removed from the physical context within which Maxwell was working, and outside of that physical context the full meaning of these equations is lost. Maxwell was working within the context of a sea of tiny aethereal vortices pressing against each other with centrifugal force. The centrifugal force bit was crucial for explaining magnetic repulsion, yet both centrifugal force and aether are stringently denied by modern physicists who nevertheless continue to hail Maxwell for the equations that he derived by using these very concepts which they deny. This irony seems to be explained at least in part because they think that the equations can be re-derived using Einstein’s special theory of relativity. Such an erroneous belief stems from the fact that one of the most important of Maxwell’s equations has been wrongly credited to Lorentz and referred to as the Lorentz force law and treated as ‘supplementary’ to Maxwell’s equations. Einstein, being ignorant of Maxwell’s original equations and the fact that they contained the Lorentz force law, hence wrongly believed that the equations contained no convective term, and so he made the erroneous conclusion that Maxwell’s equations mean that the speed of light must be frame independent in contradiction of classical principles of vector addition of velocities. This erroneous conclusion led Einstein to his special theory of relativity in 1905, and it subsequently led to the erroneous belief amongst both relativists and many anti-relativists, that Einstein’s special theory of relativity follows naturally from Maxwell’s theory, when in fact Maxwell and Einstein were not even remotely working along the same lines.

It is proposed that all space is permeated with a dense electrically neutral sea of electrons and positrons which serves as the medium for the propagation of light. The challenge remains to devise a stable bonding mechanism within this luminiferous medium that conforms with Maxwell's equations by providing the necessary solidity and the physical mechanism that will give rise to the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, while at the same time allowing for the fluidity that would avoid the problem of friction in the planetary orbits.

Owing to the fact that gravitational field strength has the same physical effect on the internal mechanism of an atomic clock as kinetic energy does, a redefinition of potential energy will be made which better emphasizes this reality. The existing definition of potential energy with its negative sign masks the cyclical oscillation of the internal energy inside a GPS clock in an elliptical orbit.

The historical linkage between optics and electromagnetism can be traced back to the year 1855, when Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch, by discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), demonstrated that the ratio of the electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge is equal to c√2, where c is the directly measured speed of light. Although not initially aware of the connection to the speed of light, Weber interpreted c√2 as a kind of mutual escape velocity for two elements of electricity in relative motion, such as would enable the induced magnetic force to overcome the mutual electrostatic force. A few years later, James Clerk Maxwell converted this ratio from electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, hence exposing the speed of light directly. On connecting Weber’s ratio to the dielectric constant in an all-pervading elastic solid, Maxwell concluded that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The differing perspectives of Weber and Maxwell can be reconciled by linking the speed of light to the circumferential speed of the electric particles surrounding the tiny molecular vortices that Maxwell believed to be the constituent units of the luminiferous medium. If we consider these molecular vortices to be tiny electric current circulations, mutually aligned along their rotation axes to form magnetic lines of force, magnetic repulsion can then be explained in terms of centrifugal pressure acting sideways from these field lines. And if these molecular vortices should take the more precise dipolar form of an electron and a positron in mutual orbit, we can then further explain magnetic attraction, this time in terms of the more fundamental electrostatic force being channeled along the double helix of electrons and positrons that forms a magnetic line of force.

Gravity and electricity are both manifestations of aether flow. They differ only in the respect that gravity is a rarefied flow that gives rise to a tension/pull force, whereas electricity is a pressurized flow. A thunder cloud collects and stores aether from the gravitational inflow and releases it again under pressure in the form of electricity. One might say that a thunder cloud is a reservoir that collects gravity and releases it again in the form of bolts of lightning. It will further be suggested that auroras are gravitationally powered fluorescent lights which operate when the magnetic field is at an optimum orientation. Dynamic Space I. So long as we treat space as being rigid and static, then the only variable in mechanics will be the motion of particles relative to space. However, if space itself is dynamic, stretchable, and compressible, then this will introduce extra variables. Both the particles and the space between the particles can then be moving. The dynamic space concept has important significance in wave mechanics, because under existing theory, a wave is merely a progressive vibration of bonded particles from neighbour to neighbour, whereas if we treat space itself as being dynamical, then we can also have a net flow of pure pressurized space in connection with a wave. And if energy ultimately comes down to the motion of space as well as to the state of tension or pressure in space, then we will have the basis for Bernoulli's principle. This will add a hydrodynamical dimension to wave mechanics and we will have the basis for the flow of mass in connection with a wave. See section VI 'Radiation Pressure' in "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field". [1]

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is very close to the speed of light. In 1857, another German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, used Weber’s constant to conclude that electric signals travel along a wire at the speed of light. A few years later in 1861, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was working on the physical medium responsible for magnetic lines of force and he established a linkage between its transverse elasticity and Weber’s constant. On converting electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, Maxwell exposed the speed of light directly and he connected it to the transverse elasticity of the luminiferous medium. This paper sets out to establish the fundamental origins of the speed of light.

When the electromagnetic wave equation is derived in modern textbooks, Maxwell’s displacement current is used. While investigating the physical meaning of displacement current, this article will take a closer look at the magnetic vector potential A, which Maxwell considered to be a momentum lurking in behind the magnetic field.

Although Maxwell’s most important equations had already appeared throughout his seminal paper entitled “On Physical Lines of Force” [1], which was written in 1861, it was not until 1864 that Maxwell created a distinct listing of eight equations in his follow up paper known as “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” [2]. This was in a section headed as ‘General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field’. While Maxwell refers to twenty equations at the end of this section, there are in fact only eight equations as such. Maxwell arrives at the figure of twenty because he splits six of these equations into their three Cartesian components. Maxwell’s eight original equations,
Jtotal = Jconduction + ∂D/∂t (A)
∇×A = μH (B)
∇×H = Jtotal (C)
E = μv×H − ∂A/∂t − ∇ψ (D)
D = eE (E)
E = RJconduction (F)
∇∙D = ρ (G)
∇∙J + ∂ρ/∂t = 0 (H)
will be discussed in depth in individual sections throughout this paper.