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Tim Lomas
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Scholars are beginning to appreciate the work-related 'drivers' of wellbeing, i.e., the ways work may promote or hinder employees' wellbeing. This paper brings a multidimensional perspective to bear on this topic by providing: (a) a multidimensional overview of these drivers; and (b) a multidimensional analysis of how they actually 'drive' wellbeing. The paper is in two parts. Part 1 briefly summarises the drivers, highlighting key theories and interventions. Part 2 then brings a multidimensional analysis to bear on the drivers, doing so by focusing on one driver in particular ('managing emotions') as a case study. This driver is analysed through the prism of a multidimensional model of the person, the 'Layered Integrated Framework Example' model. It is hoped that, in future, similar analyses can consequently be undertaken for the other drivers. The paper thus offers a generative research agenda for exploring how to enable people to flourish at work.
Tim Lomas
added 4 research items
Recent years have witnessed the emergence of positive psychology (PP), a field focusing on happiness/wellbeing. A subset of this field is applied positive psychology (APP), which aims to promote happiness/wellbeing through positive psychology interventions (PPIs). However, despite being enthusiastically received in some quarters, PP has an uneasy relationship with psychology as a whole. This unease is partly due to a lack of systematic thinking within PP about its remit, scope, and domain of application. As such, this paper offers a conceptual map that elucidates the diverse ways in which APP might attempt to enhance wellbeing, from cognitive PPIs to more systemic-structural interventions (e.g., government policy). The map is called the LIFE (Layered Integrated Framework Example) model. It is based on Ken Wilber’s Integral Framework, which features the four main ontological ‘dimensions’ of the person: subjective mind, objective body/brain, intersubjective culture, and interobjective society. The paper then stratifies these dimensions to produce a comprehensive map of the person, and of the potential areas of application for APP. For example, it deconstructs the collective dimensions of Wilber’s framework using Bronfenbrenner’s experimental ecology (micro-system, meso-system, exo-system and macro-system). The result is a detailed multidimensional framework which facilitates a comprehensive approach to promoting wellbeing within PP. Moreover, not only does the paper introduce PP to a wider audience in psychology, as a ‘map’ of the person, the model may be transferable to and useful within other psychological disciplines.
Although the field of positive psychology has made great strides in developing interventions for wellbeing, many of these are aimed at individuals, designed to engender adaptive psychological qualities and skills. As such, relatively little attention has been paid within the field to the socio-cultural factors that influence health and wellbeing. However, there is an emergent body of work that does focus on these factors, as summarised in this paper. Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) multileveled ecological systems theory as a framework, the paper provides an overview of socio-cultural wellbeing interventions and research at multiple levels of scale (microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, macrosystems, and ecosystems). In doing so, the paper has two main aims: (a) to show how positive change in wellbeing can be affected by the strategic manipulation of socio-cultural contextual factors; and (b) to suggest ways in which the adoption of such a contextual approach can inform policy making.
Since its emergence in 1998, positive psychology has flourished. Among its successes is the burgeoning field of applied positive psychology (APP), involving interventions to promote wellbeing. However, the remit of APP is currently unclear. As such, we offer a meta-theoretical conceptual map delineating the terrain that APP might conceivably cover, namely, the Layered Integrated Framework Example model. The model is based on Wilber’s (J Conscious Stud 4(1):71–92, 1997) Integral Framework, which features the four main ontological ‘dimensions’ of the person. We then stratify these dimensions to produce a comprehensive conceptual map of the person, and of the potential areas of application for APP. For example, we deconstruct the collective dimensions of Wilber’s framework using the levels of Bronfenbrenner’s (Am Psychol 32(7):513–531, 1977) experimental ecology. The result is a detailed multidimensional framework which facilitates a comprehensive approach to promoting wellbeing, and which charts a way forward for APP.